U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Dec 09, 2022

§ 42.112 - Defects of containers: Tables IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, and X.

Table IV - Metal Containers

[Rigid and semi-rigid]

Defects Categories
Critical Major Minor
Type or size of container or component parts not as specifiedNone permitted
Closure incomplete, not located correctly or not sealed, crimped, or fitted properly:
(a) Heat processed primary container1
(b) Non-heat processed primary container101
(c) Other than primary container201
Dirty, stained, or smeared container202
Key opening metal containers (when required):
(a) Key missing102
(b) Key does not fit tab103
(c) Tab of opening band insufficient to provide accessibility to key104
(d) Improper scoring (band would not be removed in one continuous strip)105
Metal pop-top:
(a) Missing or broken pull tab106
(b) Missing or incomplete score line (not conforming to a relevant product specification)107
Flexible pop-top:
(a) Poor seal (wrinkle, entrapped matter, etc.)108
(b) Short pull tab (not conforming to a relevant product specification)203
(c) Missing pull tab109
(d) Torn pull tab204
Open top with plastic overcap (when required):
(a) Plastic overcap missing110
(b) Plastic overcap warped (making opening or reapplication difficult)111
Outside tinplate or coating (when required):
(a) Missing or incomplete205
(b) Blistered, flaked, sagged, or wrinkled206
(c) Scratched or scored207
(d) Fine cracks208
Rust (rust stain confined to the top or bottom double seam or rust that can be removed with a soft cloth is not scored a defect):
(a) Rust stain209
(b) Pitted rust112
Wet cans (excluding refrigerated containers)210
Dent:
(a) Materially affecting appearance but not usability211
(b) Materially affecting usability113
Buckle:
(a) Not involving end seam212
(b) Extending into the end seam114
Collapsed container115
Paneled side materially affecting appearance but not usability213
Solder missing when required116
Cable cut exposing seam117
Improper side seam118
Swell, springer, or flipper (not applicable to gas or pressure packed product nor frozen products)2
Leaker or blown container3
Frozen products only:
(a) Bulging ends 3/16-inch to 1/4-inch beyond lip214
(b) Bulging ends more than 1/4-inch beyond lip119
Metal drums: leaking filling seal (bung) swell 14120

1 Defect classification depends on the severity of the defect.

Table V - Composite Containers

[Fiberboard body with metal lids or metal bottoms, plastic or foil top with cap]

Defects Categories
Critical Major Minor
Type or size of container or component parts not as specifiedNone permitted
Closure incomplete, not located correctly or not sealed, crimped, or fitted properly1
Dirty, stained, or smeared container201
Easy open closure:
(a) Pull tab:
1. Missing or broken pull tab101
2. Missing or incomplete score line102
(b) Membrane top:
1. Poor seal (wrinkle, entrapped matter, etc.)103
2. Short pull tab104
3. Missing pull tab105
4. Torn pull tab106
(c) Open top with plastic overcap (when required):
1. Plastic overcap missing107
2. Plastic overcap warped (making opening or reapplication difficult)108
Outside tinplate or coating on ends (when required):
(a) Missing or incomplete202
(b) Blistered, flaked, sagged, or wrinkled203
(c) Scratched or scored204
(d) Fine cracks205
Collapsed container109
Paneled side materially affecting appearance but not usability206
Leaker2
Wet or damp:
(a) Materially affecting appearance but not usability207
(b) Materially affecting usability110
Crushed or torn area:
(a) Materially affecting appearance but not usability208
(b) Materially affecting usability111

Table VI - Glass Containers

[Bottles, Jars]

Defects Categories
Critical Major Minor
Type or size of container or component parts not as specifiedNone permitted
Closure not sealed, crimped, or fitted properly:
(a) Heat processed1
(b) Non-heat processed101
Dirty, stained, or smeared container201
Chip in glass202
Stone (unmelted material) in glass203
Pits in surface of glass204
Sagging surface205
Bead (bubble within glass):
(a) 1/8-inch to 1/16-inch in diameter206
(b) Exceeding 1/8-inch in diameter102
Checked103
Thin spot in glass104
Blister (structural defect)105
Bird swing (glass appendage inside container)2
Broken or leaking container3
Cap (nonheat processed):
(a) Cross-threaded207
(b) Loose but not leaking208
(c) Pitted rust106
Cap (heat processed):
(a) Cross-threaded or loose4
(b) Pitted rust107
Sealing tape or cello band (when required):
(a) Improperly placed209
(b) Not covering juncture of cap and glass108
(c) Ends overlap by less than 1/2-inch109
(d) Loose or deteriorating110
Missing or torn outer safety seal111
Inner safety seal - missing, torn, poor seal112

Table VII - Plastic Containers

[Rigid and Semi-Rigid, Bottles, Jars, Tubs, Trays, Pails, etc.]

