U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Jul 15, 2024

§ 1037.150 - Interim provisions.

The provisions in this section apply instead of other provisions in this part.

(a) Incentives for early introduction. The provisions of this paragraph (a) apply with respect to vehicles produced in model years before 2014. Manufacturers may voluntarily certify in model year 2013 (or earlier model years for electric vehicles) to the greenhouse gas standards of this part.

(1) This paragraph (a)(1) applies for regulatory subcategories subject to the standards of § 1037.105 or § 1037.106. Except as specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, to generate early credits under this paragraph (a)(1) for any vehicles other than electric vehicles, you must certify your entire U.S.-directed production volume within the regulatory subcategory to the standards of § 1037.105 or § 1037.106. Except as specified in paragraph (a)(4) of this section, if some vehicle families within a regulatory subcategory are certified after the start of the model year, you may generate credits only for production that occurs after all families are certified. For example, if you produce three vehicle families in an averaging set and you receive your certificates for those families on January 4, 2013, March 15, 2013, and April 24, 2013, you may not generate credits for model year 2013 production in any of the families that occurs before April 24, 2013. Calculate credits relative to the standard that would apply in model year 2014 using the equations in subpart H of this part. You may bank credits equal to the surplus credits you generate under this paragraph (a) multiplied by 1.50. For example, if you have 1.0 Mg of surplus credits for model year 2013, you may bank 1.5 Mg of credits. Credit deficits for an averaging set prior to model year 2014 do not carry over to model year 2014. These credits may be used to show compliance with the standards of this part for 2014 and later model years. We recommend that you notify EPA of your intent to use this paragraph (a)(1) before submitting your applications.

(2) [Reserved]

(3) You may generate emission credits for the number of additional SmartWay designated tractors (relative to your 2012 production), provided you do not generate credits for those vehicles under paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Calculate credits for each regulatory subcategory relative to the standard that would apply in model year 2014 using the equations in subpart H of this part. Use a production volume equal to the number of designated model year 2013 SmartWay tractors minus the number of designated model year 2012 SmartWay tractors. You may bank credits equal to the surplus credits you generate under this paragraph (a)(3) multiplied by 1.50. Your 2012 and 2013 model years must be equivalent in length.

(4) This paragraph (a)(4) applies where you do not receive your final certificate in a regulatory subcategory within 30 days of submitting your final application for that subcategory. Calculate your credits for all production that occurs 30 days or more after you submit your final application for the subcategory.

(b) Phase 1 coastdown procedures. For tractors subject to Phase 1 standards under § 1037.106, the default method for measuring drag area (CdA) is the coastdown procedure specified in 40 CFR part 1066, subpart D. This includes preparing the tractor and the standard trailer with wheels meeting specifications of § 1037.528(b) and submitting information related to your coastdown testing under § 1037.528(h).

(c) Small manufacturers. The following provisions apply for qualifying small manufacturers:

(1) The greenhouse gas standards of §§ 1037.105 and 1037.106 are optional for small manufacturers producing vehicles with a date of manufacture before January 1, 2022. In addition, small manufacturers producing vehicles that run on any fuel other than gasoline, E85, or diesel fuel may delay complying with every later standard under this part by one model year.

(2) Qualifying manufacturers must notify the Designated Compliance Officer each model year before introducing excluded vehicles into U.S. commerce. This notification must include a description of the manufacturer's qualification as a small business under 13 CFR 121.201. Manufacturers must label excluded vehicles with the following statement: “THIS VEHICLE IS EXCLUDED UNDER 40 CFR 1037.150(c).”

(3) Small manufacturers may meet Phase 1 standards instead of Phase 2 standards in the first year Phase 2 standards apply to them if they voluntarily comply with the Phase 1 standards for the full preceding year. Specifically, small manufacturers may certify their model year 2022 vehicles to the Phase 1 greenhouse gas standards of §§ 1037.105 and 1037.106 if they certify all the vehicles from their annual production volume included in emission credit calculations for the Phase 1 standards starting on or before January 1, 2021.

