U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Feb 08, 2023
Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Department of State, Washington, DC 20522-0112.
(a) Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this subchapter and includes:
(1) Technical data recorded or stored in any physical form, models, mockups or other items that reveal technical data directly relating to items designated in § 121.1 of this subchapter; and
(2) Forgings, castings, and other unfinished products, such as extrusions and machined bodies, that have reached a stage in manufacturing where they are clearly identifiable by mechanical properties, material composition, geometry, or function as defense articles.
(b) It does not include basic marketing information on function or purpose or general system descriptions.
(c) The policy described in § 120.3 is applicable to designations of additional items.
(a) Defense service means:
(1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to foreign persons, whether in the United States or abroad in the design, development, engineering, manufacture, production, assembly, testing, repair, maintenance, modification, operation, demilitarization, destruction, processing, or use of defense articles;
(2) The furnishing to foreign persons of any technical data controlled under this subchapter, whether in the United States or abroad; or
(3) Military training of foreign units and forces, regular and irregular, including formal or informal instruction of foreign persons in the United States or abroad or by correspondence courses, technical, educational, or information publications and media of all kinds, training aid, orientation, training exercise, and military advice.
(a) Technical data means for purposes of this subchapter:
(1) Information, other than software as defined in § 120.40(g), which is required for the design, development, production, manufacture, assembly, operation, repair, testing, maintenance, or modification of defense articles. This includes information in the form of blueprints, drawings, photographs, plans, instructions, or documentation;
(2) Classified information relating to defense articles and defense services on the U.S. Munitions List and 600-series items controlled by the Commerce Control List;
(3) Information covered by an invention secrecy order; or
(4) Software (see § 120.40(g)) directly related to defense articles.
(b) The definition in paragraph (a) of this section does not include information concerning general scientific, mathematical, or engineering principles commonly taught in schools, colleges, and universities, or information in the public domain as defined in § 120.34 or telemetry data as defined in note 3 to Category XV(f) of § 121.1 of this subchapter. It also does not include basic marketing information on function or purpose or general system descriptions of defense articles.
(a) Public domain means information which is published and which is generally accessible or available to the public:
(1) Through sales at newsstands and bookstores;
(2) Through subscriptions which are available without restriction to any individual who desires to obtain or purchase the published information;
(3) Through second class mailing privileges granted by the U.S. Government;
(4) At libraries open to the public or from which the public can obtain documents;
(5) Through patents available at any patent office;
(6) Through unlimited distribution at a conference, meeting, seminar, trade show, or exhibition, generally accessible to the public, in the United States;
(7) Through public release (i.e., unlimited distribution) in any form (e.g., not necessarily in published form) after approval by the cognizant U.S. Government department or agency (see also § 125.4(b)(13) of this subchapter); or
(8) Through fundamental research in science and engineering at accredited institutions of higher learning in the U.S. where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly in the scientific community. Fundamental research is defined to mean basic and applied research in science and engineering where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly within the scientific community, as distinguished from research the results of which are restricted for proprietary reasons or specific U.S. Government access and dissemination controls. University research will not be considered fundamental research if:
(i) The University or its researchers accept other restrictions on publication of scientific and technical information resulting from the project or activity; or
(ii) The research is funded by the U.S. Government and specific access and dissemination controls protecting information resulting from the research are applicable.
(a) Significant military equipment means articles for which special export controls are warranted because of their capacity for substantial military utility or capability.
(b) Significant military equipment includes:
(1) Items in § 121.1 of this subchapter that are preceded by an asterisk; and
(2) All classified articles enumerated in § 121.1 of this subchapter.
Major defense equipment, pursuant to section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2794(6)), means any item of significant military equipment on the U.S. Munitions List having a nonrecurring research and development cost of more than $50,000,000 or a total production cost of more than $200,000,000.
Classified means classified pursuant to Executive Order 13526, or predecessor order, and a security classification guide developed pursuant thereto or equivalent, or to the corresponding classification rules of another government or international organization.
Foreign defense article or defense service means any article or service described on the U.S. Munitions List of non-U.S. origin. Unless otherwise provided in this subchapter, the terms defense article and defense service refer to both U.S. and foreign origin defense articles and defense services described on the U.S. Munitions List. A defense article or defense service is determined exclusively in accordance with the Arms Export Control Act and this subchapter, regardless of any designation (either affirming or contrary) that may be attributed to the same article or service by any foreign government or international organization.
