U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Jan 29, 2023
(a) This subpart specifies equipment, other than measurement instruments, related to emission testing. The provisions of this subpart apply for all engine dynamometer testing where engine speeds and loads are controlled to follow a prescribed duty cycle. See subpart J of this part to determine which of the provisions of this subpart apply for field testing. This equipment includes three broad categories-dynamometers, engine fluid systems (such as fuel and intake-air systems), and emission-sampling hardware.
(b) Other related subparts in this part identify measurement instruments (subpart C), describe how to evaluate the performance of these instruments (subpart D), and specify engine fluids and analytical gases (subpart H).
(c) Subpart J of this part describes additional equipment that is specific to field testing.
(d) Figures 1 and 2 of this section illustrate some of the possible configurations of laboratory equipment. These figures are schematics only; we do not require exact conformance to them. Figure 1 of this section illustrates the equipment specified in this subpart and gives some references to sections in this subpart. Figure 2 of this section illustrates some of the possible configurations of a full-flow dilution, constant-volume sampling (CVS) system. Not all possible CVS configurations are shown.
(e) Dynamometer testing involves engine operation over speeds and loads that are controlled to a prescribed duty cycle. Field testing involves measuring emissions over normal in-use operation of a vehicle or piece of equipment. Field testing does not involve operating an engine over a prescribed duty cycle.
(a) Work. Use good engineering judgment to simulate all engine work inputs and outputs as they typically would operate in use. Account for work inputs and outputs during an emission test by measuring them; or, if they are small, you may show by engineering analysis that disregarding them does not affect your ability to determine the net work output by more than ±0.5% of the net expected work output over the test interval. Use equipment to simulate the specific types of work, as follows:
(1) Shaft work. Use an engine dynamometer that is able to meet the cycle-validation criteria in § 1065.514 over each applicable duty cycle.
(i) You may use eddy-current and water-brake dynamometers for any testing that does not involve engine motoring, which is identified by negative torque commands in a reference duty cycle. See the standard setting part for reference duty cycles that are applicable to your engine.
(ii) You may use alternating-current or direct-current motoring dynamometers for any type of testing.
(iii) You may use one or more dynamometers.
(iv) You may use any device that is already installed on a vehicle, equipment, or vessel to absorb work from the engine's output shaft(s). Examples of these types of devices include a vessel's propeller and a locomotive's generator.
(2) Electrical work. Use one or more of the following to simulate electrical work:
(i) Use storage batteries or capacitors that are of the type and capacity installed in use.
(ii) Use motors, generators, and alternators that are of the type and capacity installed in use.
(iii) Use a resistor load bank to simulate electrical loads.
(3) Pump, compressor, and turbine work. Use pumps, compressors, and turbines that are of the type and capacity installed in use. Use working fluids that are of the same type and thermodynamic state as normal in-use operation.
(b) Laboratory work inputs. You may supply any laboratory inputs of work to the engine. For example, you may supply electrical work to the engine to operate a fuel system, and as another example you may supply compressor work to the engine to actuate pneumatic valves. We may ask you to show by engineering analysis your accounting of laboratory work inputs to meet the criterion in paragraph (a) of this section.
(c) Engine accessories. You must either install or account for the work of engine accessories required to fuel, lubricate, or heat the engine, circulate coolant to the engine, or to operate aftertreatment devices. Operate the engine with these accessories installed or accounted for during all testing operations, including mapping. If these accessories are not powered by the engine during a test, account for the work required to perform these functions from the total work used in brake-specific emission calculations. For air-cooled engines only, subtract externally powered fan work from total work. We may ask you to show by engineering analysis your accounting of engine accessories to meet the criterion in paragraph (a) of this section.
(d) Engine starter. You may install a production-type starter.
(e) Operator demand for shaft work. Operator demand is defined in § 1065.1001. Command the operator demand and the dynamometer(s) to follow a prescribed duty cycle with set points for engine speed and torque as specified in § 1065.512. Refer to the standard-setting part to determine the specifications for your duty cycle(s). Use a mechanical or electronic input to control operator demand such that the engine is able to meet the validation criteria in § 1065.514 over each applicable duty cycle. Record feedback values for engine speed and torque as specified in § 1065.512. Using good engineering judgment, you may improve control of operator demand by altering on-engine speed and torque controls. However, if these changes result in unrepresentative testing, you must notify us and recommend other test procedures under § 1065.10(c)(1).
(f) Other engine inputs. If your electronic control module requires specific input signals that are not available during dynamometer testing, such as vehicle speed or transmission signals, you may simulate the signals using good engineering judgment. Keep records that describe what signals you simulate and explain why these signals are necessary for representative testing.
