U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Apr 01, 2023
§ 120.1 - General authorities.
(a) Authority and delegation. Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778), as amended, authorizes the President to control the export and import of defense articles and defense services. The statutory authority of the President to promulgate regulations with respect to exports of defense articles and defense services is delegated to the Secretary of State by Executive Order 13637. This subchapter implements that authority, as well as other relevant authorities in the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.). The Secretary of State delegates the authority to administer the regulations in this subchapter to the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Defense Trade Controls, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs.
(b) Authorized officials. (1) All authorities administered by the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Defense Trade Controls pursuant to this subchapter may be exercised at any time by the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security or the Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs.
(2) The Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Defense Trade Controls supervises the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, which is comprised of the following offices:
(i) The Office of Defense Trade Controls Licensing and the Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls Licensing, which have responsibilities related to licensing or other approvals of defense trade, including references under this part and parts 123, 124, 125, 126, 129, and 130 of this subchapter.
(ii) The Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance and the Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance, which have responsibilities related to violations of law or regulation and compliance therewith, including references contained in parts 122, 126, 127, 128, and 130 of this subchapter, and those portions under this part and part 129 of this subchapter pertaining to registration.
(iii) The Office of Defense Trade Controls Policy and the Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls Policy, which have responsibilities related to the general policies of defense trade, including references under this part and part 126 of this subchapter, and the commodity jurisdiction procedure under this part.
§ 120.2 - Designation of defense articles and defense services.
The Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778(a) and 2794(7)) provides that the President shall designate the articles and services deemed to be defense articles and defense services for purposes of import or export controls. The President has delegated to the Secretary of State the authority to control the export and temporary import of defense articles and services. The items designated by the Secretary of State for purposes of export and temporary import control constitute the U.S. Munitions List (USML) specified in part 121 of this subchapter. Defense articles on the USML specified in part 121 of this subchapter that are also subject to permanent import control by the Attorney General on the U.S. Munitions Import List enumerated in 27 CFR part 447 are subject to temporary import controls administered by the Secretary of State. Designations of defense articles and defense services on the USML in part 121 of this subchapter are made by the Department of State with the concurrence of the Department of Defense. The scope of the USML shall be changed only by amendments made pursuant to section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778). For a designation or determination on whether a particular item is enumerated on the USML, see § 120.4.
§ 120.3 - Policy on designating or determining defense articles and services on the U.S. Munitions List.
(a) For purposes of this subchapter, a specific article or service may be designated a defense article (see § 120.31) or defense service (see § 120.32) if it:
(1) Meets the criteria of a defense article or defense service on the U.S. Munitions List (USML) (part 121 of this subchapter); or
(2) Provides the equivalent performance capabilities of a defense article on the USML.
(b) For purposes of this subchapter, a specific article or service shall be determined in the future as a defense article or defense service if it provides a critical military or intelligence advantage such that it warrants control under this subchapter.
An article or service determined in the future pursuant to this subchapter as a defense article or defense service, but not currently on the USML, will be placed in Category XXI of § 121.1 of this subchapter until the appropriate category of the USML has been amended to provide the necessary entry.
(c) A specific article or service is not a defense article or defense service for purposes of this subchapter if it:
(1) Is determined to be under the jurisdiction of another department or agency of the U.S. Government (see § 120.5) pursuant to a commodity jurisdiction determination (see § 120.4) unless superseded by changes to the USML or by a subsequent commodity jurisdiction determination; or
(2) Meets one of the criteria of § 120.41(b) when the article is used in or with a defense article and specially designed is used as a control criteria.
The intended use of the article or service after its export (i.e., for a military or civilian purpose), by itself, is not a factor in determining whether the article or service is subject to the controls of this subchapter.
§ 120.4 - Commodity jurisdiction.
(a) The commodity jurisdiction procedure is used with the U.S. Government if doubt exists as to whether an article or service is covered by the U.S. Munitions List (USML). It may also be used for consideration of a redesignation of an article or service currently covered by the USML. The Department must provide notice to Congress at least 30 days before any item is removed from the USML.