(a) Commodity means any article, material, or supply, except technology/technical data or software.
(b) An end-item is a system, equipment, or an assembled article ready for its intended use. Only ammunition or fuel or other energy source is required to place it in an operating state.
(c) A component is an item that is useful only when used in conjunction with an end-item:
(1) A major component includes any assembled element that forms a portion of an end-item without which the end-item is inoperable; and
(2) A minor component includes any assembled element of a major component.
(d) Accessories and attachments are associated articles for any component, equipment, system, or end-item, and which are not necessary for its operation, but which enhance its usefulness or effectiveness.
(e) A part is any single unassembled element of a major or a minor component, accessory, or attachment which is not normally subject to disassembly without the destruction or the impairment of designed use.
(f) Firmware and any related unique support tools (such as computers, linkers, editors, test case generators, diagnostic checkers, library of functions, and system test diagnostics) directly related to equipment or systems covered under any category of the U.S. Munitions List are considered as part of the end-item or component. Firmware includes but is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed.
(g) Software includes but is not limited to the system functional design, logic flow, algorithms, application programs, operating systems, and support software for design, implementation, test, operation, diagnosis, and repair. A person who intends to export only software should, unless it is specifically enumerated in § 121.1 of this subchapter (e.g., USML Category XIII(b)), apply for a technical data license pursuant to part 125 of this subchapter.
(h) A system is a combination of parts, components, accessories, attachments, firmware, software, equipment, or end-items that operate together to perform a function.
The industrial standards established by the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) provide examples for when commodities and software operate together to perform a function as a system.
(i) Equipment is a combination of parts, components, accessories, attachments, firmware, or software that operate together to perform a function of, as, or for an end-item or system. Equipment may be a subset of an end-item based on the characteristics of the equipment. Equipment that meets the definition of an end-item in paragraph (b) of this section is an end-item. Equipment that does not meet the definition of an end-item is a component, accessory, attachment, firmware, or software.
(a) Except for commodities or software described in paragraph (b) of this section, a commodity or software is specially designed if it:
(1) As a result of development, has properties peculiarly responsible for achieving or exceeding the controlled performance levels, characteristics, or functions described in the relevant U.S. Munitions List (USML) paragraph in § 121.1 of this subchapter; or
An example of a commodity that as a result of development has properties peculiarly responsible for achieving or exceeding the controlled performance levels, functions, or characteristics in a USML category would be a swimmer delivery vehicle specially designed to dock with a submarine to provide submerged transport for swimmers or divers from submarines.
(2) Is a part, component, accessory, attachment, or software for use in or with a defense article.
(b) For purposes of this subchapter, a part, component, accessory, attachment, or software is not specially designed if it:
(1) Is subject to the EAR pursuant to a commodity jurisdiction determination;
(2) Is, regardless of form or fit, a fastener (e.g., screws, bolts, nuts, nut plates, studs, inserts, clips, rivets, pins), washer, spacer, insulator, grommet, bushing, spring, wire, or solder;
(3) Has the same function, performance capabilities, and the same or equivalent form and fit as a commodity or software used in or with a commodity that:
(i) Is or was in production (i.e., not in development); and
(ii) Is not enumerated on the USML;
(4) Was or is being developed with knowledge that it is or would be for use in or with both defense articles enumerated on the USML and also commodities not on the USML; or
(5) Was or is being developed as a general purpose commodity or software, i.e., with no knowledge for use in or with a particular commodity (e.g., a F/A-18 or HMMWV) or type of commodity (e.g., an aircraft or machine tool).
For a defense article not to be specially designed on the basis of paragraph (b)(4) or (5) of this section, documents contemporaneous with its development, in their totality, must establish the elements of paragraph (b)(4) or (5). Such documents may include concept design information, marketing plans, declarations in patent applications, or contracts. Absent such documents, the commodity may not be excluded from being specially designed by either paragraph (b)(4) or (5).
