U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Nov 30, 2022
(a) Statutory provisions. Under section 14 of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, and the authority and responsibility delegated to him/her by the Secretary of Labor (36 FR 8755) and by the Assistant Secretary for Employment Standards (39 FR 33841) the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division is authorized and directed, to the extent necessary in order to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment, to provide by regulation or order for the employment, under certificates, of full-time students in retail or service establishments, or in agriculture. That section contains provisions requiring a wage rate in such certificates of not less than 85 percent of the minimum wage applicable under section 6 of the Act, limiting weekly hours of employment, stipulating compliance with the applicable child-labor standards, and safeguarding against the reduction of the full-time employment opportunities of employees other than full-time students employed under certificates.
(b) Source of limitations. Some of the limitations in this subpart are specifically required in section 14(b) of the Act. The other limitations implement the provisions in that section relating to employment opportunities, i.e., the “extent necessary to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment” and the avoidance of a “substantial probability of reducing the full-time employment opportunities of persons other than those to whom the minimum wage rate authorized” under section 14(b) is applicable.
(a) Full-time students. A full-time student for the purpose of this subpart is defined as a student who receives primarily daytime instruction at the physical location of a bona fide educational institution, in accordance with the institution's accepted definition of a full-time student. A full-time student retains that status during the student's Christmas, summer and other vacations. An individual who was such a student immediately prior to vacation will be presumed not to have discontinued such status during vacation if local law requires his/her attendance at the end of the vacation. In the absence of such requirement his/her status during vacation will be governed by his/her intention as last communicated to his/her employer. The phrase in section 14(b) of the statute “regardless of age but in compliance with applicable child-labor laws,” among other things, restricts the employment in a retail or service establishment to full-time students who are at least 14 years of age because of the application of section 3(1) of the Act. There is a minimum age requirement of 16 years in agriculture for employment during school hours and in any occupation declared hazardous by the Secretary of Labor (subpart E-1 of part 570 of this title.) In addition, there is a minimum age restriction of 14 years generally for employment in agriculture of a full-time student outside school hours for the school district where such employee is living while so employed, except (1) Minors 12 or 13 years of age may be employed with written parental or guardian consent or they may work on farms where their parents or guardians are employed, and (2) minors under 12 may work on farms owned or operated by their parents or with parental or guardian consent on farms whose employees are exempt from section 6 by section 13 (a)(6)(A) of the Act.
(b) Bona fide educational institution. A bona fide educational institution is ordinarily an accredited institution. However, a school which is not accredited may be considered a bona fide educational institution in exceptional circumstances, such as when the school is too recently established to have received accreditation.
(c) Retail or service establishment. Retail or service establishment means a retail or service establishment as defined in section 13(a)(2) of the Fair Labor Standards Act. The statutory definition is interpreted in part 779 of this chapter.
(d) Agriculture. Agriculture means agriculture as defined in section 3(f) of the Fair Labor Standards Act. The statutory definition is interpreted in part 780 of this chapter.
(e) Student hours of employment. Student hours of employment means hours during which students are employed under full-time student certificates issued under this part and is distinguished from hours of employment of students.
(f) Employer. Section 519.4 permits an agricultural or retail or service establishment employer to employ not more than six full-time students at subminimum wages on forwarding an application but before certification. For this purpose, the term employer looks to the highest structure of ownership or control, and hence may be more than a single retail or service establishment or farm, e.g., the controlling conglomerate or enterprise would be the employer. With respect to public employers who operate retail or service establishments (see 29 CFR part 779), the employer means the highest structure of control such as the State, municipality, county or other political subdivision.
(a) Whenever the employment of full-time students working outside of school hours in agriculture or in a retail or service establishment at wages lower than the minimum applicable under section 6 of the Fair Labor Standards Act is believed to be necessary to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment and employment of them will not create a substantial probability of reducing the full-time employment opportunities of the other workers, an application for a certificate may be filed by their employer with the appropriate Regional Office of the Wage and Hour Division (or the Denver, Colorado Area Office for Colorado, North Dakota, and South Dakota; the Salt Lake City, Utah area Office for Montana, Utah, and Wyoming; and the Caribbean Office for the area it covers). Such application shall be signed by an authorized representative of the employer.