(4) See paragraphs (r), (t), (u), and (w) of this section for additional allowances for small manufacturers.

(d) Air conditioning leakage for vocational vehicles. The air conditioning leakage standard of § 1037.115 does not apply for model year 2020 and earlier vocational vehicles.

(e) Delegated assembly. The delegated-assembly provisions of § 1037.621 do not apply before January 1, 2018.

(f) Testing exemption for qualifying vehicles. Tailpipe CO2 emissions from battery electric vehicles, fuel cell electric vehicles, and vehicles with engines fueled with neat hydrogen are deemed to be zero. No CO2-related testing is required under this part for these vehicles.

(g) Compliance date. Compliance with the standards of this part was optional prior to January 1, 2014. This means that if your 2014 model year begins before January 1, 2014, you may certify for a partial model year that begins on January 1, 2014, and ends on the day your model year would normally end. You must label model year 2014 vehicles excluded under this paragraph (g) with the following statement: “THIS VEHICLE IS EXCLUDED UNDER 40 CFR 1037.150(g).”

(h) Off-road vehicle exemption. (1) Vocational vehicles with a date of manufacture before January 1, 2021, automatically qualify for an exemption under § 1037.631 if the tires installed on the vehicle have a maximum speed rating at or below 55 miles per hour.

(2) In unusual circumstances, vehicle manufacturers may ask us to exempt vehicles under § 1037.631 based on other criteria that are equivalent to those specified in § 1037.631(a); however, we will normally not grant relief in cases where the vehicle manufacturer has credits or can otherwise comply with applicable standards. Request approval for an exemption under this paragraph (h) before you produce the subject vehicles. Send your request with supporting information to the Designated Compliance Officer; we will coordinate with NHTSA in making a determination under § 1037.210. If you introduce into U.S. commerce vehicles that depend on our approval under this paragraph (h) before we inform you of our approval, those vehicles violate 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1).

(i) Limited carryover from Phase 1 to Phase 2. The provisions for carryover data in § 1037.235(d) do not allow you to use aerodynamic test results from Phase 1 to support a compliance demonstration for Phase 2 certification.

(j) Limited prohibition related to early model year engines. The provisions of this paragraph (j) apply only for vehicles that have a date of manufacture before January 1, 2018. See § 1037.635 for related provisions that apply in later model years. The prohibition in § 1037.601 against introducing into U.S. commerce a vehicle containing an engine not certified to the standards applicable for the calendar year of installation does not apply for vehicles using model year 2014 or 2015 spark-ignition engines, or any model year 2013 or earlier engines.

(k) Verifying drag areas from in-use tractors. This paragraph (k) applies for tractors instead of § 1037.401(b) through model year 2020. We may measure the drag area of your vehicles after they have been placed into service. To account for measurement variability, your vehicle is deemed to conform to the regulations of this part with respect to aerodynamic performance if we measure its drag area to be at or below the maximum drag area allowed for the bin above the bin to which you certified (for example, Bin II if you certified the vehicle to Bin III), unless we determine that you knowingly produced the vehicle to have a higher drag area than is allowed for the bin to which it was certified.

(l) Optional certification to GHG standards under 40 CFR part 86. The greenhouse gas standards in 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, may apply instead of the standards of § 1037.105 as follows:

(1) Complete or cab-complete vehicles may optionally meet alternative standards as described in 40 CFR 86.1819-14(j).

(2) Complete high-GCWR vehicles must meet the greenhouse gas standards of 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, as described in 40 CFR 1036.635.

(3) Incomplete high-GCWR vehicles may meet the greenhouse gas standards of 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, as described in 40 CFR 1036.635.

(m) Loose engine sales. Manufacturers may certify certain spark-ignition engines along with chassis-certified heavy-duty vehicles where they are identical to engines used in those vehicles as described in 40 CFR 86.1819-14(k)(8). Vehicles in which those engines are installed are subject to standards under this part as specified in § 1037.105.