For the purpose of paragraphs (b)(4) and (5) of this section, “knowledge” includes not only the positive knowledge a circumstance exists or is substantially certain to occur, but also an awareness of a high probability of its existence or future occurrence. Such awareness is inferred from evidence of the conscious disregard of facts known to a person and is also inferred from a person's willful avoidance of facts.
§ 120.42 - Form, fit, function, performance capability, equivalent, enumerated, and catch-all control.
(a) Form. The form of a commodity is defined by its configuration (including the geometrically measured configuration), material, and material properties that uniquely characterize it. For software, the form means the design, logic flow, and algorithms.
(b) Fit. The fit of a commodity is defined by its ability to physically interface or connect with or become an integral part of another commodity. For software, the fit is defined by its ability to interface or connect with a defense article.
(c) Function. The function of a commodity is the action or actions it is designed to perform. For software, the function means the action or actions the software performs directly related to a defense article or as a standalone application.
(d) Performance capability. Performance capability is the measure of a commodity's effectiveness to perform a designated function in a given environment (e.g., measured in terms of speed, durability, reliability, pressure, accuracy, efficiency). For software, performance capability means the measure of the software's effectiveness to perform a designated function.
(e) Equivalent. With respect to a commodity, equivalent means its form has been modified solely for fit purposes.
(f) Enumerated. Enumerated refers to any item designated on the U.S. Munitions List or item on the Commerce Control List and not in a catch-all control.
(g) Catch-all control. A catch-all control is one that does not refer to specific types of parts, components, accessories, or attachments, but rather controls unspecified parts, components, accessories, or attachments only if they were specially designed for an enumerated item.
(a) Development is related to all stages prior to serial production, such as design, design research, design analyses, design concepts, assembly and testing of prototypes, pilot production schemes, design data, process of transforming design data into a product, configuration design, integration design, and layouts. Development includes modification of an existing design.
(b)(1) Production means all production stages, such as product engineering, manufacture, integration, assembly (mounting), inspection, testing, and quality assurance. This includes serial production where commodities have passed production readiness testing (i.e., an approved, standardized design ready for large scale production) and have been or are being produced on an assembly line for multiple commodities using the approved, standardized design.
(2) Commodities in production that are subsequently subject to development activities, such as those that would result in enhancements or improvements only in the reliability or maintainability of the commodity (e.g., an increased mean time between failure), including those pertaining to quality improvements, cost reductions, or feature enhancements, remain in production. However, any new models or versions of such commodities developed from such efforts that change the basic performance or capability of the commodity are in development until and unless they enter into production.
(c) Design methodology includes the underlying engineering methods and design philosophy utilized (i.e., information that explains the rationale for a particular design decision, engineering feature, or performance requirement); engineering experience (e.g., lessons learned); and the rationale and associated databases (e.g., design allowables, factors of safety, component life predictions, failure analysis criteria) that establish the operational requirements (e.g., performance, mechanical, electrical, electronic, reliability and maintainability) of a defense article. (Final analytical results and the initial conditions and parameters may be provided.)
(d) Engineering analysis includes the analytical methods and tools used to design or evaluate a defense article's performance against the operational requirements. Analytical methods and tools include the development and/or use of mockups, computer models and simulations, and test facilities. (Final analytical results and the initial conditions and parameters may be provided.)
(e) Manufacturing know-how includes information that provides detailed manufacturing processes and techniques needed to translate a detailed design into a qualified, finished defense article. (Information may be provided in a build-to-print package that is necessary in order to produce an acceptable defense article.)
(f) Build-to-print means that a foreign consignee can produce a defense article from engineering drawings without any technical assistance from a U.S. exporter. This transaction is based strictly on a hands-off approach since the foreign consignee is understood to have the inherent capability to produce the defense article and only lacks the necessary drawings. Supporting documentation (e.g., acceptance criteria, object code software for numerically controlled machines) may be released on an as-required basis (i.e., must have) such that the foreign consignee would not be able to produce an acceptable defense article without this additional supporting documentation. Build-to-print does not include the release of any information which discloses design methodology, engineering analysis, detailed process information or manufacturing know-how. Documentation which is not absolutely necessary to permit manufacture of an acceptable defense article (i.e. nice to have) is not considered within the boundaries of a build-to-print data package.
