U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Nov 26, 2022
(a) The U.S. Munitions List. The articles, services, and related technical data designated as defense articles or defense services pursuant to sections 38 and 47(7) of the Arms Export Control Act appear in part 121 of this subchapter and constitute the U.S. Munitions List (USML). Changes in designations are published in the
(b) Composition of U.S. Munitions List categories. USML categories are organized by paragraphs and subparagraphs identified alphanumerically. They usually start by enumerating or otherwise describing end-items, followed by major systems and equipment; parts, components, accessories, and attachments; and technical data and defense services directly related to the defense articles of that USML category.
(c) Significant Military Equipment paragraphs in the USML. All items described within a USML paragraph or subordinate paragraph that is preceded by an asterisk (*) are designated Significant Military Equipment (SME). Note that technical data directly related to the manufacture or production of a defense article designated as SME is also designated as SME.
(d) Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) designation. Annotation with the parenthetical (MT) at the end of a USML entry indicates those defense articles that are on the MTCR Annex.
(a) Control. Articles are controlled on the U.S. Munitions List (USML) because they are either:
(1) Enumerated in a category; or
(2) Described in a catch-all paragraph that incorporates specially designed as a control parameter. In order to classify an item on the USML, begin with a review of the general characteristics of the item. This should guide you to the appropriate category, whereupon you should attempt to match the particular characteristics and functions of the article to a specific entry within that category.
(b) Specially designed. (1) If the entry includes the term specially designed, refer to § 120.41 to determine if the article qualifies for one or more of the exclusions articulated in § 120.41(b).
(2) An item described in multiple entries should be categorized according to an enumerated entry rather than a specially designed catch-all paragraph.
(c) Integration of controlled items. Defense articles described on the USML are controlled and remain subject to this subchapter following incorporation or integration into any item not described on the USML, unless specifically provided otherwise in this subchapter.
(d) Other controls. In all cases, articles not controlled on the USML may be subject to another U.S. Government regulatory agency (see § 120.5, and Supplement No. 4 to part 774 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) in title 15 of the CFR for guidance on classifying an item subject to the EAR).
(a) Upon electronic submission of a Commodity Jurisdiction Determination Form (Form DS-4076), the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC) shall provide a determination of whether a particular article or service is covered by the U.S. Munitions List in part 121 of this subchapter. The determination, consistent with §§ 120.2, 120.3, and 120.4, entails consultation among the Departments of State, Defense, Commerce, and other U.S. Government agencies and industry in appropriate cases. State, Defense, and Commerce will resolve commodity jurisdiction determination disputes in accordance with established procedures. State shall notify Defense and Commerce, and other U.S. Government agencies as appropriate, of the initiation and conclusion of each case.
(b) A determination that an article or service meets the criteria of a defense article or defense service, or provides the equivalent performance capabilities of a defense article on the U.S. Munitions List, is made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account:
(1) The form and fit of the article;
(2) The function and performance capability of the article; and
(3) Other applicant-provided information, to include a history of the product's design, development, and use, as well as specifications and any other relevant data as described in brochures and other related documents.
(c) A determination that an article or service has a critical military or intelligence advantage such that it warrants control under Category XXI of § 121.1 of this subchapter is made, on a case-by-case basis, taking into account:
(1) The function and performance capability of the article; and
(2) The nature of controls imposed by other nations on such items (including the Wassenaar Arrangement and other multilateral controls).
(d) DDTC will provide a preliminary response within 10 working days of receipt of a complete request for commodity jurisdiction determination. If after 45 days DDTC has not provided a final commodity jurisdiction determination, the applicant may request in writing to the Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls Policy that this determination be given expedited processing.
(e) A person may appeal a commodity jurisdiction determination by submitting a written request for reconsideration to the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Defense Trade Controls. The Deputy Assistant Secretary's determination of the appeal will be provided, in writing, within 30 days of receipt of the appeal. If desired, an appeal of the Deputy Assistant Secretary's decision can then be made to the Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs.
(f) Registration with DDTC as described in part 122 of this subchapter is not required prior to submission of a commodity jurisdiction determination request.
(a) Any person who engages in the United States in the business of manufacturing or exporting or temporarily importing defense articles, or furnishing defense services, is required to register with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls as set forth in part 122 of this subchapter. For the purpose of this subchapter, engaging in such a business requires only one occasion of manufacturing or exporting or temporarily importing a defense article or furnishing a defense service. A manufacturer who does not engage in exporting must nevertheless register.
