U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Nov 30, 2022

§ 112.8 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore facilities (excluding production facilities).

If you are the owner or operator of an onshore facility (excluding a production facility), you must:

(a) Meet the general requirements for the Plan listed under § 112.7, and the specific discharge prevention and containment procedures listed in this section.

(b) Facility drainage. (1) Restrain drainage from diked storage areas by valves to prevent a discharge into the drainage system or facility effluent treatment system, except where facility systems are designed to control such discharge. You may empty diked areas by pumps or ejectors; however, you must manually activate these pumps or ejectors and must inspect the condition of the accumulation before starting, to ensure no oil will be discharged.

(2) Use valves of manual, open-and-closed design, for the drainage of diked areas. You may not use flapper-type drain valves to drain diked areas. If your facility drainage drains directly into a watercourse and not into an on-site wastewater treatment plant, you must inspect and may drain uncontaminated retained stormwater, as provided in paragraphs (c)(3)(ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section.

(3) Design facility drainage systems from undiked areas with a potential for a discharge (such as where piping is located outside containment walls or where tank truck discharges may occur outside the loading area) to flow into ponds, lagoons, or catchment basins designed to retain oil or return it to the facility. You must not locate catchment basins in areas subject to periodic flooding.

(4) If facility drainage is not engineered as in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, equip the final discharge of all ditches inside the facility with a diversion system that would, in the event of an uncontrolled discharge, retain oil in the facility.

(5) Where drainage waters are treated in more than one treatment unit and such treatment is continuous, and pump transfer is needed, provide two “lift” pumps and permanently install at least one of the pumps. Whatever techniques you use, you must engineer facility drainage systems to prevent a discharge as described in § 112.1(b) in case there is an equipment failure or human error at the facility.

(c) Bulk storage containers. (1) Not use a container for the storage of oil unless its material and construction are compatible with the material stored and conditions of storage such as pressure and temperature.

(2) Construct all bulk storage tank installations (except mobile refuelers and other non-transportation-related tank trucks) so that you provide a secondary means of containment for the entire capacity of the largest single container and sufficient freeboard to contain precipitation. You must ensure that diked areas are sufficiently impervious to contain discharged oil. Dikes, containment curbs, and pits are commonly employed for this purpose. You may also use an alternative system consisting of a drainage trench enclosure that must be arranged so that any discharge will terminate and be safely confined in a facility catchment basin or holding pond.

(3) Not allow drainage of uncontaminated rainwater from the diked area into a storm drain or discharge of an effluent into an open watercourse, lake, or pond, bypassing the facility treatment system unless you:

(i) Normally keep the bypass valve sealed closed.

(ii) Inspect the retained rainwater to ensure that its presence will not cause a discharge as described in § 112.1(b).

(iii) Open the bypass valve and reseal it following drainage under responsible supervision; and

(iv) Keep adequate records of such events, for example, any records required under permits issued in accordance with §§ 122.41(j)(2) and 122.41(m)(3) of this chapter.

(4) Protect any completely buried metallic storage tank installed on or after January 10, 1974 from corrosion by coatings or cathodic protection compatible with local soil conditions. You must regularly leak test such completely buried metallic storage tanks.

(5) Not use partially buried or bunkered metallic tanks for the storage of oil, unless you protect the buried section of the tank from corrosion. You must protect partially buried and bunkered tanks from corrosion by coatings or cathodic protection compatible with local soil conditions.

(6) Test or inspect each aboveground container for integrity on a regular schedule and whenever you make material repairs. You must determine, in accordance with industry standards, the appropriate qualifications for personnel performing tests and inspections, the frequency and type of testing and inspections, which take into account container size, configuration, and design (such as containers that are: shop-built, field-erected, skid-mounted, elevated, equipped with a liner, double-walled, or partially buried). Examples of these integrity tests include, but are not limited to: visual inspection, hydrostatic testing, radiographic testing, ultrasonic testing, acoustic emissions testing, or other systems of non-destructive testing. You must keep comparison records and you must also inspect the container's supports and foundations. In addition, you must frequently inspect the outside of the container for signs of deterioration, discharges, or accumulation of oil inside diked areas. Records of inspections and tests kept under usual and customary business practices satisfy the recordkeeping requirements of this paragraph.

(7) Control leakage through defective internal heating coils by monitoring the steam return and exhaust lines for contamination from internal heating coils that discharge into an open watercourse, or pass the steam return or exhaust lines through a settling tank, skimmer, or other separation or retention system.

(8) Engineer or update each container installation in accordance with good engineering practice to avoid discharges. You must provide at least one of the following devices:

(i) High liquid level alarms with an audible or visual signal at a constantly attended operation or surveillance station. In smaller facilities an audible air vent may suffice.