(g) Build/design-to-specification means that a foreign consignee can design and produce a defense article from requirement specifications without any technical assistance from the U.S. exporter. This transaction is based strictly on a hands-off approach since the foreign consignee is understood to have the inherent capability to both design and produce the defense article and only lacks the necessary requirement information.
(h) Basic research means a systemic study directed toward greater knowledge or understanding of the fundamental aspects of phenomena and observable facts without specific applications towards processes or products in mind. It does not include applied research.
(i) Applied research means a systemic study to gain knowledge or understanding necessary to determine the means by which a recognized and specific need may be met. It is a systematic application of knowledge toward the production of useful materials, devices, and systems or methods, including design, development, and improvement of prototypes and new processes to meet specific requirements.
(a) Organizational-level maintenance (or basic-level maintenance) is the first level of maintenance that can be performed on-equipment (directly on the defense article or support equipment) without specialized training. It consists of repairing, inspecting, servicing, calibrating, lubricating, or adjusting equipment, as well as replacing minor parts, components, assemblies, and line-replaceable spares or units. This includes modifications, enhancements, or upgrades that would result in improving only the reliability or maintainability of the commodity (e.g., an increased mean time between failure) and does not enhance the basic performance or capability of the defense article.
(b) Intermediate-level maintenance is second-level maintenance performed off-equipment (on removed parts, components, or equipment) at or by designated maintenance shops or centers, tenders, or field teams. It may consist of calibrating, repairing, testing, or replacing damaged or unserviceable parts, components, or assemblies. This includes modifications, enhancements, or upgrades that would result in improving only the reliability or maintainability of the commodity (e.g., an increased mean time between failure) and does not enhance the basic performance or capability of the defense article.
(c) Depot-level maintenance is third-level maintenance performed on- or off-equipment at or by a major repair facility, shipyard, or field team, each with necessary equipment and personnel of requisite technical skill. It consists of providing evaluation or repair beyond unit or organization capability. This maintenance consists of inspecting, testing, calibrating, repairing, overhauling, refurbishing, reconditioning, and one-to-one replacing of any defective parts, components, or assemblies. This includes modifications, enhancements, or upgrades that would result in improving only the reliability or maintainability of the commodity (e.g., an increased mean time between failure) and does not enhance the basic performance or capability of the defense article.
(a) Export, except as set forth in § 120.54 or § 126.16 or § 126.17 of this subchapter, means:
(1) An actual shipment or transmission out of the United States, including the sending or taking of a defense article out of the United States in any manner;
(2) Releasing or otherwise transferring technical data to a foreign person in the United States (a deemed export);
(3) Transferring registration, control, or ownership of any aircraft, vessel, or satellite subject to this subchapter by a U.S. person to a foreign person;
(4) Releasing or otherwise transferring a defense article to an embassy or to any of its agencies or subdivisions, such as a diplomatic mission or consulate, in the United States;
(5) Performing a defense service on behalf of, or for the benefit of, a foreign person, whether in the United States or abroad; or
(6) The release of previously encrypted technical data as described in § 120.56(a)(3) and (4).
(b) Any release in the United States of technical data to a foreign person is deemed to be an export to all countries in which the foreign person has held or holds citizenship or holds permanent residency.
(a) Reexport, except as set forth in § 120.54 or § 126.16 or § 126.17 of this subchapter, means:
(1) An actual shipment or transmission of a defense article from one foreign country to another foreign country, including the sending or taking of a defense article to or from such countries in any manner;
(2) Releasing or otherwise transferring technical data to a foreign person who is a citizen or permanent resident of a country other than the foreign country where the release or transfer takes place (a deemed reexport); or
(3) Transferring registration, control, or ownership of any aircraft, vessel, or satellite subject to this subchapter between foreign persons.
(b) Any release outside the United States of technical data to a foreign person is deemed to be a reexport to all countries in which the foreign person has held or holds citizenship or holds permanent residency.
(a) Retransfer, except as set forth in § 120.54 or § 126.16 or § 126.17 of this subchapter, means:
(1) A change in end-use or end-user, or a temporary transfer to a third party, of a defense article within the same foreign country; or
(2) A release of technical data to a foreign person who is a citizen or permanent resident of the country where the release or transfer takes place.