(b) Any U.S. person; foreign person located in the United States; or foreign person located outside the United States that is owned or controlled by a U.S. person, who engages in brokering activities is required to register with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls as set forth in part 129 of this subchapter.
(a) Export, reexport, retransfer, or temporary import, of defense articles. The approval of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC) must be requested and obtained before the export, reexport, retransfer, or temporary import of a defense article, unless an exemption under the provisions of this subchapter is applicable.
(b) Furnishing defense services. The approval of DDTC must be requested and obtained before a defense service may be furnished, unless an exemption under the provisions of this subchapter is applicable.
(c) Brokering activities. The approval of DDTC must be requested and obtained before engaging in the business of brokering activities for the defense articles described in § 129.4(a) of this subchapter by a person who is required to register as a broker under part 129 of this subchapter, unless an exemption under the provisions of part 129 is applicable.
(a) Persons otherwise required to register with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls in accordance with this subchapter must do so prior to utilization of an exemption.
(b) Exemptions provided in this subchapter may not be utilized for transactions in which the exporter, any party to the export, any source or manufacturer, broker or other participant in the brokering activities, is generally ineligible as set forth in § 120.16, unless prior written authorization has been granted by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.
(c) Exemptions provided in this subchapter do not apply with respect to defense articles or defense services originating in or for export to any proscribed countries, areas, or persons identified in § 126.1 of this subchapter, except as provided in § 126.1.
(d) Each exemption provided in this subchapter is subject to limitation as described in the section or paragraph of this subchapter in which the exemption is prescribed.
(e) Any person engaging in any export, reexport, transfer, or retransfer of a defense article or defense service pursuant to an exemption must maintain records of each such export, reexport, transfer, or retransfer. The records shall, to the extent applicable to the transaction and consistent with the requirements of § 123.22 of this subchapter, include the following information: A description of the defense article, including technical data, or defense service; the name and address of the end-user and other available contact information (e.g., telephone number and electronic mail address); the name of the natural person responsible for the transaction; the stated end-use of the defense article or defense service; the date of the transaction; the Electronic Export Information (EEI) Internal Transaction Number (ITN); and the method of transmission. The person using or acting in reliance upon the exemption shall also comply with any additional recordkeeping requirements enumerated in the text of the regulations concerning such exemption (e.g., requirements specific to the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties in §§ 126.16 and 126.17 of this subchapter).
(f) To claim an exemption for the export of technical data under the provisions of this subchapter (e.g., §§ 125.4 and 125.5 of this subchapter), the exporter must certify that the proposed export is covered by a relevant section of this subchapter, to include the paragraph and applicable subordinate paragraph. Certifications consist of clearly marking the package or letter containing the technical data “22 CFR [insert ITAR exemption] applicable.” This certification must be made in written form and retained in the exporter's files for a period of 5 years. For exports that are oral, visual, or electronic the exporter must also complete a written certification and retain it for a period of 5 years.
(a) A U.S. person may receive a license or other approval pursuant to this subchapter. A foreign person may not receive such a license or other approval, except as follows:
(1) A foreign governmental entity in the U.S. may receive a license or other approval;
(2) A foreign person may receive a reexport or retransfer approval; or
(3) A foreign person may receive an approval for brokering activities.
(b) A request for a license or other approval by a U.S. person or by a person referred to in paragraphs (a)(1) and (3) of this section will be considered only if the applicant has registered with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls pursuant to part 122 or 129 of this subchapter, as appropriate.
(c) Persons who have been convicted of violating the U.S. criminal statutes enumerated in § 120.6, who have been debarred pursuant to part 127 or 128 of this subchapter, who are subject to indictment or are otherwise charged (e.g., charged by criminal information in lieu of indictment) with violating the U.S. criminal statutes enumerated in § 120.6, who are ineligible to contract with or to receive a license or other form of authorization to import defense articles or defense services from any agency of the U.S. Government, who are ineligible to receive an export license or other approval from any other agency of the U.S. Government, or who are subject to a publicly announced Department of State policy of denial, suspension, or revocation under § 120.18(a), are generally ineligible to be involved in activities regulated under this subchapter.
(a) Pursuant to section 40A of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2785) and related delegations of authority, the Department of State is required to establish a monitoring program in order to improve accountability with respect to defense articles and defense services, sold, leased, or exported under Department of State licenses or other approvals under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act and this subchapter.
(b) All exports of defense articles, technical data, services, and brokering activities made pursuant to this subchapter are subject to end-use monitoring by the Department of State through the Blue Lantern program.
