U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Sep 25, 2023
The following definitions apply to this part. The definitions apply to all subparts unless we note otherwise. All undefined terms have the meaning the Clean Air Act gives to them. The definitions follow:
Affiliated companies or affiliates means one of the following:
(1) For determinations related to small manufacturer allowances or other small business provisions, these terms mean all entities considered to be affiliates with your entity under the Small Business Administration's regulations in 13 CFR 121.103.
(2) For all other provisions, these terms mean all of the following:
(i) Parent companies (as defined in this section).
(ii) Subsidiaries (as defined in this section).
(iii) Subsidiaries of your parent company.
Aftertreatment means relating to a catalytic converter, particulate filter, or any other system, component, or technology mounted downstream of the exhaust valve (or exhaust port) whose design function is to reduce emissions in the engine exhaust before it is exhausted to the environment. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is not aftertreatment.
Aircraft means any vehicle capable of sustained air travel more than 100 feet above the ground.
Certificate holder means a manufacturer (including importers) with a valid certificate of conformity for at least one family in a given model year, or the preceding model year. Note that only manufacturers may hold certificates. Your applying for or accepting a certificate is deemed to be your agreement that you are a manufacturer.
Clean Air Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401– 7671q.
Critical emission-related component means a part or system whose primary purpose is to reduce emissions or whose failure would commonly increase emissions without significantly degrading engine/equipment performance.
Date of manufacture means one of the following:
(1) For engines, the date on which the crankshaft is installed in an engine block, with the following exceptions:
(i) For engines produced by secondary engine manufacturers under § 1068.262, date of manufacture means the date the engine is received from the original engine manufacturer. You may assign an earlier date up to 30 days before you received the engine, but not before the crankshaft was installed. You may not assign an earlier date if you cannot demonstrate the date the crankshaft was installed.
(ii) Manufacturers may assign a date of manufacture at a point in the assembly process later than the date otherwise specified under this definition. For example, a manufacturer may use the build date printed on the label or stamped on the engine as the date of manufacture.
(2) For equipment, the date on which the engine is installed, unless otherwise specified in the standard-setting part. Manufacturers may alternatively assign a date of manufacture later in the assembly process.
Days means calendar days, including weekends and holidays.
Defeat device has the meaning given in the standard-setting part.
Designated Compliance Officer means one of the following:
(1) For motor vehicles regulated under 40 CFR part 86, subpart S: Director, Light-Duty Vehicle Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000 Traverwood Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48105; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.epa.gov/ve-certification.
(2) For compression-ignition engines used in heavy-duty highway vehicles regulated under 40 CFR part 86, subpart A, and 40 CFR parts 1036 and 1037, and for nonroad and stationary compression-ignition engines or equipment regulated under 40 CFR parts 60, 1033, 1039, and 1042: Director, Diesel Engine Compliance Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000 Traverwood Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48105; email@example.com; www.epa.gov/ve-certification.
(3) Director, Gasoline Engine Compliance Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000 Traverwood Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48105; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.epa.gov/ve-certification, for all the following engines and vehicles:
(ii) For highway motorcycles regulated under 40 CFR part 86, subpart E.
(iii) For nonroad and stationary spark-ignition engines or equipment regulated under 40 CFR parts 60, 1045, 1048, 1051, 1054, and 1060.
Engine means an engine block with an installed crankshaft, or a gas turbine engine. The term engine does not include engine blocks without an installed crankshaft, nor does it include any assembly of reciprocating engine components that does not include the engine block. (
(1) A complete engine is a fully assembled engine in its final configuration. In the case of equipment-based standards, an engine is not considered complete until it is installed in the equipment, even if the engine itself is fully assembled.
(2) A partially complete engine is an engine that is not fully assembled or is not in its final configuration. Except where we specify otherwise in this part or the standard-setting part, partially complete engines are subject to the same standards and requirements as complete engines. The following would be considered examples of partially complete engines:
(i) An engine that is missing certain emission-related components.
(ii) A new engine that was originally assembled as a motor-vehicle engine that will be recalibrated for use as a nonroad engine.