(a) Temporary import, except as set forth in § 120.54, means bringing into the United States from a foreign country any defense article that is:
(1) To be returned to the country from which it was shipped or taken; or
(2) Any defense article that is in transit to another foreign destination.
(b) Temporary import includes withdrawal of a defense article from a customs bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone for the purpose of returning it to the country of origin or country from which it was shipped or for shipment to another foreign destination.
(c) Permanent imports are regulated by the Attorney General under the direction of the Department of Justice's Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (see 27 CFR parts 447, 478, 479, and 555).
(a) The following activities are not exports, reexports, retransfers, or temporary imports:
(1) Launching a spacecraft, launch vehicle, payload, or other item into space;
(2) Transmitting or otherwise transferring technical data to a U.S. person in the United States from a person in the United States;
(3) Transmitting or otherwise transferring within the same foreign country technical data between or among only U.S. persons, so long as the transmission or transfer does not result in a release to a foreign person or transfer to a person prohibited from receiving the technical data;
(4) Shipping, moving, or transferring defense articles between or among the United States as defined in § 120.60;
(5) Sending, taking, or storing technical data that is:
(ii) Secured using end-to-end encryption;
(iii) Secured using cryptographic modules (hardware or software) compliant with the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 140-2 (FIPS 140-2) or its successors, supplemented by software implementation, cryptographic key management and other procedures and controls that are in accordance with guidance provided in current U.S. National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) publications, or by other cryptographic means that provide security strength that is at least comparable to the minimum 128 bits of security strength achieved by the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-128); and
(iv) Not intentionally sent to a person in or stored in a country proscribed in § 126.1 of this subchapter or the Russian Federation; and
Data in-transit via the internet is not deemed to be stored.
(v) Not sent from a country proscribed in § 126.1 of this subchapter or the Russian Federation.
(b)(1) For purposes of this section, end-to-end encryption is defined as:
(i) The provision of cryptographic protection of data, such that the data is not in an unencrypted form, between an originator (or the originator's in-country security boundary) and an intended recipient (or the recipient's in-country security boundary); and
(ii) The means of decryption are not provided to any third party.
(2) The originator and the intended recipient may be the same person. The intended recipient must be the originator, a U.S. person in the United States, or a person otherwise authorized to receive the technical data, such as by a license or other approval pursuant to this subchapter.
(c) The ability to access technical data in encrypted form that satisfies the criteria set forth in paragraph (a)(5) of this section does not constitute the release or export of such technical data.
Access information is information that allows access to encrypted technical data subject to this subchapter in an unencrypted form. Examples include decryption keys, network access codes, and passwords.
(a) Release. Technical data is released through:
(1) Visual or other inspection by foreign persons of a defense article that reveals technical data to a foreign person;
(2) Oral or written exchanges with foreign persons of technical data in the United States or abroad;
(3) The use of access information to cause or enable a foreign person, including yourself, to access, view, or possess unencrypted technical data; or
(4) The use of access information to cause technical data outside of the United States to be in unencrypted form.
(b) Provision of access information. Authorization for a release of technical data to a foreign person is required to provide access information to that foreign person, if that access information can cause or enable access, viewing, or possession of the unencrypted technical data.
(a) License means a document bearing the word “license” issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Defense Trade Controls, or authorized designee, that permits the export, reexport, retransfer, temporary import, or brokering of a specific defense article or defense service controlled by this subchapter.
(b) Other approval means a document, other than a license, issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Defense Trade Controls, or authorized designee, that approves an activity regulated by this subchapter (e.g., approvals for brokering activities or retransfer authorizations), or the use of an exemption to the license requirements as described in this subchapter.
(c) Exemption means a provision of this subchapter that authorizes the export, reexport, retransfer, temporary import, or brokering of a specific defense article or defense service without a license or other written authorization.
(d) Manufacturing license agreement means an agreement (e.g., contract), approved by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC), whereby a U.S. person grants a foreign person an authorization to manufacture defense articles abroad and which involves or contemplates:
(1) The export of technical data or defense articles or the performance of a defense service; or
(2) The use by the foreign person of technical data or defense articles previously exported by the U.S. person.