(ii) High liquid level pump cutoff devices set to stop flow at a predetermined container content level.

(iii) Direct audible or code signal communication between the container gauger and the pumping station.

(iv) A fast response system for determining the liquid level of each bulk storage container such as digital computers, telepulse, or direct vision gauges. If you use this alternative, a person must be present to monitor gauges and the overall filling of bulk storage containers.

(v) You must regularly test liquid level sensing devices to ensure proper operation.

(9) Observe effluent treatment facilities frequently enough to detect possible system upsets that could cause a discharge as described in § 112.1(b).

(10) Promptly correct visible discharges which result in a loss of oil from the container, including but not limited to seams, gaskets, piping, pumps, valves, rivets, and bolts. You must promptly remove any accumulations of oil in diked areas.

(11) Position or locate mobile or portable oil storage containers to prevent a discharge as described in § 112.1(b). Except for mobile refuelers and other non-transportation-related tank trucks, you must furnish a secondary means of containment, such as a dike or catchment basin, sufficient to contain the capacity of the largest single compartment or container with sufficient freeboard to contain precipitation.

(d) Facility transfer operations, pumping, and facility process. (1) Provide buried piping that is installed or replaced on or after August 16, 2002, with a protective wrapping and coating. You must also cathodically protect such buried piping installations or otherwise satisfy the corrosion protection standards for piping in part 280 of this chapter or a State program approved under part 281 of this chapter. If a section of buried line is exposed for any reason, you must carefully inspect it for deterioration. If you find corrosion damage, you must undertake additional examination and corrective action as indicated by the magnitude of the damage.

(2) Cap or blank-flange the terminal connection at the transfer point and mark it as to origin when piping is not in service or is in standby service for an extended time.

(3) Properly design pipe supports to minimize abrasion and corrosion and allow for expansion and contraction.

(4) Regularly inspect all aboveground valves, piping, and appurtenances. During the inspection you must assess the general condition of items, such as flange joints, expansion joints, valve glands and bodies, catch pans, pipeline supports, locking of valves, and metal surfaces. You must also conduct integrity and leak testing of buried piping at the time of installation, modification, construction, relocation, or replacement.

(5) Warn all vehicles entering the facility to be sure that no vehicle will endanger aboveground piping or other oil transfer operations.

[67 FR 47146, July 17, 2002, as amended at 71 FR 77293, Dec. 26, 2006; 73 FR 74304, Dec. 5, 2008]

§ 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and workover facilities).

If you are the owner or operator of an onshore oil production facility (excluding a drilling or workover facility), you must:

(a) Meet the general requirements for the Plan listed under § 112.7, and the specific discharge prevention and containment procedures listed under this section.

(b) Oil production facility drainage. (1) At tank batteries and separation and treating areas where there is a reasonable possibility of a discharge as described in § 112.1(b), close and seal at all times drains of dikes or drains of equivalent measures required under § 112.7(c)(1), except when draining uncontaminated rainwater. Prior to drainage, you must inspect the diked area and take action as provided in § 112.8(c)(3)(ii), (iii), and (iv). You must remove accumulated oil on the rainwater and return it to storage or dispose of it in accordance with legally approved methods.

(2) Inspect at regularly scheduled intervals field drainage systems (such as drainage ditches or road ditches), and oil traps, sumps, or skimmers, for an accumulation of oil that may have resulted from any small discharge. You must promptly remove any accumulations of oil.

(c) Oil production facility bulk storage containers. (1) Not use a container for the storage of oil unless its material and construction are compatible with the material stored and the conditions of storage.

(2) Except as described in paragraph (c)(5) of this section for flow-through process vessels and paragraph (c)(6) of this section for produced water containers and any associated piping and appurtenances downstream from the container, construct all tank battery, separation, and treating facility installations, so that you provide a secondary means of containment for the entire capacity of the largest single container and sufficient freeboard to contain precipitation. You must safely confine drainage from undiked areas in a catchment basin or holding pond.

(3) Except as described in paragraph (c)(5) of this section for flow-through process vessels and paragraph (c)(6) of this section for produced water containers and any associated piping and appurtenances downstream from the container, periodically and upon a regular schedule visually inspect each container of oil for deterioration and maintenance needs, including the foundation and support of each container that is on or above the surface of the ground.

(4) Engineer or update new and old tank battery installations in accordance with good engineering practice to prevent discharges. You must provide at least one of the following:

(i) Container capacity adequate to assure that a container will not overfill if a pumper/gauger is delayed in making regularly scheduled rounds.