(iii) A new engine that was originally assembled as a land-based engine that will be modified for use as a marine propulsion engine.
(iv) A short block consisting of a crankshaft and other engine components connected to the engine block, but missing the head assembly.
(v) A long block consisting of all engine components except the fuel system and an intake manifold.
(vi) In the case of equipment-based standards, a fully functioning engine that is not yet installed in the equipment. For example, a fully functioning engine that will be installed in an off-highway motorcycle or a locomotive is considered partially complete until it is installed in the equipment.
Engine-based standard means an emission standard expressed in units of grams of pollutant per kilowatt-hour (or grams of pollutant per horsepower-hour) that applies to the engine. Emission standards are either engine-based or equipment-based. Note that engines may be subject to additional standards such as smoke standards.
Engine-based test means an emission test intended to measure emissions in units of grams of pollutant per kilowatt-hour (or grams of pollutant per horsepower-hour), without regard to whether the standard applies to the engine or equipment. Note that some products that are subject to engine-based testing are subject to additional test requirements such as for smoke.
Engine configuration means a unique combination of engine hardware and calibration within an engine family. Engines within a single engine configuration differ only with respect to normal production variability or factors unrelated to emissions.
Engine/equipment and engines/equipment mean engine(s) and/or equipment depending on the context. Specifically these terms mean the following:
(1) Engine(s) when only engine-based standards apply.
(2) Engine(s) for testing issues when engine-based testing applies.
(3) Engine(s) and equipment when both engine-based and equipment-based standards apply.
(4) Equipment when only equipment-based standards apply.
(5) Equipment for testing issues when equipment-based testing applies.
Equipment means one of the following things:
(1) Any vehicle, vessel, or other type of equipment that is subject to the requirements of this part or that uses an engine that is subject to the requirements of this part. An installed engine is part of the equipment. Motor vehicle trailers are a type of equipment that is subject to the requirements of this part.
(2) Fuel-system components that are subject to an equipment-based standard under this chapter. Installed fuel-system components are also considered part of the engine/equipment to which they are attached.
Equipment-based standard means an emission standard that applies to the equipment in which an engine is used or to fuel-system components associated with an engine, without regard to how the emissions are measured. If equipment-based standards apply, we require that the equipment or fuel-system components be certified rather than just the engine. Emission standards are either engine-based or equipment-based. For example, recreational vehicles we regulate under 40 CFR part 1051 are subject to equipment-based standards even if emission measurements are based on engine operation alone.
Excluded means relating to engines/equipment that are not subject to emission standards or other requirements because they do not meet the definitions or other regulatory provisions that define applicability. For example, a non-stationary engine that is used solely for off-highway competition is excluded from the requirements of this part because it meets neither the definition of “motor vehicle engine” nor “nonroad engine” under section 216 of the Clean Air Act.
Exempted means relating to engines/equipment that are subject to certain standards or other requirements, but are not required to meet those standards or requirements, subject to one or more qualifying conditions. Exempted engines/equipment must conform to regulatory conditions specified for an exemption in this part 1068 or in the standard-setting part. Engines/equipment exempted with respect to a certain tier of standards may be required to comply with an earlier tier of standards as a condition of the exemption; for example, engines exempted with respect to Tier 3 standards may be required to comply with Tier 1 or Tier 2 standards.
Family means engine family or emission family, as applicable, under the standard-setting part.
Final deteriorated test result has the meaning given in the standard-setting part. If it is not defined in the standard-setting part, it means the emission level that results from applying all appropriate adjustments (such as deterioration factors) to the measured emission result of the emission-data engine.
Gas turbine engine means anything commercially known as a gas turbine engine or any collection of assembled engine components that is substantially similar to engines commercially known as gas turbine engines. For example, a jet engine is a gas turbine engine. Gas turbine engines may be complete or partially complete. Turbines that rely on external combustion such as steam engines are not gas turbine engines.
Good engineering judgment means judgments made consistent with generally accepted scientific and engineering principles and all available relevant information. See § 1068.5.
