### U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Jan 29, 2023

For any proportional batch sample such as a bag or PM filter, demonstrate that proportional sampling was maintained using one of the following, noting that you may omit up to 5% of the total number of data points as outliers:

(a) For any pair of flow rates, use recorded sample and total flow rates. Total flow rate means the raw exhaust flow rate for raw exhaust sampling and the dilute exhaust flow rate for CVS sampling, or their 1 Hz means with the statistical calculations in § 1065.602 forcing the intercept through zero. Determine the standard error of the estimate, *SEE*, of the sample flow rate versus the total flow rate. For each test interval, demonstrate that *SEE* was less than or equal to 3.5% of the mean sample flow rate.

(b) For any pair of flow rates, use recorded sample and total flow rates. Total flow rate means the raw exhaust flow rate for raw exhaust sampling and the dilute exhaust flow rate for CVS sampling, or their 1 Hz means to demonstrate that each flow rate was constant within ±2.5% of its respective mean or target flow rate. You may use the following options instead of recording the respective flow rate of each type of meter:

(1) *Critical-flow venturi option.* For critical-flow venturis, you may use recorded venturi-inlet conditions or their 1 Hz means. Demonstrate that the flow density at the venturi inlet was constant within ±2.5% of the mean or target density over each test interval. For a CVS critical-flow venturi, you may demonstrate this by showing that the absolute temperature at the venturi inlet was constant within ±4% of the mean or target absolute temperature over each test interval.

(2) *Positive-displacement pump option.* You may use recorded pump-inlet conditions or their 1 Hz means. Demonstrate that the flow density at the pump inlet was constant within ±2.5% of the mean or target density over each test interval. For a CVS pump, you may demonstrate this by showing that the absolute temperature at the pump inlet was constant within ±2% of the mean or target absolute temperature over each test interval.

(c) Using good engineering judgment, demonstrate with an engineering analysis that the proportional-flow control system inherently ensures proportional sampling under all circumstances expected during testing. For example, you might use CFVs for both sample flow and total dilute exhaust (CVS) flow and demonstrate that they always have the same inlet pressures and temperatures and that they always operate under critical-flow conditions.