(b) The application must be filed in duplicate on official forms or exact copies thereof. The forms are available at the offices mentioned in paragraph (a) of this section. The application must contain the information as to the type of products sold or services rendered by the establishment, hours of employment during the preceding twelve-month period or data from previous certificates (or applications) as pertinent to the application, and other information for which request is made on the form.
(c) Separate application must be made for each farm or establishment in which authority to employ full-time students at subminimum wage rates is sought.
(d) Application for renewal of a certificate shall be made either on the same type of form as is used for a new application or on an alternate official form. No certificate in effect shall expire until action on such an application shall have been finally determined, provided that such application has been properly executed, and is received by the office specified in paragraph (a) of this section not less than 15 nor more than 30 days prior to the expiration date. A properly executed application is one which fully and accurately contains the information required on the form, and the required certification by an authorized representative of the employer.
(a) Under certain conditions, an agricultural or retail or service establishment employer may obtain temporary authorization to employ full-time students at subminimum wages. These conditions are: (1) Attestation by the employer that he/she will employ no more than six full-time students at subminimum wages on any workday and that the employment of such students will not reduce the full-time employment opportunities of other persons, and (2) forwarding a properly completed application to the Wage and Hour Division not later than the start of such employment, and (3) posting a notice of such filing at the place(s) specified in paragraph (a) of § 519.6 of this subpart, and (4) compliance during the temporary authorization period with the requirements set forth in paragraphs (b) and (j) through (o) of § 519.6 of this subpart.
(b) Temporary authorization under the conditions set forth in paragraph (a) of this section is effective from the date the application is forwarded to the Wage and Hour Division in conformance with § 519.3 of this subpart. This authorization shall continue in effect for one year from the date of forwarding of the application unless, within 30 days the Administrator or his/her authorized representative denies the application, issues a certificate with modified terms and conditions, or expressly extends the 30-day period of review.
(c) Upon receipt of an application for a certificate, the officer authorized to act upon such application shall issue a certificate if the terms and conditions specified in this subpart are satisfied. To the extent he/she deems appropriate, the authorized officer may provide an opportunity to other interested persons to present data, views, or argument on the application prior to granting or denying a certificate.
(d) Until April 30, 1976, if a certificate is issued, there shall be published in the
(e) If a certificate is denied, notice of such denial shall be sent to the employer, stating the reason or reasons for the denial. Such denial shall be without prejudice to the filing of any subsequent application.
Certificates authorizing the employment of full-time students at subminimum wage rates shall not be issued unless the following conditions are met:
(a) Full-time students are available for employment at subminimum rates; the granting of a certificate is necessary in order to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment.
(b) The employment of more than six full-time students by an employer will not create a substantial probability of reducing the full-time employment opportunities for persons other than those employed under such certificates.
(c) Abnormal labor conditions such as a strike or lockout do not exist at the farm or establishment for which a full-time student certificate is requested.
(d) The data given on the application are accurate and based on available records.
(e) The farms or establishments on whose experience the applicant relies meet the requirements of paragraph (h) of § 519.6.
(f) There are no serious outstanding violations of the provisions of a full-time student certificate previously issued to the employer, nor have there been any serious violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act (including Child-Labor Regulation No. 3 and the Hazardous Occupations Orders published in part 570 of this chapter) which provide reasonable grounds to conclude that the terms of a certificate may not be compiled with, if issued.
(g) The subminimum wage rate(s) proposed to be paid full-time students under temporary authorization or under certificate is not less than 85 percent of the minimum wage applicable under section 6 of the Act.
(h) Certificates will not be issued where such issuance will result in a reduction of the wage rate paid to a current employee, including current student employees.
§ 519.6 - Terms and conditions of employment under full-time student certificates and under temporary authorization.
(a) A full-time student certificate will not be issued for a period longer than 1 year, nor will it be issued retroactively. It shall specify its effective and expiration dates. A copy of the certificate shall be posted during its effective period in a conspicuous place or places in the establishment or at the farm readily visable to all employees, for example, adjacent to the time clock or on the bulletin board used for notices to the employees. If temporary authorization is in effect under paragraph (a) of § 519.4 of this subpart, a notice thereof shall be similarly posted during the effective period of such authorization.
