U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Sep 29, 2023
Interim controls of lead-based paint hazards identified in a risk assessment shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of this section. Interim control measures include paint stabilization of deteriorated paint, treatments for friction and impact surfaces where levels of lead dust are above the levels specified in § 35.1320, dust control, and lead-contaminated soil control. As provided by § 35.155, interim controls may be performed in combination with, or be replaced by, abatement methods.
(a) General requirements. (1) Only those interim control methods identified as acceptable methods in a current risk assessment report shall be used to control identified hazards, except that, if only paint stabilization is required in accordance with subparts F, H, K or M of this part, it shall not be necessary to have conducted a risk assessment.
(2) Occupants of dwelling units where interim controls are being performed shall be protected during the course of the work in accordance with § 35.1345.
(3) Clearance testing shall be performed at the conclusion of interim control activities in accordance with § 35.1340.
(4) A person performing interim controls must be trained in accordance with the hazard communication standard for the construction industry issued by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor at 29 CFR 1926.59, and either be supervised by an individual certified as a lead-based paint abatement supervisor or have completed successfully one of the following lead-safe work practices courses, except that this supervision or lead-safe work practices training requirement does not apply to work that disturbs painted surfaces less than the de minimis limits of § 35.1350(d):
(i) A lead-based paint abatement supervisor course accredited in accordance with 40 CFR 745.225;
(ii) A lead-based paint abatement worker course accredited in accordance with 40 CFR 745.225; or
(iii) A renovator course accredited in accordance with 40 CFR 745.225.
(iv) “The Remodeler's and Renovator's Lead-Based Paint Training Program,” prepared by HUD and the National Association of the Remodeling Industry; or
(v) Another course approved by HUD for this purpose after consultation with EPA.
(b) Paint stabilization. (1) Interim control treatments used to stabilize deteriorated lead-based paint shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of this section. Interim control treatments of intact, factory applied prime coatings on metal surfaces are not required. Finish coatings on such surfaces shall be treated by interim controls if those coatings contain lead-based paint.
(2) Any physical defect in the substrate of a painted surface or component that is causing deterioration of the surface or component shall be repaired before treating the surface or component. Examples of defective substrate conditions include dry-rot, rust, moisture-related defects, crumbling plaster, and missing siding or other components that are not securely fastened.
(3) Before applying new paint, all loose paint and other loose material shall be removed from the surface to be treated. Acceptable methods for preparing the surface to be treated include wet scraping, wet sanding, and power sanding performed in conjunction with a HEPA filtered local exhaust attachment operated according to the manufacturer's instructions.
(4) Dry sanding or dry scraping is permitted only in accordance with § 35.140(e) (i.e., for electrical safety reasons or for specified minor amounts of work).
(5) Paint stabilization shall include the application of a new protective coating or paint. The surface substrate shall be dry and protected from future moisture damage before applying a new protective coating or paint. All protective coatings and paints shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
(6) Paint stabilization shall incorporate the use of safe work practices in accordance with § 35.1350.
(c) Friction and impact surfaces. (1) Friction surfaces are required to be treated only if:
(i) Lead dust levels on the nearest horizontal surface underneath the friction surface (e.g., the window sill, window trough, or floor) are equal to or greater than the standards specified in 35.1320(b);
(ii) There is evidence that the paint surface is subject to abrasion; and
(iii) Lead-based paint is known or presumed to be present on the friction surface.
(2) Impact surfaces are required to be treated only if:
(i) Paint on an impact surface is damaged or otherwise deteriorated;
(ii) The damaged paint is caused by impact from a related building component (such as a door knob that knocks into a wall, or a door that knocks against its door frame); and
(iii) Lead-based paint is known or presumed to be present on the impact surface.
(3) Examples of building components that may contain friction or impact surfaces include the following:
(i) Window systems;
(iii) Stair treads and risers;
(v) Drawers and cabinets; and
(vi) Porches, decks, interior floors, and any other painted surfaces that are abraded, rubbed, or impacted.