(a) Use fuels as specified in the standard-setting part, or as specified in subpart H of this part if fuels are not specified in the standard-setting part.
(b) If the engine manufacturer specifies fuel temperature and pressure tolerances and the location where they are to be measured, then measure the fuel temperature and pressure at the specified location to show that you are within these tolerances throughout testing.
(c) If the engine manufacturer does not specify fuel temperature and pressure tolerances, use good engineering judgment to set and control fuel temperature and pressure in a way that represents typical in-use fuel temperatures and pressures.
(a) Engine cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block, and head temperatures are within their expected ranges for normal operation. You may use auxiliary coolers and fans.
(1) For air-cooled engines only, if you use auxiliary fans you must account for work input to the fan(s) according to § 1065.110.
(2) See § 1065.125 for more information related to intake-air cooling.
(3) See § 1065.127 for more information related to exhaust gas recirculation cooling.
(4) Measure temperatures at the manufacturer-specified locations. If the manufacturer does not specify temperature measurement locations, then use good engineering judgment to monitor intake-air, oil, coolant, block, and head temperatures to ensure that they are in their expected ranges for normal operation.
(b) Forced cooldown. You may install a forced cooldown system for an engine and an exhaust aftertreatment device according to § 1065.530(a)(1).
(c) Lubricating oil. Use lubricating oils specified in § 1065.740. For two-stroke engines that involve a specified mixture of fuel and lubricating oil, mix the lubricating oil with the fuel according to the manufacturer's specifications.
(d) Coolant. For liquid-cooled engines, use coolant as specified in § 1065.745.
(a) Use the intake-air system installed on the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This includes the charge-air cooling and exhaust gas recirculation systems.
(b) Measure temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure near the entrance of the furthest upstream engine or in-use intake system component. This would generally be near the engine's air filter, or near the inlet to the in-use air intake system for engines that have no air filter. For engines with multiple intakes, make measurements near the entrance of each intake.
(1) Pressure. You may use a single shared atmospheric pressure meter as long as your laboratory equipment for handling intake air maintains ambient pressure at all intakes within ±1 kPa of the shared atmospheric pressure. For engines with multiple intakes with separate atmospheric pressure measurements at each intake, use an average value for verifying compliance to § 1065.520(b)(2).
(2) Humidity. You may use a single shared humidity measurement for intake air as long as your equipment for handling intake air maintains dewpoint at all intakes to within ±0.5 °C of the shared humidity measurement. For engines with multiple intakes with separate humidity measurements at each intake, use a flow-weighted average humidity for NO
(3) Temperature. Good engineering judgment may require that you shield the temperature sensors or move them upstream of an elbow in the laboratory intake system to prevent measurement errors due to radiant heating from hot engine surfaces or in-use intake system components. You must limit the distance between the temperature sensor and the entrance to the furthest upstream engine or in-use intake system component to no more than 12 times the outer hydraulic diameter of the entrance to the furthest upstream engine or in-use intake system component. However, you may exceed this limit if you use good engineering judgment to show that the temperature at the furthest upstream engine or in-use intake system component meets the specification in paragraph (c) of this section. For engines with multiple intakes, use a flow-weighted average value to verify compliance with the specification in paragraph (c) of this section. If individual flows of each intake are not measured, you may use good engineering judgment to estimate a flow-weighted average temperature. You may also verify that each individual intake complies with the specification in paragraph (c) of this section.
(c) Maintain the temperature of intake air to (25 ±5) °C, except as follows:
(1) Follow the standard-setting part if it specifies different temperatures.
(2) For engines above 560 kW, you may use 35 °C as the upper bound of the tolerance. However, your system must be capable of controlling the temperature to the 25 °C setpoint for any steady-state operation at >30% of maximum engine power.
(3) You may ask us to allow you to apply a different setpoint for intake air temperature if it is necessary to remain consistent with the provisions of § 1065.10(c)(1) for testing during which ambient temperature will be outside this range.
(d) Use an intake-air restriction that represents production engines. Make sure the intake-air restriction is between the manufacturer's specified maximum for a clean filter and the manufacturer's specified maximum allowed. Measure the static differential pressure of the restriction at the location and at the speed and torque set points specified by the manufacturer. If the manufacturer does not specify a location, measure this pressure upstream of any turbocharger or exhaust gas recirculation system connection to the intake air system. If the manufacturer does not specify speed and torque points, measure this pressure while the engine outputs maximum power. As the manufacturer, you are liable for emission compliance for all values up to the maximum restriction you specify for a particular engine.