Manufacturer has the meaning given in section 216(1) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7550(1)). In general, this term includes any person who manufactures or assembles an engine or piece of equipment for sale in the United States or otherwise introduces a new engine or piece of equipment into U.S. commerce. This includes importers that import new engines or new equipment into the United States for resale. It also includes secondary engine manufacturers.
Model year has the meaning given in the standard-setting part. Unless the standard-setting part specifies otherwise, model year for individual engines/equipment is based on the date of manufacture or a later stage in the assembly process determined by the manufacturer, subject to the limitations described in §§ 1068.103 and 1068.360. The model year of a new engine that is neither certified nor exempt is deemed to be the calendar year in which it is sold, offered for sale, imported, or delivered or otherwise introduced into U.S. commerce.
Motor vehicle has the meaning given in 40 CFR 85.1703.
New has the meaning we give it in the standard-setting part. Note that in certain cases, used and remanufactured engines/equipment may be “new” engines/equipment.
Nonroad engine means:
(1) Except as discussed in paragraph (2) of this definition, a nonroad engine is an internal combustion engine that meets any of the following criteria:
(i) It is (or will be) used in or on a piece of equipment that is self-propelled or serves a dual purpose by both propelling itself and performing another function (such as garden tractors, off-highway mobile cranes and bulldozers).
(ii) It is (or will be) used in or on a piece of equipment that is intended to be propelled while performing its function (such as lawnmowers and string trimmers).
(iii) By itself or in or on a piece of equipment, it is portable or transportable, meaning designed to be and capable of being carried or moved from one location to another. Indicia of transportability include, but are not limited to, wheels, skids, carrying handles, dolly, trailer, or platform.
(2) An internal combustion engine is not a nonroad engine if it meets any of the following criteria:
(i) The engine is used to propel a motor vehicle, an aircraft, or equipment used solely for competition.
(ii) The engine is regulated under 40 CFR part 60, (or otherwise regulated by a federal New Source Performance Standard promulgated under section 111 of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7411)). Note that this criterion does not apply for engines meeting any of the criteria of paragraph (1) of this definition that are voluntarily certified under 40 CFR part 60.
(iii) The engine otherwise included in paragraph (1)(iii) of this definition remains or will remain at a location for more than 12 consecutive months or a shorter period of time for an engine located at a seasonal source. A location is any single site at a building, structure, facility, or installation. For any engine (or engines) that replaces an engine at a location and that is intended to perform the same or similar function as the engine replaced, include the time period of both engines in calculating the consecutive time period. An engine located at a seasonal source is an engine that remains at a seasonal source during the full annual operating period of the seasonal source. A seasonal source is a stationary source that remains in a single location on a permanent basis (i.e., at least two years) and that operates at that single location approximately three months (or more) each year. See § 1068.31 for provisions that apply if the engine is removed from the location.
Operating hours means:
(1) For engine and equipment storage areas or facilities, times during which people other than custodians and security personnel are at work near, and can access, a storage area or facility.
(2) For other areas or facilities, times during which an assembly line operates or any of the following activities occurs:
(i) Testing, maintenance, or service accumulation.
(ii) Production or compilation of records.
(iii) Certification testing.
(iv) Translation of designs from the test stage to the production stage.
(v) Engine or equipment manufacture or assembly.
Parent company means any entity that has a controlling ownership of another company. Note that the standard-setting part may treat a partial owner as a parent company even if it does not have controlling ownership of a company.
Piece of equipment means any vehicle, vessel, locomotive, aircraft, or other type of equipment equipped with engines to which this part applies.
Placed into service means used for its intended purpose. Engines/equipment do not qualify as being “placed into service” based on incidental use by a manufacturer or dealer.
Reasonable technical basis means information that would lead a person familiar with engine design and function to reasonably believe a conclusion related to compliance with the requirements of this part. For example, it would be reasonable to believe that parts performing the same function as the original parts (and to the same degree) would control emissions to the same degree as the original parts. Note that what is a reasonable basis for a person without technical training might not qualify as a reasonable technical basis.
Relating to as used in this section means relating to something in a specific, direct manner. This expression is used in this section only to define terms as adjectives and not to broaden the meaning of the terms. Note that “relating to” is used in the same manner as in the standard-setting parts.
