### U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Mar 30, 2023

This section describes how to determine the amount of water in an ideal gas, which you need for various performance verifications and emission calculations. Use the equation for the vapor pressure of water in paragraph (a) of this section or another appropriate equation and, depending on whether you measure dewpoint or relative humidity, perform one of the calculations in paragraph (b) or (c) of this section. Paragraph (d) of this section provides an equation for determining dewpoint from relative humidity and dry bulb temperature measurements. The equations for the vapor pressure of water as presented in this section are derived from equations in “Saturation Pressure of Water on the New Kelvin Temperature Scale” (Goff, J.A., Transactions American Society of Heating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Vol. 63, No. 1607, pages 347-354). Note that the equations were originally published to derive vapor pressure in units of atmospheres and have been modified to derive results in units of kPa by converting the last term in each equation.

(a) *Vapor pressure of water.* Calculate the vapor pressure of water for a given saturation temperature condition, *T*

(1) For humidity measurements made at ambient temperatures from (0 to 100) °C, or for humidity measurements made over super-cooled water at ambient temperatures from (−50 to 0) °C, use the following equation:

(2) For humidity measurements over ice at ambient temperatures from (-100 to 0) °C, use the following equation:

(b) *Dewpoint.* If you measure humidity as a dewpoint, determine the amount of water in an ideal gas, *x*

*x*

*p*

*T*

*T*

*p*

*p*

*T*

*T*

*p*

*x*

*x*

(c) *Relative humidity.* If you measure humidity as a relative humidity, *RH,* determine the amount of water in an ideal gas, *x*

*x*

*RH*= relative humidity.

*p*

*T*

*T*

*p*

*RH*= 50.77% = 0.5077

*p*

*T*

*T*

*p*

*x*

*x*

(d) *Dewpoint determination from relative humidity and dry bulb temperature.* This paragraph (d) describes how to calculate dewpoint temperature from relative humidity, *RH.* This is based on “ITS-90 Formulations for Vapor Pressure, Frostpoint Temperature, Dewpoint Temperature, and Enhancement Factors in the Range −100 to + 100 °C” (Hardy, B., The Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Humidity & Moisture, Teddington, London, England, April 1998). Calculate *p**T**T**p**p**RH.* Calculate the dewpoint, *T**p*

*p*

*p*

*T*

*T*

*RH*= 39.61% = 0.3961

*T*

*p*

*p*