(n) Transition to engine-based model years. The following provisions apply for production and ABT reports during the transition to engine-based model year determinations for vehicles in 2020 and 2021:

(1) If you install model year 2020 or earlier engines in your vehicles in calendar year 2020, include all those Phase 1 vehicles in your production and ABT reports related to model year 2020 compliance, although we may require you identify these separately from vehicles produced in calendar year 2019.

(2) If you install model year 2020 engines in your vehicles in calendar year 2021, submit production and ABT reports for those Phase 1 vehicles separate from the reports you submit for Phase 2 vehicles with model year 2021 engines.

(o) Interim useful life for light heavy-duty vocational vehicles. Class 2b through Class 5 vocational vehicles certified to Phase 1 standards are subject to a useful life of 110,000 miles or 10 years, whichever comes first, instead of the useful life specified in § 1037.105. For emission credits generated from these Phase 1 vehicles, multiply any banked credits that you carry forward to demonstrate compliance with Phase 2 standards by 1.36.

(p) Credit multiplier for advanced technology. The following provisions describe how you may generate and use credits from vehicles certified with advanced technology:

(1) You may calculate credits you generate from vehicles certified with advanced technology as follows:

(i) For Phase 1 vehicles, multiply the credits by 1.50, except that you may not apply this multiplier in addition to the early-credit multiplier of paragraph (a) of this section.

(ii) For model year 2026 and earlier Phase 2 vehicles, apply multipliers of 3.5 for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, 4.5 for battery electric vehicles, and 5.5 for fuel cell electric vehicles. Calculate credits relative to the Phase 2 standard.

(iii) For Phase 3 vehicles, the advanced-technology multipliers described in paragraph (p)(1)(ii) of this section apply only in model year 2027. Calculate credits relative to the Phase 3 standard.

(2) You may use credit quantities described in paragraphs (p)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section through model year 2026. The following provisions apply for advanced technology credits starting in model year 2027:

(i) Quantify accumulated credit balances in each model year that result from multiplier credit values. For example, if BEV earns 100 Mg of CO2 credits that become 450 Mg of credits when multiplied, the base credit value is 100 Mg and the multiplier credit value is 350 Mg. Provide a detailed accounting of base and multiplier credits in your annual ABT reports for the relevant model years.

(ii) For each vehicle family, calculate a credit quantity with no consideration of credit multipliers. Sum these credit quantities for every family within a given averaging set.

(iii) Apply available credits in the following priority order as long as the summed credit quantity is negative.

(A) Base credits banked or traded within the same averaging set.

(B) Base credits earned in the same model year from other averaging sets as specified in paragraph (z) of this section.

(C) Base credits from other averaging sets as specified in paragraph (z) of this section that are banked or traded.

(D) Multiplier credits within the same averaging set for the same model year.

(E) Multiplier credits banked or traded within the same averaging set.

(F) Multiplier credits earned in the same model year from other averaging sets as specified in paragraph (z) of this section.

(G) Multiplier credits from other averaging sets as specified in paragraph (z) of this section that are banked or traded.

(iv) You may no longer use multiplier credits for certifying model year 2030 and later vehicles.

(v) Credit provisions not addressed in this paragraph (p)(2), such as limitations on credit life and credit trading, continue to apply as specified. Note the following:

(A) Unlike multiplier credits, the life of base credits is not limited under this paragraph (p)(2).

(B) You may apply multiplier credits without the restrictions described in this paragraph (p)(2) to resolve a deficit that remains from complying with Phase 2 standards in model years 2026 and earlier.

(q) Vehicle families for advanced and off-cycle technologies. Apply the following provisions for grouping vehicles into families if you use off-cycle technologies under § 1037.610 or advanced technologies under § 1037.615:

(1) For Phase 1 vehicles, create separate vehicle families for vehicles that contain advanced or off-cycle technologies; group those vehicles together in a vehicle family if they use the same advanced or off-cycle technologies.

(2) For Phase 2 and Phase 3 vehicles, create separate vehicle subfamilies for vehicles that contain advanced or off-cycle technologies; group those vehicles together in a vehicle subfamily if they use the same advanced or off-cycle technologies.