(e) This paragraph (e) includes provisions for simulating charge-air cooling in the laboratory. This approach is described in paragraph (e)(1) of this section. Limits on using this approach are described in paragraphs (e)(2) and (3) of this section.
(1) Use a charge-air cooling system with a total intake-air capacity that represents production engines' in-use installation. Design any laboratory charge-air cooling system to minimize accumulation of condensate. Drain any accumulated condensate. Before starting a duty cycle (or preconditioning for a duty cycle), completely close all drains that would normally be closed during in-use operation. Keep those drains closed during the emission test. Maintain coolant conditions as follows:
(i) Maintain a coolant temperature of at least 20 °C at the inlet to the charge-air cooler throughout testing. We recommend maintaining a coolant temperature of 25 ±5 °C at the inlet of the charge-air cooler.
(ii) At the engine conditions specified by the manufacturer, set the coolant flow rate to achieve an air temperature within ±5 °C of the value specified by the manufacturer after the charge-air cooler's outlet. Measure the air-outlet temperature at the location specified by the manufacturer. Use this coolant flow rate set point throughout testing. If the engine manufacturer does not specify engine conditions or the corresponding charge-air cooler air outlet temperature, set the coolant flow rate at maximum engine power to achieve a charge-air cooler air outlet temperature that represents in-use operation.
(iii) If the engine manufacturer specifies pressure-drop limits across the charge-air cooling system, ensure that the pressure drop across the charge-air cooling system at engine conditions specified by the manufacturer is within the manufacturer's specified limit(s). Measure the pressure drop at the manufacturer's specified locations.
(2) Using a constant flow rate as described in paragraph (e)(1) of this section may result in unrepresentative overcooling of the intake air. The provisions of this paragraph (e)(2) apply instead of the provisions of § 1065.10(c)(1) for this simulation. Our allowance to cool intake air as specified in this paragraph (e) does not affect your liability for field testing or for laboratory testing that is done in a way that better represents in-use operation. Where we determine that this allowance adversely affects your ability to demonstrate that your engines would comply with emission standards under in-use conditions, we may require you to use more sophisticated setpoints and controls of charge-air pressure drop, coolant temperature, and flow rate to achieve more representative results.
(3) This approach does not apply for field testing. You may not correct measured emission levels from field testing to account for any differences caused by the simulated cooling in the laboratory.
Use the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system installed with the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This includes any applicable EGR cooling devices.
(a) General. Use the exhaust system installed with the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This includes any applicable aftertreatment devices. We refer to exhaust piping as an exhaust stack; this is equivalent to a tailpipe for vehicle configurations.
(b) Aftertreatment configuration. If you do not use the exhaust system installed with the engine, configure any aftertreatment devices as follows:
(1) Position any aftertreatment device so its distance from the nearest exhaust manifold flange or turbocharger outlet is within the range specified by the engine manufacturer in the application for certification. If this distance is not specified, position aftertreatment devices to represent typical in-use vehicle configurations.
(2) You may use exhaust tubing that is not from the in-use exhaust system upstream of any aftertreatment device that is of diameter(s) typical of in-use configurations. If you use exhaust tubing that is not from the in-use exhaust system upstream of any aftertreatment device, position each aftertreatment device according to paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
(c) Sampling system connections. Connect an engine's exhaust system to any raw sampling location or dilution stage, as follows:
(1) Minimize laboratory exhaust tubing lengths and use a total length of laboratory tubing of no more than 10 m or 50 outside diameters, whichever is greater. The start of laboratory exhaust tubing should be specified as the exit of the exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet, last aftertreatment device, or the in-use exhaust system, whichever is furthest downstream. The end of laboratory exhaust tubing should be specified as the sample point, or first point of dilution. If laboratory exhaust tubing consists of several different outside tubing diameters, count the number of diameters of length of each individual diameter, then sum all the diameters to determine the total length of exhaust tubing in diameters. Use the mean outside diameter of any converging or diverging sections of tubing. Use outside hydraulic diameters of any noncircular sections. For multiple stack configurations where all the exhaust stacks are combined, the start of the laboratory exhaust tubing may be taken at the last joint of where all the stacks are combined.
(2) You may install short sections of flexible laboratory exhaust tubing at any location in the engine or laboratory exhaust systems. You may use up to a combined total of 2 m or 10 outside diameters of flexible exhaust tubing.
(3) Insulate any laboratory exhaust tubing downstream of the first 25 outside diameters of length.
(4) Use laboratory exhaust tubing materials that are smooth-walled, electrically conductive, and not reactive with exhaust constituents. Stainless steel is an acceptable material.
(5) We recommend that you use laboratory exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize temperature differences between the wall and the exhaust.