(b) The procedure for submitting a Commodity Jurisdiction Determination Request to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls is set forth in § 120.12.
§ 120.5 - Relation to regulations of other agencies.
(a) The Department of Justice, the U.S. Munitions Import List (USMIL), and permanent imports. Defense articles and defense services covered by the U.S. Munitions List set forth in this subchapter are regulated by the Department of State (see also § 120.2) for purposes of export, reexport, retransfer, and temporary import. The President has delegated the authority to control the permanent import of defense articles and services to the Attorney General. The defense articles and services controlled by the Secretary of State and the Attorney General collectively comprise the U.S. Munitions List under the Arms Export Control Act. As the Attorney General exercises independent delegated authority to designate defense articles and services for purposes of permanent import controls, the permanent import control list administered by the Department of Justice has been separately labeled the U.S. Munitions Import List (27 CFR part 447) to distinguish it from the list set out in this subchapter. In carrying out the functions delegated to the Attorney General pursuant to the Arms Export Control Act, the Attorney General shall be guided by the views of the Secretary of State on matters affecting world peace and the external security and foreign policy of the United States.
(b) The Department of Commerce and the Export Administration Regulations—(1) Export of items subject to the Export Administration Regulations by authority of the Department of Commerce. The Department of Commerce regulates the export, reexport, and in-country transfer of items on the Commerce Control List and other items subject to its jurisdiction, as well as certain activities performed by U.S. persons, including those that may contribute to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, under the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) (15 CFR parts 730 through 774).
(2) Export of items subject to the EAR by authority of the Department of State. A license or other approval (see § 120.57) from the Department of State granted in accordance with this subchapter may also authorize the export of items subject to the EAR (see § 120.58). An exemption (see § 120.57 and parts 123, 124, 125, and 126 of this subchapter) may only be used to export an item subject to the EAR that is for use in or with a defense article and is included in the same shipment as any defense article. Separate approval from the Department of Commerce is not required for these items. No exemption under this subchapter may be utilized to export an item subject to the EAR if not accompanied by a defense article. Those items subject to the EAR exported pursuant to a Department of State license or other approval would remain under the jurisdiction of the Department of Commerce for any subsequent transactions. The inclusion of items subject to the EAR on a Department of State license or other approval does not change the licensing jurisdiction of the items.
(c) Nuclear related controls; Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (1) The provisions of this subchapter do not apply to articles, technical data, or services in Category VI, Category XV, Category XVI, and Category XX of § 121.1 of this subchapter to the extent that exports of such articles, technical data, or services are controlled by the Department of Energy or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), as amended, and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978, as amended, or are government transfers authorized pursuant to these Acts. For Department of Commerce controls, see 15 CFR 742.3 and 744.2, administered pursuant to Section 309(c) of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Act of 1978, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2139a(c)), and 15 CFR 744.5, which are not subject to this subchapter.
(2) The transfer of materials, including special nuclear materials, nuclear parts of nuclear weapons, or other, non-nuclear parts of nuclear weapons systems involving Restricted Data or of assistance involving any person directly or indirectly engaging in the production or use thereof is prohibited except as authorized by the AEA. The transfer of Restricted Data or such assistance is prohibited except as authorized by the AEA. The technical data or defense services relating to nuclear weapons, nuclear weapons systems or related defense purposes (and such data or services relating to applications of atomic energy for peaceful purposes, or related research and development) may constitute Restricted Data or such assistance, subject to the foregoing prohibition.
(3) A license for the export of a defense article, technical data, or the furnishing of a defense service relating to defense articles referred to in Category VI(e) or Category XX(b)(1) of § 121.1 of this subchapter will not be granted unless the defense article, technical data, or defense service comes within the scope of an existing Agreement for Cooperation for Mutual Defense Purposes concluded pursuant to the AEA with the government of the country to which the defense article, technical data, or defense service is to be exported. Licenses may be granted in the absence of such an agreement only:
(i) If the proposed export involves an article which is identical to that in use in an unclassified civilian nuclear power plant;
(ii) If the proposed export has no relationship to naval nuclear propulsion; and
(iii) If it is not for use in a naval propulsion plant.