(r) Conversion to mid- roof and high-roof configurations. Secondary vehicle manufacturers that qualify as small manufacturers may convert low- and mid-roof tractors to mid- and high-roof configurations without recertification for the purpose of building a custom sleeper tractor or converting it to run on natural gas, as follows:

(1) The original low- or mid-roof tractor must be covered by a valid certificate of conformity.

(2) The modifications may not increase the frontal area of the tractor beyond the frontal area of the equivalent mid- or high-roof tractor with the corresponding standard trailer. Note that these dimensions have a tolerance of ±2 inches. Use good engineering judgment to achieve aerodynamic performance similar to or better than the certifying manufacturer's corresponding mid- or high-roof tractor.

(3) Add a permanent supplemental label to the vehicle near the original manufacturer's emission control information label. On the label identify your full corporate name and include the following statement: “THIS VEHICLE WAS MODIFIED AS ALLOWED UNDER 40 CFR 1037.150.

(4) We may require that you submit annual production reports as described in § 1037.250.

(5) Modifications made under this paragraph (r) do not violate 40 CFR 1068.101(b)(1).

(s) Confirmatory testing for Falt-aero. If we conduct coastdown testing to verify your Falt-aero value for Phase 2 and later tractors, we will make our determination using the principles of SEA testing in § 1037.305. We will not replace your Falt-aero value if the tractor passes. If your tractor fails, we will generate a replacement value of Falt-aero based on at least one CdA value and corresponding effective yaw angle, ψeff, from a minimum of 100 valid runs using the procedures of § 1037.528(h). Note that we intend to minimize the differences between our test conditions and those of the manufacturer by testing at similar times of the year where possible and the same location where possible and when appropriate.

(t) Glider kits and glider vehicles. (1) Glider vehicles conforming to the requirements in this paragraph (t)(1) are exempt from the Phase 1 emission standards of this part 1037 prior to January 1, 2021. Engines in such vehicles (including vehicles produced after January 1, 2021) remain subject to the requirements of 40 CFR part 86 applicable for the engines' original model year, but not subject to the Phase 1 or Phase 2 standards of 40 CFR part 1036 unless they were originally manufactured in model year 2014 or later.

(i) You are eligible for the exemption in this paragraph (t)(1) if you are a small manufacturer and you sold one or more glider vehicles in 2014 under the provisions of paragraph (c) of this section. You do not qualify if you only produced glider vehicles for your own use. You must notify us of your plans to use this exemption before you introduce exempt vehicles into U.S. commerce. In your notification, you must identify your annual U.S.-directed production volume (and sales, if different) of such vehicles for calendar years 2010 through 2014. Vehicles you produce before notifying us are not exempt under this section.

(ii) In a given calendar year, you may produce up to 300 exempt vehicles under this section, or up to the highest annual production volume you identify in this paragraph (t)(1), whichever is less.

(iii) Identify the number of exempt vehicles you produced under this exemption for the preceding calendar year in your annual report under § 1037.250.

(iv) Include the appropriate statement on the label required under § 1037.135, as follows:

(A) For Phase 1 vehicles, “THIS VEHICLE AND ITS ENGINE ARE EXEMPT UNDER 40 CFR 1037.150(t)(1).”

(B) For Phase 2 vehicles, “THE ENGINE IN THIS VEHICLE IS EXEMPT UNDER 40 CFR 1037.150(t)(1).”

(v) If you produce your glider vehicle by installing remanufactured or previously used components in a glider kit produced by another manufacturer, you must provide the following to the glider kit manufacturer prior to obtaining the glider kit:

(A) Your name, the name of your company, and contact information.

(B) A signed statement that you are a qualifying small manufacturer and that your production will not exceed the production limits of this paragraph (t)(1). This statement is deemed to be a submission to EPA, and we may require the glider kit manufacturer to provide a copy to us at any time.

(vi) The exemption in this paragraph (t)(1) is valid for a given vehicle and engine only if you meet all the requirements and conditions of this paragraph (t)(1) that apply with respect to that vehicle and engine. Introducing such a vehicle into U.S. commerce without meeting all applicable requirements and conditions violates 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1).

