U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Jul 13, 2024

§ 1066.420 - Test preparation.

(a) Follow the procedures for PM sample preconditioning and tare weighing as described in 40 CFR 1065.590 if you need to measure PM emissions.

(b) Minimize the effect of nonmethane hydrocarbon contamination in the hydrocarbon sampling system for vehicles with compression-ignition engines as follows:

(1) For vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR, account for contamination using one of the following methods:

(i) Introduce zero and span gas during analyzer calibration using one of the following methods, noting that the hydrocarbon analyzer flow rate and pressure during zero and span calibration (and background bag reading) must be exactly the same as that used during testing to minimize measurement errors:

(A) Close off the hydrocarbon sampling system sample probe and introduce gases downstream of the probe making sure that you do not pressurize the system.

(B) Introduce zero and span gas directly at the hydrocarbon sampling system probe at a flow rate greater than 125% of the hydrocarbon analyzer flow rate allowing some gas to exit probe inlet.

(ii) Perform the contamination verification in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, except use 0.5 µmol/mol in 40 CFR 1065.520(f)(8)(iii).

(2) For vehicles above 14,000 pounds GVWR, verify the amount of nonmethane hydrocarbon contamination as described in 40 CFR 1065.520(f).

(c) Unless the standard-setting part specifies different tolerances, verify at some point before the test that ambient conditions are within the tolerances specified in this paragraph (c). For purposes of this paragraph (c), “before the test” means any time from a point just prior to engine starting (excluding engine restarts) to the point at which emission sampling begins.

(1) Ambient temperature must be (20 to 30) °C. See § 1066.425(h) for circumstances under which ambient temperatures must remain within this range during the test.

(2) Dilution air conditions must meet the specifications in § 1066.110(b)(2). We recommend verifying dilution air conditions just before starting each test interval.

(d) Control test cell ambient air humidity as follows:

(1) For vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR, follow the humidity requirements in Table 1 of this section, unless the standard-setting part specifies otherwise. When complying with humidity requirements in Table 1, where no tolerance is specified, use good engineering judgment to maintain the humidity level near the specified value within the limitations of your test facility.

(2) For vehicles above 14,000 pounds GVWR, you may test vehicles at any humidity.

(3) Table 1 follows:

Table 1 of § 1066.420—Test Cell Humidity Requirements

Test cycle Humidity
(grains H2O
per pound
dry air)
(grains H2O per pound dry air)
AC1769±5 average, ±10 instantaneous.
FTP a and LA-9250
SC03100±5 average.

a FTP humidity requirement does not apply for cold (-7 °C), intermediate (10 °C), and hot (35 °C) temperature testing.

(e) You may perform a final calibration of proportional-flow control systems, which may include performing practice runs.

(f) You may perform the following procedure to precondition sampling systems:

(1) Operate the vehicle over the test cycle.

(2) Operate any dilution systems at their expected flow rates. Prevent aqueous condensation in the dilution systems as described in 40 CFR 1065.140(c)(6), taking into account allowances given in § 1066.110(b)(2)(iv).

(3) Operate any PM sampling systems at their expected flow rates.

(4) Sample PM using any sample media. You may change sample media during preconditioning. You must discard preconditioning samples without weighing them.

(5) You may purge any gaseous sampling systems during preconditioning.

(6) You may conduct calibrations or verifications on any idle equipment or analyzers during preconditioning.

(g) Take the following steps before emission sampling begins:

(1) For batch sampling, connect clean storage media, such as evacuated bags or tare-weighed filters.

(2) Start all measurement instruments according to the instrument manufacturer's instructions and using good engineering judgment.

(3) Start dilution systems, sample pumps, and the data-collection system.

(4) Pre-heat or pre-cool heat exchangers in the sampling system to within their operating temperature tolerances for a test.

(5) Allow heated or cooled components such as sample lines, filters, chillers, and pumps to stabilize at their operating temperatures.

(6) Adjust the sample flow rates to desired levels using bypass flow, if desired.

(7) Zero or re-zero any electronic integrating devices before the start of any test interval.

(8) Select gas analyzer ranges. You may not switch the gain of an analyzer's analog operational amplifier(s) during a test. However, you may switch (automatically or manually) gas analyzer ranges during a test if such switching changes only the range over which the digital resolution of the instrument is applied. For batch analyzers, select ranges before final bag analysis.

(9) Zero and span all continuous gas analyzers using gases that meet the specifications of 40 CFR 1065.750. For FID analyzers, you may account for the carbon number of your span gas either during the calibration process or when calculating your final emission value. For example, if you use a C3H8 span gas of concentration 200 ppm (µmol/mol), you may span the FID to respond with a value of 600 ppm (µmol/mol) of carbon or 200 ppm of propane. However, if your FID response is equivalent to propane, include a factor of three to make the final calculated hydrocarbon mass consistent with a molar mass of 13.875389. When utilizing an NMC-FID, span the FID analyzer consistent with the determination of their respective response factors, RF, and penetration fractions, PF, according to 40 CFR 1065.365.

(10) We recommend that you verify gas analyzer responses after zeroing and spanning by sampling a calibration gas that has a concentration near one-half of the span gas concentration. Based on the results, use good engineering judgment to decide whether or not to re-zero, re-span, or re-calibrate a gas analyzer before starting a test.

(11) If you correct for dilution air background concentrations of associated engine exhaust constituents, start sampling and recording background concentrations at the same time you start sampling exhaust gases.

(12) Turn on cooling fans immediately before starting the test.

(h) Proceed with the test sequence described in § 1066.425.

[79 FR 23823, Apr. 28, 2014, as amended at 80 FR 9121, Feb. 19, 2015; 86 FR 34582, June 29, 2021; 88 FR 4708, Jan. 24, 2023]