Defects Categories
Critical Major Minor
Type or size of container or component parts not as specifiedNone permitted
Closure not sealed, crimped, or fitted properly:
(a) Heat processed1
(b) Non-heat processed101
Dirty, stained, or smeared container201
Chip in plastic202
Un-melted gels in plastic203
Pits in surface of plastic204
Sagging surface205
Air bubble within plastic:
(a) 1/8-inch to 1/16-inch in diameter206
(b) Exceeding 1/8-inch in diameter102
Checked103
Thin spot in plastic104
Blister (structural defect)105
Broken or leaking container2
Cap (non-heat processed):
(a) Cross-threaded207
(b) Loose but not leaking208
Cap (heat processed), cross-threaded or loose3
Security seals:
(a) Closure ring missing106
(b) Missing or torn outer safety seal107
(c) Inner safety seal - missing, torn, or poor seal108
(d) Sealing tape or cello band (when required):
1. Improperly placed209
2. Not covering juncture of cap and plastic109
3. Ends overlap by less than 1/2-inch110
4. Loose or deteriorating111

Table VIII - Rigid and Semi-Rigid Containers - Corrugated or Solid Fiberboard, Chipboard, Wood, Paperboard Aseptic Cartons, Polymeric Trays, etc.

[Excluding metal, glass, and plastic]

Defects Categories
Critical Major Minor
Type or size of container or component parts not as specifiedNone permitted
Component part missing101
Closure not sealed, crimped, or fitted properly:
(a) Primary container1
(b) Other than primary container201
Dirty, stained, or smeared container202
Wet or damp (excluding ice packs):
(a) Materially affecting appearance but not usability203
(b) Materially affecting usability102
Moldy area2
Crushed or torn area:
(a) Materially affecting appearance but not usability204
(b) Materially affecting usability103
Separation of lamination (corrugated fiberboard):
(a) Materially affecting appearance but not usability205
(b) Materially affecting usability104
Product sifting or leaking105
Nails or staples (when required):
(a) Not as required, insufficient number or improperly positioned206
(b) Nails or staples protruding106
Glue or adhesive (when required); not holding properly, not covering area specified, or not covering sufficient area to hold properly:
(a) Primary container107
(b) Other than primary container207
Flap:
(a) Projects beyond edge of container more than 1/4-inch208
(b) Does not meet properly, allowing space of more than 1/4-inch209
Sealing tape or strapping (when required):
(a) Missing108
(b) Improperly placed or applied210
Missing component (straw, etc.)211
Paperboard Aseptic Cartons:
(a) Missing re-sealable cap or tab109
(b) Inner or outer safety seal - missing, torn, poor seal3
Thermostabilized polymeric trays:
Tray body:
(a) Swollen container4
(b) Tear, crack, hole, abrasion through more than one layer of multi-layer laminate for the tray5
(c) Presence of delamination in multi-layered laminate212
(d) Presence of any permanent deformation, such that deformed area is discolored or roughened in texture213
Lid material:
(a) Closure seal not continuous along tray flange surface6
(b) Foldover wrinkle in seal area extends into the closure seal such that the closure seal is reduced to less than 1/8-inch7
(c) Any impression or design on the seal surfaces which conceals or impairs visual detection of seal defects110
(d) Areas of “wave-like” striations or wrinkles along the seal area that spans the entire width of seal214
(e) Abrasion of lid material:
1. Within 1/16-inch of food product edge of seal such that barrier layer is exposed8
2. Greater than 1/16-inch from food product edge of seal that barrier layer is exposed215
(f) Presence of entrapped matter within 1/16-inch of the food product edge of seal or entrapped moisture or vapor with 1/16-inch of the food product edge of seal that results in less than 1/16-inch of defect free seal width at the outside edge9
(g) Presence of any seal defect or anomaly (for example, entrapped moisture, gases, etc.) within 1/16-inch of food product edge of seal111
(h) Closure seal width less than 1/8-inch216

Table IX - Flexible Containers

[Plastic, Cellophane, Paper, Textile, Laminated Multi-Layer Pouch, Bag, etc.]