(a) Policy. Licenses or approvals shall be denied or revoked whenever required by any statute of the United States. Any application for an export license or other approval under this subchapter may be disapproved, and any license or other approval or exemption granted under this subchapter may be revoked, suspended, or amended without prior notice whenever:
(1) The Department of State deems such action to be in furtherance of world peace, the national security or the foreign policy of the United States, or is otherwise advisable; or
(2) The Department of State believes that 22 U.S.C. 2778,any,or.S. Government export authorization (including the terms of a manufacturing license or technical assistance agreement, or export authorization granted pursuant to the Export Administration Regulations in 15 CFR parts 730 through 774) has been violated by any party to the export or other person having significant interest in the transaction; or
(3) An applicant is the subject of a criminal complaint, other criminal charge (e.g., an information), or indictment for a violation of any of the U.S. criminal statutes enumerated in § 120.6; or
(4) An applicant or any party to the export or the agreement has been convicted of violating any of the U.S. criminal statutes enumerated in § 120.6; or
(5) An applicant is ineligible to contract with, or to receive a license or other authorization to import defense articles or defense services from, any agency of the U.S. Government; or
(6) An applicant, any party to the export or agreement, any source or manufacturer of the defense article or defense service or any person who has a significant interest in the transaction has been debarred, suspended, or otherwise is ineligible to receive an export license or other authorization from any agency of the U.S. Government (e.g., pursuant to an order denying export privileges issued by the Department of Commerce under 15 CFR part 766 or by the Department of State under part 127 or 128 of this subchapter); or
(7) An applicant has failed to include any of the information or documentation expressly required to support a license application, exemption, or other request for approval under this subchapter, or as required in the instructions in the applicable Department of State form or has failed to provide notice or information as required under this subchapter; or
(8) An applicant is subject to sanctions under other relevant U.S. laws (e.g., the Missile Technology Controls title of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY 1991 (Pub. L. 101-510); the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991 (Pub. L. 102-182); or the Iran-Iraq Arms Non-Proliferation Act of 1992 (Pub. L. 102-484)); or
(9) Any person involved in the transaction has been the subject of an unfavorable finding of an end-use monitoring check as described in § 120.17.
(b) Notification. The Directorate of Defense Trade Controls will notify applicants or licensees or other appropriate U.S. persons of actions taken pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section. The reasons for the action will be stated as specifically as security and foreign policy considerations permit.
(c) Reconsideration. If a written request for reconsideration of an adverse decision is made within 30 days after a person has been informed of the decision, the U.S. person will be accorded an opportunity to present additional information. The case will then be reviewed by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.
(d) Reconsideration of certain applications. Applications for licenses or other requests for approval denied for repeated failure to provide information or documentation expressly required will normally not be reconsidered during the 30 day period following denial. They will be reconsidered after this period only after a final decision is made on whether the applicant will be subject to an administrative penalty imposed pursuant to this subchapter. Any request for reconsideration shall be accompanied by a letter explaining the steps that have been taken to correct the failure and to ensure compliance with the requirements of this subchapter.
(a) Part 127 of this subchapter specifies conduct that constitutes a violation of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) and/or the International Traffic in Arms Regulations in this subchapter and the sanctions that may be imposed for such violations.
(b) The Department strongly encourages the disclosure of information to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls by persons that believe they may have violated any export control provision of the AECA, or any regulation in this subchapter, order, license, or other authorization issued under the authority of the AECA.
The Arms Export Control Act (AECA) authorizes the President to control the import and export of defense articles and services in furtherance of world peace and the security and foreign policy of the United States. Pursuant to delegated authorities, the Secretary of State is authorized to make decisions on whether license applications or other written requests for approval shall be granted, or whether exemptions may be used. The Secretary of State is also authorized to revoke, suspend, or amend licenses or other written approvals whenever such action is deemed to be advisable. The administration of the AECA is a foreign affairs function encompassed within the meaning of the military and foreign affairs exclusion of the Administrative Procedure Act and is thereby expressly exempt from various provisions of that Act. Because the exercising of the foreign affairs function, including the decisions required to implement the AECA, is highly discretionary, it is excluded from review under the Administrative Procedure Act.
(a) Freedom of information. Subchapter R of this title contains regulations on the availability to the public of information and records of the Department of State. The provisions of subchapter R apply to such disclosures by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.