(6) We recommend that you connect multiple exhaust stacks from a single engine into one stack upstream of any emission sampling. For raw or dilute partial-flow emission sampling, to ensure mixing of the multiple exhaust streams before emission sampling, we recommend a minimum Reynolds number, Re
(d) In-line instruments. You may insert instruments into the laboratory exhaust tubing, such as an in-line smoke meter. If you do this, you may leave a length of up to 5 outside diameters of laboratory exhaust tubing uninsulated on each side of each instrument, but you must leave a length of no more than 25 outside diameters of laboratory exhaust tubing uninsulated in total, including any lengths adjacent to in-line instruments.
(e) Leaks. Minimize leaks sufficiently to ensure your ability to demonstrate compliance with the applicable standards in this chapter. We recommend performing carbon balance error verification as described in § 1065.543 to verify exhaust system integrity.
(f) Grounding. Electrically ground the entire exhaust system.
(g) Forced cooldown. You may install a forced cooldown system for an exhaust aftertreatment device according to § 1065.530(a)(1)(i).
(h) Exhaust restriction. As the manufacturer, you are liable for emission compliance for all values up to the maximum restriction(s) you specify for a particular engine. Measure and set exhaust restriction(s) at the location(s) and at the engine speed and torque values specified by the manufacturer. Also, for variable-restriction aftertreatment devices, measure and set exhaust restriction(s) at the aftertreatment condition (degreening/aging and regeneration/loading level) specified by the manufacturer. If the manufacturer does not specify a location, measure this pressure downstream of any turbocharger. If the manufacturer does not specify speed and torque points, measure pressure while the engine produces maximum power. Use an exhaust-restriction setpoint that represents a typical in-use value, if available. If a typical in-use value for exhaust restriction is not available, set the exhaust restriction at (80 to 100)% of the maximum exhaust restriction specified by the manufacturer, or if the maximum is 5 kPa or less, the set point must be no less than 1.0 kPa from the maximum. For example, if the maximum back pressure is 4.5 kPa, do not use an exhaust restriction set point that is less than 3.5 kPa.
(i) Open crankcase emissions. If the standard-setting part requires measuring open crankcase emissions, you may either measure open crankcase emissions separately using a method that we approve in advance, or route open crankcase emissions directly into the exhaust system for emission measurement. If the engine is not already configured to route open crankcase emissions for emission measurement, route open crankcase emissions as follows:
(1) Use laboratory tubing materials that are smooth-walled, electrically conductive, and not reactive with crankcase emissions. Stainless steel is an acceptable material. Minimize tube lengths. We also recommend using heated or thin-walled or air gap-insulated tubing to minimize temperature differences between the wall and the crankcase emission constituents.
(2) Minimize the number of bends in the laboratory crankcase tubing and maximize the radius of any unavoidable bend.
(3) Use laboratory crankcase exhaust tubing that meets the engine manufacturer's specifications for crankcase back pressure.
(4) Connect the crankcase exhaust tubing into the raw exhaust downstream of any aftertreatment system, downstream of any installed exhaust restriction, and sufficiently upstream of any sample probes to ensure complete mixing with the engine's exhaust before sampling. Extend the crankcase exhaust tube into the free stream of exhaust to avoid boundary-layer effects and to promote mixing. You may orient the crankcase exhaust tube's outlet in any direction relative to the raw exhaust flow.
(a) General. You may dilute exhaust with ambient air, purified air, or nitrogen. References in this part to “dilution air” may include any of these. For gaseous emission measurement, the dilution air must be at least 15 °C. Note that the composition of the dilution air affects some gaseous emission measurement instruments' response to emissions. We recommend diluting exhaust at a location as close as possible to the location where ambient air dilution would occur in use. Dilution may occur in a single stage or in multiple stages. For dilution in multiple stages, the first stage is considered primary dilution and later stages are considered secondary dilution.
(b) Dilution-air conditions and background concentrations. Before dilution air is mixed with exhaust, you may precondition it by increasing or decreasing its temperature or humidity. You may also remove constituents to reduce their background concentrations. The following provisions apply to removing constituents or accounting for background concentrations:
(1) You may measure constituent concentrations in the dilution air and compensate for background effects on test results. See § 1065.650 for calculations that compensate for background concentrations (40 CFR 1066.610 for vehicle testing).
(2) Measure these background concentrations the same way you measure diluted exhaust constituents, or measure them in a way that does not affect your ability to demonstrate compliance with the applicable standards. For example, you may use the following simplifications for background sampling:
(i) You may disregard any proportional sampling requirements.
(ii) You may use unheated gaseous sampling systems.