Defects Categories
Critical Major Minor
Type or size of container or component parts not as specifiedNone permitted
Closure not sealed, crimped, stitched, or fitted properly:
(a) Heat processed primary container1
(b) Non-heat processed primary container101
(c) Other than primary container201
Dirty, stained, or smeared container202
Unmelted gels in plastic203
Torn or cut container or abrasion (non-leaker):
(a) Materially affecting appearance but not usability204
(b) Materially affecting usability102
Moldy area2
Individual packages sticking together or to shipping case (tear when separated)103
Not fully covering product104
Wet or damp (excluding ice packs):
(a) Materially affecting appearance but not usability205
(b) Materially affecting usability105
Over wrap (when required):
(a) Missing106
(b) Loose, not sealed, or closed206
(c) Improperly applied207
Sealing tape, strapping, or adhesives (when required):
(a) Missing107
(b) Improperly placed, applied, torn, or wrinkled208
Tape over bottom and top closures (when required):
(a) Not covering stitching108
(b) Torn (exposing stitching)109
(c) Wrinkled (exposing stitching)110
(d) Not adhering to bag:
1. Exposing stitching111
2. Not exposing stitching209
(e) Improper placement210
Product sifting or leaking:
(a) Non-heat processed112
(b) Heat processed3
Flexible pop-top:
(a) Poor seal (wrinkle, entrapped matter, etc.) reducing intact seal to less than 1/16-inch4
(b) Short pull tab (materially affecting usability)212
(c) Missing pull tab113
(d) Torn pull tab (materially affecting usability)213
Missing component (straw, etc.)214
Two part container (poly lined box or bag in box):
(a) Outer case torn215
(b) Poly liner:
1. Missing5
2. Improper closure114
Missing “zip lock” (re-sealable containers)216
Loss of vacuum (in vacuum-packed)115
Pre-formed containers:
(a) Dented or crushed area217
(b) Deformed container218
Missing re-sealable cap116
Inner or outer safety seal - missing, torn, poor seal6
Air bubble in plastic117
Thermostabilized products (includes but not limited to tubes, pouches, etc.):
Foldover wrinkle in seal area (thermostabilized pouches):
(a) Extends through all plies across seal area or reduces seal less than 1/16-inch7
(b) Does not extend through all plies and effective seal is 1/16-inch or greater219
Incomplete seal (thermostabilized pouches)8
Non-bonding seal (thermostabilized pouches)9
Laminate separation in body of pouch or in seal within 1/16-inch of food product edge:
(a) If food contact layer is exposed10
(b) If food contact surface is exposed after manipulation or laminate separation expands after manipulation118
(c) If lamination separation is limited to isolated spots that do not propagate with manipulation or is outer ply separation in seal within 1/16-inch of food product edge of seal220
Flex cracks (cracks in foil layer only)221
Swollen container11
Blister (in seal) reducing intact seal to less than 1/16-inch12
Compressed seal (overheated to bubble or expose inner layer) reducing intact seal to less than 1/16-inch13
Stringy seal (excessive plastic threads showing at edge of seal area)222
Contaminated seal (entrapped matter) reducing intact seal to less than 1/16-inch14
Seal creep (product in pouch “creeping” into seal) reducing intact seal to less than 1/16 inch15
Misaligned or crooked seal reducing intact seal to less than 1/16-inch16
Seal formed greater than 1-inch from edge of pouch (unclosed edge flaps)223
Waffling (embossing on surface from retort racks; not scorable unless severe)224
Poor or missing tear notch (when required)225

Table X - Unitizing

[Plastic or other type of casing/unitizing]

Defects Categories
Major Minor
Not specified method101
Missing tray (when required)102
Missing shrink wrap (when required)103
Loose or improperly applied wrap201
Torn or mutilated202
Off-center wrap (does not overlap both ends)203
[78 FR 57041, Sept. 17, 2013]