(b) Full-time students may not be employed under a certificate at less than 85 percent of the minimum wage applicable under section 6 of the Act.
(c) For retail or service establishment employers or agricultural employers, the allowable extent of full-time student employment under certificates varies depending on whether: (1) The employer proposes to employ no more than six full-time students at subminimum wages on any workday, (2) the applicant requests authority for not more than 10 percent of the total hours of all employees during any month, or (3) the applicant requests authority for more than 10 percent of the total hours during any month. (For agricultural employers, the month of full-time student certificated employment may vary somewhat from the month in a previous year on which the certificate is based, depending on seasonal factors.)
(d) Retail or service establishment employers or agricultural employers requesting authorization to employ not more than six full-time students at subminimum wages on any workday. An application from such an applicant provides temporary authorization for the employment of full-time students at subminimum wages: Provided, The conditions set forth in paragraph (a) of § 519.4 of this subpart are met. Upon review of the application by the Administration or his/her authorized representative, the extent of the temporary authority may be modified.
(e) Applicants requesting authorization for not more than 10 percent of the total hours of all employees during any month. For such an applicant, certificates may authorize the employment of full-time student at subminimum wages for up to 10 percent of the total hours of all employees during any month, regardless of past practice of employing students. (Note: An establishment which has not previously held a certificate may be authorized 10 percent of the total hours of all employees during any month. Applicants requesting authority under this paragraph need not refer to paragraphs (f), (g), or (h) of this section.)
(f) Applicants requesting authorization for more than 10 percent of the total monthly hours of all employees during any month with records of hours of employment of students and coverage by the Act prior to May 1974. For such an applicant, certificates may not authorize full-time student employment at subminimum wages in excess of the highest ratio under any of these three formulas: (1) The proportion of student hours of employment (i.e., of full-time students under certificates) to total hours of all employees for the corresponding month of the preceding twelve-month period; (2) the maximum proportion of student hours of employment to total hours of all employees (in any corresponding month), applicable to the issuance of full-time student certificates before May 1974; or (3) 10 percent of the total hours of all employees, during any month. (Note: An establishment which is entitled to monthly allowances ranging from 5 to 20 percent may be authorized 10 percent for those months which were less than 10 percent and retain the higher allowances for those months above 10 percent.)
(g) Applicants requesting authorization for more than 10 percent of the total hours of all employees during any month with records of hours of employment of students and new coverage under the 1974 Amendments. For such an applicant, the highest permissible allowance under a certificate during any month is the highest ratio under any of these three formulas:
(1) The proportion of hours of employment of full-time students to total hours of all employees during the corresponding month from May 1973 through April 1974;
(2) The proportion of student hours of employment (i.e., of hours of full-time students under certificates) to total hours of all employees during the corresponding month of the preceding twelve-month period (an alternative which is not applicable to all months of the year until 12 months after May 1, 1974); or
(3) 10 percent of the total hours of all employees, during any month. (See notes under paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section.)
(h) Applicants requesting authorization for more than 10 percent of the total hours of all employees during any month without records of student hours worked. For such an applicant, the permissible proportion under certificate of full-time student hours at subminimum wages to total hours of all employees is based on the “practice” during the preceding twelve-month period of: (1) Similar establishments of the same employer in the same general metropolitan areas in which such establishment is located: (2) similar establishments in the same or nearby communities if such establishment is not in a metropolitan area; or (3) other establishments of the same general character operating in the community or the nearest comparable community. (“Practice” means either the certificate allowances or the proportion between the actual student hours of employment to the total hours of all employees.)
(i) An overestimate of total hours of employment of all employees for a current month resulting in the employment of the full-time students in excess of the hours authorized in paragraph (e), (f), (g), or (h) of this section may be corrected by compensating them for the difference between the subminimum wages actually paid and the applicable minimum under section 6 of the Act for the excess hours. Similarly, if an agricultural employer or a retail or service establishment employer has authorization to employ no more than six full-time students at subminimum wages on any workday but exceeds that number, the excess may be corrected by compensating the additional full-time students for the difference between the subminimum wages actually paid and the applicable minimum under section 6 of the Act. This additional compensation shall be paid on the regular payday next after the end of the period.