(e) Technical assistance agreement means an agreement (e.g., contract), approved by DDTC, for the performance of a defense service(s) or the disclosure of technical data, as opposed to an agreement granting a right or license to manufacture defense articles. Assembly of defense articles is included under this section, provided production rights or manufacturing know-how are not conveyed. Should such rights be transferred, paragraph (d) of this section is applicable.
(f) Distribution agreement means an agreement (e.g., a contract), approved by DDTC, to establish a warehouse or distribution point abroad for defense articles exported from the United States for subsequent distribution to entities in an approved sales territory.
Items subject to the EAR are those items listed on the Commerce Control List in part 774 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and all other items that meet the definition of that term in accordance with § 734.3 of the EAR. The EAR is found at 15 CFR parts 730 through 774.
United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, any territory or possession of the United States, and any territory or possession over which the United States exercises any powers of administration, legislation, and jurisdiction.
Person means a natural person as well as a corporation, business association, partnership, society, trust, or any other entity, organization or group, including governmental entities. If a provision in this subchapter does not refer exclusively to a foreign person or U.S. person, then it refers to both.
U.S. person means a person who is a lawful permanent resident as defined by 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(20) or who is a protected individual as defined by 8 U.S.C. 1324b(a)(3). It also means any corporation, business association, partnership, society, trust, or any other entity, organization, or group that is incorporated to do business in the United States. It also includes any governmental (Federal, state, or local) entity. It does not include any foreign person as defined in § 120.63.
Foreign person means any natural person who is not a lawful permanent resident as defined by 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(20) or who is not a protected individual as defined by 8 U.S.C. 1324b(a)(3). It also means any foreign corporation, business association, partnership, trust, society, or any other entity or group that is not incorporated or organized to do business in the United States, as well as international organizations, foreign governments, and any agency or subdivision of foreign governments (e.g., diplomatic missions).
(a) Regular employee means:
(1) An individual permanently and directly employed by the company; or
(2) An individual in a long term contractual relationship with the company where the individual works at the company's facilities, works under the company's direction and control, works full time and exclusively for the company, and executes nondisclosure certifications for the company, and where the staffing agency that has seconded the individual has no role in the work the individual performs (other than providing that individual for that work) and the staffing agency would not have access to any controlled technology (other than where specifically authorized by a license).
(a) Foreign ownership means more than 50 percent of the outstanding voting securities of the firm are owned by one or more foreign persons.
(b) Foreign control means one or more foreign persons have the authority or ability to establish or direct the general policies or day-to-day operations of the firm. Foreign control is presumed to exist where foreign persons own 25 percent or more of the outstanding voting securities unless one U.S. person controls an equal or larger percentage.
(a) Affiliate (of a registrant) means a person that directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, or is controlled by, or is under common control with, such registrant.
(b) For purposes of this section, “control” means having the authority or ability to establish or direct the general policies or day-to-day operations of the firm. Control is rebuttably presumed to exist where there is ownership of 25 percent or more of the outstanding voting securities if no other person controls an equal or larger percentage.
(a) Empowered official means a U.S. person who:
(1) Is directly employed by the applicant or a subsidiary in a position having authority for policy or management within the applicant organization; and
(2) Is legally empowered in writing by the applicant to sign license applications or other requests for approval on behalf of the applicant; and
(3) Understands the provisions and requirements of the various export control statutes and regulations, and the criminal liability, civil liability, and administrative penalties for violating the Arms Export Control Act and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations in this subchapter; and
(4) Has the independent authority to:
(i) Inquire into any aspect of a proposed export, temporary import, or brokering activity by the applicant;
(ii) Verify the legality of the transaction and the accuracy of the information to be submitted; and
(iii) Refuse to sign any license application or other request for approval without prejudice or other adverse recourse.
(b) For the purposes of a broker who is a foreign person, the empowered official may be a foreign person who otherwise meets the criteria for an empowered official in paragraph (a) of this section.
(a) Party to the export means:
(1) The chief executive officer, president, vice-presidents, other senior officers and officials (e.g., comptroller, treasurer, general counsel), and any member of the board of directors of the applicant;
(2) The freight forwarders or designated exporting agent of the applicant; and
(3) Any consignee or end-user of any item to be exported.