§ 120.6 - U.S. criminal statutes.
For purposes of this subchapter, the phrase U.S. criminal statutes comprises the following:
(a) Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778);
(b) Section 1760 of the Export Control Reform Act of 2018 (50 U.S.C. 4819) or section 11 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. 4610);
(c) Section 793, 794, or 798 of title 18, United States Code (relating to espionage involving defense or classified information) or section 2332d, 2339A, 2339B, 2339C, or 2339D of such title (relating to financial transactions with the government of a country designated as a country supporting international terrorism, providing material support to terrorists or terrorist organizations, financing of terrorism, or receiving military-type training from a foreign terrorist organization);
(d) Section 16 of the Trading with the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. 4315);
(e) Section 206 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (relating to foreign assets controls; 50 U.S.C. 1705);
(f) Section 30A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78dd–1) or section 104 of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (15 U.S.C. 78dd–2 or 78dd–3);
(g) Chapter 105 of title 18, United States Code (relating to sabotage);
(h) Section 4(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (relating to communication of classified information; 50 U.S.C. 783(a));
(i) Sections 57, 92, 101, 104, 222, 224, 225, or 226 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2077,2122,2131,2134,2272,2274,2275,and;
(j) Section 601 of the National Security Act of 1947 (relating to intelligence identities protection; 50 U.S.C. 421);
(k) Section 371 of title 18, United States Code (when it involves conspiracy to violate any of the statutes listed in this section);
(l) Sections 3, 4, 5, and 6 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, Public Law 108–458 sections 6903–6906, relating to missile systems designed to destroy aircraft (18 U.S.C. 2332g), prohibitions governing atomic weapons (42 U.S.C. 2122), radiological dispersal services (18 U.S.C. 2332h), and variola virus (18 U.S.C. 175c);
(m) Sections 2779 and 2780 of title 22, United States Code (relating to fees of military sales agents and other payments, and transactions with countries supporting acts of international terrorism);
(n) Section 542 of title 18, United States Code (relating to the entry of goods by means of false statements), where the underlying offense involves a defense article, including technical data, or violations related to the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) or International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) in this subchapter;
(o) Section 545 of title 18, United States Code (relating to smuggling goods into the United States), where the underlying offense involves a defense article, including technical data, or violations related to the AECA or ITAR;
(p) Section 554 of title 18, United States Code (relating to smuggling goods from the United States), where the underlying offense involves a defense article, including technical data, or violations related to the AECA or ITAR; and
(q) Section 1001 of title 18, United States Code (relating to false statements or entries generally), Section 1831 of title 18, United States Code (relating to economic espionage), and Section 1832 of title 18, United States Code (relating to theft of trade secrets) where the underlying offense involves a defense article, including technical data, or violations related to the AECA or ITAR.
§ 120.7 - Relations to other provisions of law.
(a) The provisions in this subchapter are in addition to, and are not in lieu of, any other provisions of law or regulations. The sale of firearms in the United States, for example, remains subject to the provisions of the Gun Control Act of 1968 and regulations administered by the Department of Justice. The performance of defense services on behalf of foreign governments by retired military personnel continues to require consent pursuant to part 3a of this title. Persons who intend to export defense articles or furnish defense services should not assume that satisfying the requirements of this subchapter relieves one of other requirements of law.
(b) All determinations, authorizations, licenses, approvals of contracts and agreements, and other action issued, authorized, undertaken, or entered into by the Department of State pursuant to section 414 of the Mutual Security Act of 1954, as amended, or under the previous provisions of this subchapter, continue in full force and effect until or unless modified, revoked, or superseded by the Department of State.