U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Sep 27, 2023
Before an emission test, take the following steps to prepare PM sampling media (e.g., filters) and equipment for PM measurements:
(a) Make sure the balance and PM-stabilization environments meet the periodic verifications in § 1065.390.
(b) Visually inspect unused sample media (e.g., filters) for defects and discard defective media.
(c) To handle PM sampling media (e.g., filters), use electrically grounded tweezers or a grounding strap, as described in § 1065.190.
(d) Place unused sample media (e.g., filters) in one or more containers that are open to the PM-stabilization environment. If you are using filters, you may place them in the bottom half of a filter cassette.
(e) Stabilize sample media (e.g., filters) in the PM-stabilization environment. Consider an unused sample medium stabilized as long as it has been in the PM-stabilization environment for a minimum of 30 min, during which the PM-stabilization environment has been within the specifications of § 1065.190.
(f) Weigh the sample media (e.g., filters) automatically or manually, as follows:
(1) For automatic weighing, follow the automation system manufacturer's instructions to prepare samples for weighing. This may include placing the samples in a special container.
(2) Use good engineering judgment to determine if substitution weighing is necessary to show that an engine meets the applicable standard. You may follow the substitution weighing procedure in paragraph (j) of this section, or you may develop your own procedure.
(g) Correct the measured mass of each sample medium (e.g., filter) for buoyancy as described in § 1065.690. These buoyancy-corrected values are subsequently subtracted from the post-test mass of the corresponding sample media (e.g., filters) and collected PM to determine the mass of PM emitted during the test.
(h) You may repeat measurements to determine the mean mass of each sample medium (e.g., filter). Use good engineering judgment to exclude outliers from the calculation of mean mass values.
(i) If you use filters as sample media, load unused filters that have been tare-weighed into clean filter cassettes and place the loaded cassettes in a clean, covered or sealed container before removing them from the stabilization environment for transport to the test site for sampling. We recommend that you keep filter cassettes clean by periodically washing or wiping them with a compatible solvent applied using a lint-free cloth. Depending upon your cassette material, ethanol (C
(j) Substitution weighing involves measurement of a reference weight before and after each weighing of the PM sampling medium (e.g., the filter). While substitution weighing requires more measurements, it corrects for a balance's zero-drift and it relies on balance linearity only over a small range. This is most advantageous when quantifying net PM masses that are less than 0.1% of the sample medium's mass. However, it may not be advantageous when net PM masses exceed 1% of the sample medium's mass. If you utilize substitution weighing, it must be used for both pre-test and post-test weighing. The same substitution weight must be used for both pre-test and post-test weighing. Correct the mass of the substitution weight for buoyancy if the density of the substitution weight is less than 2.0 g/cm
(1) Use electrically grounded tweezers or a grounding strap, as described in § 1065.190.
(2) Use a static neutralizer as described in § 1065.190 to minimize static electric charge on any object before it is placed on the balance pan.
(3) Select and weigh a substitution weight that meets the requirements for calibration weights found in § 1065.790. The substitution weight must also have the same density as the weight you use to span the microbalance, and be similar in mass to an unused sample medium (e.g., filter). A 47 mm PTFE membrane filter will typically have a mass in the range of 80 to 100 mg.
(4) Record the stable balance reading, then remove the substitution weight.
(5) Weigh an unused sample medium (e.g., a new filter), record the stable balance reading and record the balance environment's dewpoint, ambient temperature, and atmospheric pressure.
(6) Reweigh the substitution weight and record the stable balance reading.
(7) Calculate the arithmetic mean of the two substitution-weight readings that you recorded immediately before and after weighing the unused sample. Subtract that mean value from the unused sample reading, then add the true mass of the substitution weight as stated on the substitution-weight certificate. Record this result. This is the unused sample's tare weight without correcting for buoyancy.
(8) Repeat these substitution-weighing steps for the remainder of your unused sample media.
(9) Once weighing is completed, follow the instructions given in paragraphs (g) through (i) of this section.