(ii) Overflow equalizing lines between containers so that a full container can overflow to an adjacent container.

(iii) Vacuum protection adequate to prevent container collapse during a pipeline run or other transfer of oil from the container.

(iv) High level sensors to generate and transmit an alarm signal to the computer where the facility is subject to a computer production control system.

(5) Flow-through process vessels. The owner or operator of a facility with flow-through process vessels may choose to implement the alternate requirements as described below in lieu of sized secondary containment required in paragraphs (c)(2) and (c)(3) of this section.

(i) Periodically and on a regular schedule visually inspect and/or test flow-through process vessels and associated components (such as dump valves) for leaks, corrosion, or other conditions that could lead to a discharge as described in § 112.1(b).

(ii) Take corrective action or make repairs to flow-through process vessels and any associated components as indicated by regularly scheduled visual inspections, tests, or evidence of an oil discharge.

(iii) Promptly remove or initiate actions to stabilize and remediate any accumulations of oil discharges associated with flow-through process vessels.

(iv) If your facility discharges more than 1,000 U.S. gallons of oil in a single discharge as described in § 112.1(b), or discharges more than 42 U.S. gallons of oil in each of two discharges as described in § 112.1(b) within any twelve month period, from flow-through process vessels (excluding discharges that are the result of natural disasters, acts of war, or terrorism) then you must, within six months from the time the facility becomes subject to this paragraph, ensure that all flow-through process vessels subject to this subpart comply with § 112.9(c)(2) and (c)(3).

(6) Produced water containers. For each produced water container, comply with § 112.9(c)(1) and (c)(4); and § 112.9(c)(2) and (c)(3), or comply with the provisions of the following paragraphs (c)(6)(i) through (v):

(i) Implement, on a regular schedule, a procedure for each produced water container that is designed to separate the free-phase oil that accumulates on the surface of the produced water. Include in the Plan a description of the procedures, frequency, amount of free-phase oil expected to be maintained inside the container, and a Professional Engineer certification in accordance with § 112.3(d)(1)(vi). Maintain records of such events in accordance with § 112.7(e). Records kept under usual and customary business practices will suffice for purposes of this paragraph. If this procedure is not implemented as described in the Plan or no records are maintained, then you must comply with § 112.9(c)(2) and (c)(3).

(ii) On a regular schedule, visually inspect and/or test the produced water container and associated piping for leaks, corrosion, or other conditions that could lead to a discharge as described in § 112.1(b) in accordance with good engineering practice.

(iii) Take corrective action or make repairs to the produced water container and any associated piping as indicated by regularly scheduled visual inspections, tests, or evidence of an oil discharge.

(iv) Promptly remove or initiate actions to stabilize and remediate any accumulations of oil discharges associated with the produced water container.

(v) If your facility discharges more than 1,000 U.S. gallons of oil in a single discharge as described in § 112.1(b), or discharges more than 42 U.S. gallons of oil in each of two discharges as described in § 112.1(b) within any twelve month period from a produced water container subject to this subpart (excluding discharges that are the result of natural disasters, acts of war, or terrorism) then you must, within six months from the time the facility becomes subject to this paragraph, ensure that all produced water containers subject to this subpart comply with § 112.9(c)(2) and (c)(3).

(d) Facility transfer operations, oil production facility. (1) Periodically and upon a regular schedule inspect all aboveground valves and piping associated with transfer operations for the general condition of flange joints, valve glands and bodies, drip pans, pipe supports, pumping well polish rod stuffing boxes, bleeder and gauge valves, and other such items.

(2) Inspect saltwater (oil field brine) disposal facilities often, particularly following a sudden change in atmospheric temperature, to detect possible system upsets capable of causing a discharge.

(3) For flowlines and intra-facility gathering lines that are not provided with secondary containment in accordance with § 112.7(c), unless you have submitted a response plan under § 112.20, provide in your Plan the following:

(i) An oil spill contingency plan following the provisions of part 109 of this chapter.

(ii) A written commitment of manpower, equipment, and materials required to expeditiously control and remove any quantity of oil discharged that might be harmful.

(4) Prepare and implement a written program of flowline/intra-facility gathering line maintenance. The maintenance program must address your procedures to:

(i) Ensure that flowlines and intra-facility gathering lines and associated valves and equipment are compatible with the type of production fluids, their potential corrosivity, volume, and pressure, and other conditions expected in the operational environment.