(j) Full-time students shall not be permitted to work at subminimum wages for more than 8 hours a day, nor for more than 40 hours a week when school is not in session, nor more than 20 hours a week when school is in session (apart from a full-time student's summer vacation), except that when a full-day school holiday occurs on a day when the establishment is open for business, the weekly limitation on the maximum number of hours which may be worked shall be increased by 8 hours for each such holiday but in no event shall the 40-hour limitation be exceeded. (Note: School is considered to be in session for a student attending summer school.) Whenever a full-time student is employed for more than 20 hours in any workweek in conformance with this paragraph, the employer shall note in his/her payroll records that school was not in session during all or part of that workweek or the student was in his/her summer vacation.
(k) Neither oppressive child labor as defined in section 3(1) of the Act and regulations issued under the Act nor any other employment in violation of a Federal, State or local child labor law or ordinance shall come within the terms of any certificate issued under this subpart.
(l) Full-time students shall be employed at subminimum wages under this subpart only outside of their school hours, i.e., only outside of the scheduled hours of instruction of the individual student, or, in the case of agriculture, only outside of school hours for the school district where the employee is living while so employed, if the employee is under 16 years of age.
(m) No full-time student shall be hired under a full-time student certificate while abnormal labor conditions, such as a strike or lockout, exist at the establishment or farm.
(n) No provision of any full-time student certificate shall excuse noncompliance with higher standards applicable to full-time students which may be established under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act or any other Federal law, State law, local ordinance, or union or other agreement. Thus, certificates issued under this law have no application to employment under the Service Contract Act.
(o) No full-time student certificate shall apply to any employee to whom a certificate issued under section 14 (a) or (c) of the Act has application.
(a) The employer shall designate each worker employed as a full-time student under a full-time student certificate at subminimum wages, as provided under part 516 of this chapter.
(b)(1) In addition to the records required under part 516 of this chapter and this subpart, the employer shall keep the records specified in paragraph (b) (2) and (3) of this section specifically relating to full-time students employed at subminimum wages.
(2) The employer shall obtain at the time of hiring and keep in his records information from the school attended that the employee receives primarily daytime instruction at the physical location of the school in accordance with the school's accepted definition of a full-time student. During a period between attendance at different schools not longer than the usual summer vacation, a certificate from the school next to be attended that the student has been accepted as a full-time student will satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (b)(2).
(3) The employer operating any farm or retail or service establishment shall maintain records of the monthly hours of employment of full-time students at subminimum wages and of the total hours of employment during the month of all employees in the establishment except for those employed in agriculture who come within one of the other exemptions from the minimum wage provisions of the Act.
(c) The records required in this section, including a copy of any full-time student certificate issued, shall be kept for a period of 3 years at the place and made available for inspection, both as provided in part 516 of this chapter.
In the absence of an objection by the employer (which may be resolved in the manner provided in part 528 of this chapter), the authorized officer upon his/her own motion may amend the provisions of a certificate when it is necessary by reason of the amendment of these regulations, or may withdraw a certificate and issue a replacement certificate when necessary to correct omissions or apparent defects in the original certificate.
(a) Within 15 days after being informed of a denial of an application for a full-time student certificate or within 45 days after
(1) File a written request for reconsideration thereof by the authorized officer who made the decision in the first instance, or
(2) File with the Administrator a written request for review.
(b) A request for reconsideration shall be accompanied by a statement of the additional evidence which the applicant believes may materially affect the decision and a showing that there were reasonable grounds for failure to present such evidence in the original proceedings.
(c) Any person aggrieved by the reconsideration determination of an authorized officer may, within 15 days after such determination, file with the Administrator a written request for review.
(d) A request for review shall be granted where reasonable grounds for the review are set forth in the request.
(e) If a request for reconsideration or review is granted, the authorized officer or the Administrator may, to the extent he/she deems it appropriate, afford other interested persons an opportunity to present data, views, or argument.