(vii) Companies that are not small manufacturers may sell uncertified incomplete vehicles without engines to small manufacturers for the purpose of producing exempt vehicles under this paragraph (t)(1), subject to the provisions of § 1037.622. However, such companies must take reasonable steps to ensure that their incomplete vehicles will be used in conformance with the requirements of this part.

(2) Glider vehicles produced using engines certified to model year 2010 or later standards for all pollutants are subject to the same provisions that apply to vehicles using engines within their useful life in § 1037.635.

(3) For calendar year 2017, you may produce a limited number of glider kits and/or glider vehicles subject to the requirements applicable to model year 2016 glider vehicles, instead of the requirements of § 1037.635. The limit applies to your combined 2017 production of glider kits and glider vehicles and is equal to your highest annual production of glider kits and glider vehicles for any year from 2010 to 2014. Any glider kits or glider vehicles produced beyond this cap are subject to the provisions of § 1037.635. Count any glider kits and glider vehicles you produce under paragraph (t)(1) of this section as part of your production with respect to this paragraph (t)(3).

(u) Transition to Phase 2 standards. The following provisions allow for enhanced generation and use of emission credits from Phase 1 vehicles for meeting the Phase 2 standards:

(1) For vocational Light HDV and vocational Medium HDV, emission credits you generate in model years 2018 through 2021 may be used through model year 2027, instead of being limited to a five-year credit life as specified in § 1037.740(c). For Class 8 vocational vehicles with Medium HDE, we will approve your request to generate these credits in and use these credits for the Medium HDV averaging set if you show that these vehicles would qualify as Medium HDV under the Phase 2 program as described in § 1037.140(g)(4).

(2) You may use the off-cycle provisions of § 1037.610 to apply technologies to Phase 1 vehicles as follows:

(i) You may apply an improvement factor of 0.988 for vehicles with automatic tire inflation systems on all axles.

(ii) For vocational vehicles with automatic engine shutdown systems that conform with § 1037.660, you may apply an improvement factor of 0.95.

(iii) For vocational vehicles with stop-start systems that conform with § 1037.660, you may apply an improvement factor of 0.92.

(iv) For vocational vehicles with neutral-idle systems conforming with § 1037.660, you may apply an improvement factor of 0.98. You may adjust this improvement factor if we approve a partial reduction under § 1037.660(a)(2); for example, if your design reduces fuel consumption by half as much as shifting to neutral, you may apply an improvement factor of 0.99.

(3) Small manufacturers may generate emission credits for natural gas-fueled vocational vehicles as follows:

(i) Small manufacturers may certify their vehicles instead of relying on the exemption of paragraph (c) of this section. The provisions of this part apply for such vehicles, except as specified in this paragraph (u)(3).

(ii) Use GEM version 2.0.1 to determine a CO2 emission level for your vehicle, then multiply this value by the engine's Family Certification Level for CO2 and divide by the engine's applicable CO2 emission standard.

(4) Phase 1 vocational vehicle credits that small manufacturers generate may be used through model year 2027.

(v) Constraints for vocational regulatory subcategories. The following provisions apply to determinations of vocational regulatory subcategories as described in § 1037.140:

(1) Select the Regional regulatory subcategory for coach buses and motor homes you certify under § 1037.105(b).

(2) You may not select the Urban regulatory subcategory for any vehicle with a manual or single-clutch automated manual transmission.

(3) Starting in model year 2024, you must select the Regional regulatory subcategory for any vehicle with a manual transmission.

(4) You may select the Multi-purpose regulatory subcategory for any vocational vehicle, except as specified in paragraph (v)(1) of this section.

(5) You may select the Urban regulatory subcategory for a hybrid vehicle equipped with regenerative braking, unless it is equipped with a manual transmission.

(6) You may select the Urban regulatory subcategory for any vehicle with a hydrokinetic torque converter paired with an automatic transmission, or a continuously variable automatic transmission, or a dual-clutch transmission with no more than two consecutive forward gears between which it is normal for both clutches to be momentarily disengaged.