(b) Determinations required by law. Section 38(e) of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) (22 U.S.C. 2778(e)) provides that information obtained for the purpose of consideration of, or concerning, license applications shall be withheld from public disclosure unless the release of such information is determined by the Secretary of State to be in the national interest. Section 38(e) of the AECA further provides that the names of countries and types and quantities of defense articles for which licenses are issued under this section shall not be withheld from public disclosure unless certain determinations are made that the release of such information would be contrary to the national interest. Such determinations required by section 38(e) shall be made by the Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs.
(c) Information required under part 130 of this subchapter. Part 130 contains specific provisions on the disclosure of information described in that part.
(d) National interest determinations. In accordance with section 38(e) of the AECA, the Secretary of State has determined that the following disclosures are in the national interest of the United States:
(1) Furnishing information to foreign governments for law enforcement or regulatory purposes; and
(2) Furnishing information to foreign governments and other agencies of the U.S. Government in the context of multilateral or bilateral export regimes (e.g., the Missile Technology Control Regime, the Australia Group, and Wassenaar Arrangement).
(a) Preliminary authorization determinations. A person may request information from the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC) as to whether it would likely grant a license or other approval for a particular defense article or defense service to a particular country. Such information from DDTC is issued on a case-by-case basis and applies only to the particular matters presented to DDTC. These opinions are not binding on the Department of State and may not be used in future matters before the Department. A request for an advisory opinion must be made in writing and must outline in detail the equipment, its usage, the security classification (if any) of the articles or related technical data, and the country or countries involved.
(b) Related authorizations. DDTC may, as appropriate, in accordance with the procedures set forth in paragraph (a) of this section, provide export authorization, subject to all other relevant requirements of this subchapter, both for transactions that have been the subject of advisory opinions requested by prospective U.S. exporters, or for the Directorate's own initiatives. Such initiatives may cover pilot programs, or specifically anticipated circumstances for which the Directorate considers special authorizations appropriate.
(c) Interpretations of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations in this subchapter. Any person may request an interpretation of the requirements set forth in this subchapter in the form of an advisory opinion. A request for an advisory opinion must be made in writing. Any response to an advisory opinion provided by DDTC pursuant to this paragraph (c) shall not be an authorization to export and shall not bind the Department to grant or deny any such authorization.
(a) North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) refers to the organization of member states that are parties to the North Atlantic Treaty, which members include: Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Montenegro, the Netherlands, North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and any state not included here that has deposited an instrument of accession in accordance with Article 10 of the North Atlantic Treaty.
(b) Major non-NATO ally. (1) Major non-NATO ally, as defined in section 644(q) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2403(q)), means a country that is designated in accordance with section 517 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2321k) as a major non-NATO ally for purposes of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 and the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq. and 22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.).
(2) The following countries are designated as major non-NATO allies: Afghanistan (see § 126.1(g) of this subchapter), Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Brazil, Egypt, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Tunisia. Taiwan shall be treated as though it were designated a major non-NATO ally.
(c) Wassenaar Arrangement. (1) The Wassenaar Arrangement refers to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies among the United States, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Republic of Korea, Romania, the Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, and the United Kingdom, established on 12 July 1996, to promote transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies.
(2) The term Wassenaar Munitions List (WAML) refers to the list of military items for which all participants have agreed to maintain national export controls.
(d) Missile Technology Control Regime - (1) Regime. Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) refers to the policy statement among the United States, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Canada, and Japan, announced on April 16, 1987, to restrict sensitive missile-relevant transfers based on the MTCR Annex, and any amendments thereto.
(2) MTCR Annex. The term MTCR Annex refers to the MTCR Guidelines and the Equipment, Software and Technology Annex of the MTCR, and any amendments thereto.
(3) List of all items on the MTCR Annex. MTCR Annex items specified in the U.S. Munitions List shall be annotated by the parenthetical (MT) at the end of each applicable paragraph.
(e) Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty between the United States and Australia. Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty between the United States and Australia refers to the Treaty between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Australia Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, done at Sydney, September 5, 2007. For additional information on making exports pursuant to this treaty, see § 126.16 of this subchapter.
(f) Australia Implementing Arrangement. Australia Implementing Arrangement refers to the Implementing Arrangement Pursuant to the Treaty between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Australia Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, done at Washington, March 14, 2008, as it may be amended.
(g) Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom. Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom refers to the Treaty between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, done at Washington and London, June 21 and 26, 2007. For additional information on making exports pursuant to this treaty, see § 126.17 of this subchapter.
(h) United Kingdom Implementing Arrangement. United Kingdom Implementing Arrangement refers to the Implementing Arrangement Pursuant to the Treaty between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, done at Washington, February 14, 2008, as it may be amended.