Replacement engine means an engine exempted as a replacement engine under § 1068.240.
Revoke means to terminate the certificate or an exemption for a family. If we revoke a certificate or exemption, you must apply for a new certificate or exemption before continuing to introduce the affected engines/equipment into U.S. commerce. This does not apply to engines/equipment you no longer possess.
Secondary engine manufacturer means anyone who produces a new engine by modifying a complete or partially complete engine that was made by a different company. For the purpose of this definition, “modifying” does not include making changes that do not remove an engine from its original certified configuration. Secondary engine manufacturing includes, for example, converting automotive engines for use in industrial applications, or land-based engines for use in marine applications. This applies whether it involves a complete or partially complete engine and whether the engine was previously certified to emission standards or not.
(1) Manufacturers controlled by the manufacturer of the base engine (or by an entity that also controls the manufacturer of the base engine) are not secondary engine manufacturers; rather, both entities are considered to be one manufacturer for purposes of this part.
(2) This definition applies equally to equipment manufacturers that modify engines. Also, equipment manufacturers that certify to equipment-based standards using engines produced by another company are deemed to be secondary engine manufacturers.
(3) Except as specified in paragraph (2) of this definition, companies importing complete engines into the United States are not secondary engine manufacturers regardless of the procedures and relationships between companies for assembling the engines.
Small business means either of the following:
(1) A company that qualifies under the standard-setting part for special provisions for small businesses or small-volume manufacturers.
(2) A company that qualifies as a small business under the regulations adopted by the Small Business Administration at 13 CFR 121.201 if the standard-setting part does not establish such qualifying criteria.
Standard-setting part means a part in the Code of Federal Regulations that defines emission standards for a particular engine and/or piece of equipment (see § 1068.1(a)). For example, the standard-setting part for marine spark-ignition engines is 40 CFR part 1045. For provisions related to evaporative emissions, the standard-setting part may be 40 CFR part 1060, as specified in 40 CFR 1060.1.
Subsidiary means an entity that is owned or controlled by a parent company.
Sulfur-sensitive technology means an emission control technology that experiences a significant drop in emission control performance or emission-system durability when an engine is operated on low-sulfur diesel fuel (i.e., fuel with a sulfur concentration of 300 to 500 ppm) as compared to when it is operated on ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel (i.e., fuel with a sulfur concentration less than 15 ppm). Exhaust gas recirculation is not a sulfur-sensitive technology.
Suspend means to temporarily discontinue the certificate or an exemption for a family. If we suspend a certificate, you may not sell, offer for sale, or introduce or deliver into commerce in the United States or import into the United States engines/equipment from that family unless we reinstate the certificate or approve a new one. This also applies if we suspend an exemption, unless we reinstate the exemption.
Ultimate purchaser means the first person who in good faith purchases a new engine or new piece of equipment for purposes other than resale.
United States, in a geographic sense, means the States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
U.S.-directed production volume has the meaning given in the standard-setting part.
Void means to invalidate a certificate or an exemption ab initio (“from the beginning”). If we void a certificate, all the engines/equipment introduced into U.S. commerce under that family for that model year are considered uncertified (or nonconforming) and are therefore not covered by a certificate of conformity, and you are liable for all engines/equipment introduced into U.S. commerce under the certificate and may face civil or criminal penalties or both. This applies equally to all engines/equipment in the family, including engines/equipment introduced into U.S. commerce before we voided the certificate. If we void an exemption, all the engines/equipment introduced into U.S. commerce under that exemption are considered uncertified (or nonconforming), and you are liable for engines/equipment introduced into U.S. commerce under the exemption and may face civil or criminal penalties or both. You may not sell, offer for sale, or introduce or deliver into commerce in the United States or import into the United States any additional engines/equipment using the voided exemption.
Voluntary emission recall means a repair, adjustment, or modification program voluntarily initiated and conducted by a manufacturer to remedy any emission-related defect for which engine owners have been notified.
We (us, our) means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and any authorized representatives.