(ii) Visually inspect and/or test flowlines and intra-facility gathering lines and associated appurtenances on a periodic and regular schedule for leaks, oil discharges, corrosion, or other conditions that could lead to a discharge as described in § 112.1(b). For flowlines and intra-facility gathering lines that are not provided with secondary containment in accordance with § 112.7(c), the frequency and type of testing must allow for the implementation of a contingency plan as described under part 109 of this chapter.

(iii) Take corrective action or make repairs to any flowlines and intra-facility gathering lines and associated appurtenances as indicated by regularly scheduled visual inspections, tests, or evidence of a discharge.

(iv) Promptly remove or initiate actions to stabilize and remediate any accumulations of oil discharges associated with flowlines, intra-facility gathering lines, and associated appurtenances.

[73 FR 74304, Dec. 5, 2008, as amended at 74 FR 58810, Nov. 13, 2009]

§ 112.10 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore oil drilling and workover facilities.

If you are the owner or operator of an onshore oil drilling and workover facility, you must:

(a) Meet the general requirements listed under § 112.7, and also meet the specific discharge prevention and containment procedures listed under this section.

(b) Position or locate mobile drilling or workover equipment so as to prevent a discharge as described in § 112.1(b).

(c) Provide catchment basins or diversion structures to intercept and contain discharges of fuel, crude oil, or oily drilling fluids.

(d) Install a blowout prevention (BOP) assembly and well control system before drilling below any casing string or during workover operations. The BOP assembly and well control system must be capable of controlling any well-head pressure that may be encountered while that BOP assembly and well control system are on the well.

§ 112.11 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facilities.

If you are the owner or operator of an offshore oil drilling, production, or workover facility, you must:

(a) Meet the general requirements listed under § 112.7, and also meet the specific discharge prevention and containment procedures listed under this section.

(b) Use oil drainage collection equipment to prevent and control small oil discharges around pumps, glands, valves, flanges, expansion joints, hoses, drain lines, separators, treaters, tanks, and associated equipment. You must control and direct facility drains toward a central collection sump to prevent the facility from having a discharge as described in § 112.1(b). Where drains and sumps are not practicable, you must remove oil contained in collection equipment as often as necessary to prevent overflow.

(c) For facilities employing a sump system, provide adequately sized sump and drains and make available a spare pump to remove liquid from the sump and assure that oil does not escape. You must employ a regularly scheduled preventive maintenance inspection and testing program to assure reliable operation of the liquid removal system and pump start-up device. Redundant automatic sump pumps and control devices may be required on some installations.

(d) At facilities with areas where separators and treaters are equipped with dump valves which predominantly fail in the closed position and where pollution risk is high, specially equip the facility to prevent the discharge of oil. You must prevent the discharge of oil by:

(1) Extending the flare line to a diked area if the separator is near shore;

(2) Equipping the separator with a high liquid level sensor that will automatically shut in wells producing to the separator; or

(3) Installing parallel redundant dump valves.

(e) Equip atmospheric storage or surge containers with high liquid level sensing devices that activate an alarm or control the flow, or otherwise prevent discharges.

(f) Equip pressure containers with high and low pressure sensing devices that activate an alarm or control the flow.

(g) Equip containers with suitable corrosion protection.

(h) Prepare and maintain at the facility a written procedure within the Plan for inspecting and testing pollution prevention equipment and systems.

(i) Conduct testing and inspection of the pollution prevention equipment and systems at the facility on a scheduled periodic basis, commensurate with the complexity, conditions, and circumstances of the facility and any other appropriate regulations. You must use simulated discharges for testing and inspecting human and equipment pollution control and countermeasure systems.

(j) Describe in detailed records surface and subsurface well shut-in valves and devices in use at the facility for each well sufficiently to determine their method of activation or control, such as pressure differential, change in fluid or flow conditions, combination of pressure and flow, manual or remote control mechanisms.

(k) Install a BOP assembly and well control system during workover operations and before drilling below any casing string. The BOP assembly and well control system must be capable of controlling any well-head pressure that may be encountered while the BOP assembly and well control system are on the well.

(l) Equip all manifolds (headers) with check valves on individual flowlines.

(m) Equip the flowline with a high pressure sensing device and shut-in valve at the wellhead if the shut-in well pressure is greater than the working pressure of the flowline and manifold valves up to and including the header valves. Alternatively you may provide a pressure relief system for flowlines.

(n) Protect all piping appurtenant to the facility from corrosion, such as with protective coatings or cathodic protection.

(o) Adequately protect sub-marine piping appurtenant to the facility against environmental stresses and other activities such as fishing operations.

(p) Maintain sub-marine piping appurtenant to the facility in good operating condition at all times. You must periodically and according to a schedule inspect or test such piping for failures. You must document and keep a record of such inspections or tests at the facility.