U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Mar 30, 2023
(a) Application. You may use fuel flow meters in combination with a chemical balance of fuel, DEF, intake air, and raw exhaust to calculate raw exhaust flow as described in § 1065.655(f). You may also use fuel flow meters to determine the mass flow rate of carbon-carrying fuel streams for performing carbon balance error verification in § 1065.543 and to calculate the mass of those fuel streams as described in § 1065.643. The following provisions apply for using fuel flow meters:
(1) Use the actual value of calculated raw exhaust flow rate in the following cases:
(i) For multiplying raw exhaust flow rate with continuously sampled concentrations.
(ii) For multiplying total raw exhaust flow with batch-sampled concentrations.
(iii) For calculating the dilution air flow for background correction as described in § 1065.667.
(2) In the following cases, you may use a fuel flow meter signal that does not give the actual value of raw exhaust, as long as it is linearly proportional to the exhaust molar flow rate's actual calculated value:
(i) For feedback control of a proportional sampling system, such as a partial-flow dilution system.
(ii) For multiplying with continuously sampled gas concentrations, if the same signal is used in a chemical-balance calculation to determine work from brake-specific fuel consumption and fuel consumed.
(b) Component requirements. We recommend that you use a fuel flow meter that meets the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. We recommend a fuel flow meter that measures mass directly, such as one that relies on gravimetric or inertial measurement principles. This may involve using a meter with one or more scales for weighing fuel or using a Coriolis meter. Note that your overall system for measuring fuel flow must meet the linearity verification in § 1065.307 and the calibration and verifications in § 1065.320.
(c) Recirculating fuel. In any fuel-flow measurement, account for any fuel that bypasses the engine or returns from the engine to the fuel storage tank.
(d) Flow conditioning. For any type of fuel flow meter, condition the flow as needed to prevent wakes, eddies, circulating flows, or flow pulsations from affecting the accuracy or repeatability of the meter. You may accomplish this by using a sufficient length of straight tubing (such as a length equal to at least 10 pipe diameters) or by using specially designed tubing bends, straightening fins, or pneumatic pulsation dampeners to establish a steady and predictable velocity profile upstream of the meter. Condition the flow as needed to prevent any gas bubbles in the fuel from affecting the fuel meter.