U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Dec 10, 2022
If you are the owner or operator of an onshore facility, you must:
(a) Meet the general requirements for the Plan listed under § 112.7, and the specific discharge prevention and containment procedures listed in this section.
(b) Facility drainage. (1) Restrain drainage from diked storage areas by valves to prevent a discharge into the drainage system or facility effluent treatment system, except where facility systems are designed to control such discharge. You may empty diked areas by pumps or ejectors; however, you must manually activate these pumps or ejectors and must inspect the condition of the accumulation before starting, to ensure no oil will be discharged.
(2) Use valves of manual, open-and-closed design, for the drainage of diked areas. You may not use flapper-type drain valves to drain diked areas. If your facility drainage drains directly into a watercourse and not into an on-site wastewater treatment plant, you must inspect and may drain uncontaminated retained stormwater, subject to the requirements of paragraphs (c)(3)(ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section.
(3) Design facility drainage systems from undiked areas with a potential for a discharge (such as where piping is located outside containment walls or where tank truck discharges may occur outside the loading area) to flow into ponds, lagoons, or catchment basins designed to retain oil or return it to the facility. You must not locate catchment basins in areas subject to periodic flooding.
(4) If facility drainage is not engineered as in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, equip the final discharge of all ditches inside the facility with a diversion system that would, in the event of an uncontrolled discharge, retain oil in the facility.
(5) Where drainage waters are treated in more than one treatment unit and such treatment is continuous, and pump transfer is needed, provide two “lift” pumps and permanently install at least one of the pumps. Whatever techniques you use, you must engineer facility drainage systems to prevent a discharge as described in § 112.1(b) in case there is an equipment failure or human error at the facility.
(c) Bulk storage containers. (1) Not use a container for the storage of oil unless its material and construction are compatible with the material stored and conditions of storage such as pressure and temperature.
(2) Construct all bulk storage tank installations (except mobile refuelers and other non-transportation-related tank trucks) so that you provide a secondary means of containment for the entire capacity of the largest single container and sufficient freeboard to contain precipitation. You must ensure that diked areas are sufficiently impervious to contain discharged oil. Dikes, containment curbs, and pits are commonly employed for this purpose. You may also use an alternative system consisting of a drainage trench enclosure that must be arranged so that any discharge will terminate and be safely confined in a facility catchment basin or holding pond.
(3) Not allow drainage of uncontaminated rainwater from the diked area into a storm drain or discharge of an effluent into an open watercourse, lake, or pond, bypassing the facility treatment system unless you:
(i) Normally keep the bypass valve sealed closed.
(ii) Inspect the retained rainwater to ensure that its presence will not cause a discharge as described in § 112.1(b).
(iii) Open the bypass valve and reseal it following drainage under responsible supervision; and
(4) Protect any completely buried metallic storage tank installed on or after January 10, 1974 from corrosion by coatings or cathodic protection compatible with local soil conditions. You must regularly leak test such completely buried metallic storage tanks.
(5) Not use partially buried or bunkered metallic tanks for the storage of oil, unless you protect the buried section of the tank from corrosion. You must protect partially buried and bunkered tanks from corrosion by coatings or cathodic protection compatible with local soil conditions.
(6) Bulk storage container inspections.
(i) Except for containers that meet the criteria provided in paragraph (c)(6)(ii) of this section, test or inspect each aboveground container for integrity on a regular schedule and whenever you make material repairs. You must determine, in accordance with industry standards, the appropriate qualifications for personnel performing tests and inspections, the frequency and type of testing and inspections, which take into account container size, configuration, and design (such as containers that are: shop-built, field-erected, skid-mounted, elevated, equipped with a liner, double-walled, or partially buried). Examples of these integrity tests include, but are not limited to: Visual inspection, hydrostatic testing, radiographic testing, ultrasonic testing, acoustic emissions testing, or other systems of non-destructive testing. You must keep comparison records and you must also inspect the container's supports and foundations. In addition, you must frequently inspect the outside of the container for signs of deterioration, discharges, or accumulation of oil inside diked areas. Records of inspections and tests kept under usual and customary business practices satisfy the recordkeeping requirements of this paragraph.
(ii) For bulk storage containers that are subject to 21 CFR part 110, are elevated, constructed of austenitic stainless steel, have no external insulation, and are shop-fabricated, conduct formal visual inspection on a regular schedule. In addition, you must frequently inspect the outside of the container for signs of deterioration, discharges, or accumulation of oil inside diked areas. You must determine and document in the Plan the appropriate qualifications for personnel performing tests and inspections. Records of inspections and tests kept under usual and customary business practices satisfy the recordkeeping requirements of this paragraph (c)(6).
(7) Control leakage through defective internal heating coils by monitoring the steam return and exhaust lines for contamination from internal heating coils that discharge into an open watercourse, or pass the steam return or exhaust lines through a settling tank, skimmer, or other separation or retention system.
(8) Engineer or update each container installation in accordance with good engineering practice to avoid discharges. You must provide at least one of the following devices:
(i) High liquid level alarms with an audible or visual signal at a constantly attended operation or surveillance station. In smaller facilities an audible air vent may suffice.
(ii) High liquid level pump cutoff devices set to stop flow at a predetermined container content level.
(iii) Direct audible or code signal communication between the container gauger and the pumping station.
(iv) A fast response system for determining the liquid level of each bulk storage container such as digital computers, telepulse, or direct vision gauges. If you use this alternative, a person must be present to monitor gauges and the overall filling of bulk storage containers.
(v) You must regularly test liquid level sensing devices to ensure proper operation.
(9) Observe effluent treatment facilities frequently enough to detect possible system upsets that could cause a discharge as described in § 112.1(b).
(10) Promptly correct visible discharges which result in a loss of oil from the container, including but not limited to seams, gaskets, piping, pumps, valves, rivets, and bolts. You must promptly remove any accumulations of oil in diked areas.
(11) Position or locate mobile or portable oil storage containers to prevent a discharge as described in § 112.1(b). Except for mobile refuelers and other non-transportation-related tank trucks, you must furnish a secondary means of containment, such as a dike or catchment basin, sufficient to contain the capacity of the largest single compartment or container with sufficient freeboard to contain precipitation.
(d) Facility transfer operations, pumping, and facility process. (1) Provide buried piping that is installed or replaced on or after August 16, 2002, with a protective wrapping and coating. You must also cathodically protect such buried piping installations or otherwise satisfy the corrosion protection standards for piping in part 280 of this chapter or a State program approved under part 281 of this chapter. If a section of buried line is exposed for any reason, you must carefully inspect it for deterioration. If you find corrosion damage, you must undertake additional examination and corrective action as indicated by the magnitude of the damage.
(2) Cap or blank-flange the terminal connection at the transfer point and mark it as to origin when piping is not in service or is in standby service for an extended time.
(3) Properly design pipe supports to minimize abrasion and corrosion and allow for expansion and contraction.
(4) Regularly inspect all aboveground valves, piping, and appurtenances. During the inspection you must assess the general condition of items, such as flange joints, expansion joints, valve glands and bodies, catch pans, pipeline supports, locking of valves, and metal surfaces. You must also conduct integrity and leak testing of buried piping at the time of installation, modification, construction, relocation, or replacement.
(5) Warn all vehicles entering the facility to be sure that no vehicle will endanger aboveground piping or other oil transfer operations.