(w) Custom-chassis standards for small manufacturers. The following provisions apply uniquely to qualifying small manufacturers under the custom-chassis standards of § 1037.105(h):

(1) You may use emission credits generated under § 1037.105(d), including banked or traded credits from any averaging set. Such credits remain subject to other limitations that apply under subpart H of this part.

(2) You may produce up to 200 drayage tractors in a given model year to the standards described in § 1037.105(h) for “other buses”. The limit in this paragraph (w)(2) applies with respect to vehicles produced by you and your affiliated companies. Treat these drayage tractors as being in their own averaging set.

(x) Transition to updated GEM. (1) Vehicle manufacturers may demonstrate compliance with Phase 2 greenhouse gas standards in model years 2021 through 2023 using GEM Phase 2, Version 3.0, Version 3.5.1, or Version 4.0 (all incorporated by reference, see § 1037.810). Manufacturers may change to a different version of GEM for model years 2022 and 2023 for a given vehicle family after initially submitting an application for certification; such a change must be documented as an amendment under § 1037.225. Manufacturers may submit an end-of-year report for model year 2021 using any of the three regulatory versions of GEM, but only for demonstrating compliance with the custom-chassis standards in § 1037.105(h); such a change must be documented in the report submitted under § 1037.730. Once a manufacturer certifies a vehicle family based on GEM Version 4.0, it may not revert back to using GEM Phase 2, Version 3.0 or Version 3.5.1 for that vehicle family in any model year.

(2) Vehicle manufacturers may certify for model years 2021 through 2023 based on fuel maps from engines or powertrains that were created using GEM Phase 2, Version 3.0, Version 3.5.1, or Version 4.0 (all incorporated by reference, see § 1037.810). Vehicle manufacturers may alternatively certify in those years based on fuel maps from powertrains that were created using GEM Phase 2, Version 3.0, GEM HIL model 3.8, or GEM Phase 2, Version 4.0 (all incorporated by reference, see § 1037.810). Vehicle manufacturers may continue to certify vehicles in later model years using fuel maps generated with earlier versions of GEM for model year 2024 and later vehicle families that qualify for using carryover provisions in § 1037.235(d).

(y) Correcting credit calculations. If you notify us by October 1, 2024, that errors mistakenly decreased your balance of emission credits for 2020 or any earlier model years, you may correct the errors and recalculate the balance of emission credits after applying a 10 percent discount to the credit correction.

(z) Credit exchanges across averaging sets for certain vehicles. The provisions of this paragraph (z) apply for credits generated from model year 2026 and earlier vehicles certified with advanced technology under this part. The provisions of this paragraph (z) also apply for credits generated from model year 2027 through 2032 vehicles, as follows:

(1) Credits generated under this part may be used through model year 2032 for any of the averaging sets identified in § 1037.740(a).

(2) Credits generated from vehicles certified to the standards in 40 CFR 86.1819-14 may be used through model year 2032 to demonstrate compliance with the CO2 emission standards for Light HDV or Medium HDV in this part.

(3) The following provisions apply for redesignating credits for use in different averaging sets:

(i) The restrictions that apply for trading credits under § 1037.720 also apply for redesignating credits.

(ii) Send us a report by June 30 after model year to describe how you are redesignating credits. Identify the averaging set and number of credits generated from each vehicle family. Also identify the number of redesignated emission credits you intend to apply for each averaging set.

(4) You may trade redesignated credits as allowed under the standard setting part. Credit provisions not addressed in this paragraph (z), such as limitations on credit life and credit multipliers for advanced technology, continue to apply as specified.

(aa) Warranty for advanced technologies. The emission-related warranty requirements in § 1037.120 are optional for fuel cell stacks, RESS, and other components used with battery electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles before model year 2027.

[81 FR 74048, Oct. 25, 2016, as amended at 86 FR 34460, June 29, 2021; 87 FR 45264, July 28, 2022; 88 FR 4638, Jan. 24, 2023; 89 FR 28211, Apr. 18, 2024; 89 FR 29772, Apr. 22, 2024]