(4) Interim control treatments for friction surfaces shall eliminate friction points or treat the friction surface so that paint is not subject to abrasion. Examples of acceptable treatments include rehanging and/or planing doors so that the door does not rub against the door frame, and installing window channel guides that reduce or eliminate abrasion of painted surfaces. Paint on stair treads and floors shall be protected with a durable cover or coating that will prevent abrasion of the painted surfaces. Examples of acceptable materials include carpeting, tile, and sheet flooring.
(5) Interim control treatments for impact surfaces shall protect the paint from impact. Examples of acceptable treatments include treatments that eliminate impact with the paint surface, such as a door stop to prevent a door from striking a wall or baseboard.
(6) Interim control for impact or friction surfaces does not include covering such a surface with a coating or other treatment, such as painting over the surface, that does not protect lead-based paint from impact or abrasion.
(d) Chewable surfaces. (1) Chewable surfaces are required to be treated only if there is evidence of teeth marks, indicating that a child of less than six years of age has chewed on the painted surface, and lead-based paint is known or presumed to be present on the surface.
(2) Interim control treatments for chewable surfaces shall make the lead-based paint inaccessible for chewing by children of less than 6 years of age. Examples include enclosures or coatings that cannot be penetrated by the teeth of such children.
(e) Dust-lead hazard control. (1) Interim control treatments used to control dust-lead hazards shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of this section. Additional information on dust removal is found in the HUD Guidelines, particularly Chapter 11 (see § 35.1310).
(2) Dust control shall involve a thorough cleaning of all horizontal surfaces, such as interior window sills, window troughs, floors, and stairs, but excluding ceilings. All horizontal surfaces, such as floors, stairs, window sills and window troughs, that are rough, pitted, or porous shall be covered with a smooth, cleanable covering or coating, such as metal coil stock, plastic, polyurethane, or linoleum.
(3) Surfaces covered by a rug or carpeting shall be cleaned as follows:
(i) The floor surface under a rug or carpeting shall be cleaned where feasible, including upon removal of the rug or carpeting, with a HEPA vacuum or other method of equivalent efficacy.
(ii) An unattached rug or an attached carpet that is to be removed, and padding associated with such rug or carpet, located in an area of the dwelling unit with dust-lead hazards on the floor, shall be thoroughly vacuumed with a HEPA vacuum or other method of equivalent efficacy. Protective measures shall be used to prevent the spread of dust during removal of a rug, carpet or padding from the dwelling. For example, it shall be misted to reduce dust generation during removal. The item(s) being removed shall be wrapped or otherwise sealed before removal from the worksite.
(iii) An attached carpet located in an area of the dwelling unit with dust-lead hazards on the floor shall be thoroughly vacuumed with a HEPA vacuum or other method of equivalent efficacy if it is not to be removed.
(f) Soil-lead hazards. (1) Interim control treatments used to control soil-lead hazards shall be performed in accordance with this section.
(2) Soil with a lead concentration equal to or greater than 5,000 µg/g of lead shall be abated in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(e).
(3) Acceptable interim control methods for soil lead are impermanent surface coverings and land use controls.
(i) Impermanent surface coverings may be used to treat lead-contaminated soil if applied in accordance with the following requirements. Examples of acceptable impermanent coverings include gravel, bark, sod, and artificial turf.
(A) Impermanent surface coverings selected shall be designed to withstand the reasonably-expected traffic. For example, if the area to be treated is heavily traveled, neither grass or sod shall be used.
(B) When loose impermanent surface coverings such as bark or gravel are used, they shall be applied in a thickness not less than six inches deep.
(C) The impermanent surface covering material shall not contain more than 400 µg/g of lead.
(D) Adequate controls to prevent erosion shall be used in conjunction with impermanent surface coverings.
(ii) Land use controls may be used to reduce exposure to soil-lead hazards only if they effectively control access to areas with soil-lead hazards. Examples of land use controls include: fencing, warning signs, and landscaping.
(A) Land use controls shall be implemented only if residents have reasonable alternatives to using the area to be controlled.
(B) If land use controls are used for a soil area that is subject to erosion, measures shall be taken to contain the soil and control dispersion of lead.