(iii) You may use unheated PM sampling systems.
(iv) You may use continuous sampling if you use batch sampling for diluted emissions.
(v) You may use batch sampling if you use continuous sampling for diluted emissions.
(3) For removing background PM, we recommend that you filter all dilution air, including primary full-flow dilution air, with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that have an initial minimum collection efficiency specification of 99.97% (see § 1065.1001 for procedures related to HEPA-filtration efficiencies). Ensure that HEPA filters are installed properly so that background PM does not leak past the HEPA filters. If you choose to correct for background PM without using HEPA filtration, demonstrate that the background PM in the dilution air contributes less than 50% to the net PM collected on the sample filter. You may correct net PM without restriction if you use HEPA filtration.
(c) Full-flow dilution; constant-volume sampling (CVS). You may dilute the full flow of raw exhaust in a dilution tunnel that maintains a nominally constant volume flow rate, molar flow rate or mass flow rate of diluted exhaust, as follows:
(1) Construction. Use a tunnel with inside surfaces of 300 series stainless steel. Electrically ground the entire dilution tunnel. We recommend a thin-walled and insulated dilution tunnel to minimize temperature differences between the wall and the exhaust gases. You may not use any flexible tubing in the dilution tunnel upstream of the PM sample probe. You may use nonconductive flexible tubing downstream of the PM sample probe and upstream of the CVS flow meter; use good engineering judgment to select a tubing material that is not prone to leaks, and configure the tubing to ensure smooth flow at the CVS flow meter.
(2) Pressure control. Maintain static pressure at the location where raw exhaust is introduced into the tunnel within ±1.2 kPa of atmospheric pressure. You may use a booster blower to control this pressure. If you test using more careful pressure control and you show by engineering analysis or by test data that you require this level of control to demonstrate compliance at the applicable standards, we will maintain the same level of static pressure control when we test.
(3) Mixing. Introduce raw exhaust into the tunnel by directing it downstream along the centerline of the tunnel. If you dilute directly from the exhaust stack, the end of the exhaust stack is considered to be the start of the dilution tunnel. You may introduce a fraction of dilution air radially from the tunnel's inner surface to minimize exhaust interaction with the tunnel walls. You may configure the system with turbulence generators such as orifice plates or fins to achieve good mixing. We recommend a minimum Reynolds number, Re
(4) Flow measurement preconditioning. You may condition the diluted exhaust before measuring its flow rate, as long as this conditioning takes place downstream of any heated HC or PM sample probes, as follows:
(i) You may use flow straighteners, pulsation dampeners, or both of these.
(ii) You may use a filter.
(iii) You may use a heat exchanger to control the temperature upstream of any flow meter, but you must take steps to prevent aqueous condensation as described in paragraph (c)(6) of this section.
(5) Flow measurement. Section 1065.240 describes measurement instruments for diluted exhaust flow.
(6) Aqueous condensation. This paragraph (c)(6) describes how you must address aqueous condensation in the CVS. As described below, you may meet these requirements by preventing or limiting aqueous condensation in the CVS from the exhaust inlet to the last emission sample probe. See that paragraph for provisions related to the CVS between the last emission sample probe and the CVS flow meter. You may heat and/or insulate the dilution tunnel walls, as well as the bulk stream tubing downstream of the tunnel to prevent or limit aqueous condensation. Where we allow aqueous condensation to occur, use good engineering judgment to ensure that the condensation does not affect your ability to demonstrate that your engines comply with the applicable standards (see § 1065.10(a)).
(i) Preventing aqueous condensation. To prevent condensation, you must keep the temperature of internal surfaces, excluding any sample probes, above the dewpoint of the dilute exhaust passing through the CVS tunnel. Use good engineering judgment to monitor temperatures in the CVS. For the purposes of this paragraph (c)(6), assume that aqueous condensation is pure water condensate only, even though the definition of “aqueous condensation” in § 1065.1001 includes condensation of any constituents that contain water. No specific verification check is required under this paragraph (c)(6)(i), but we may ask you to show how you comply with this requirement. You may use engineering analysis, CVS tunnel design, alarm systems, measurements of wall temperatures, and calculation of water dewpoint to demonstrate compliance with this requirement. For optional CVS heat exchangers, you may use the lowest water temperature at the inlet(s) and outlet(s) to determine the minimum internal surface temperature.
(ii) Limiting aqueous condensation. This paragraph (c)(6)(ii) specifies limits of allowable condensation and requires you to verify that the amount of condensation that occurs during each test interval does not exceed the specified limits.
(A) Use chemical balance equations in § 1065.655 to calculate the mole fraction of water in the dilute exhaust continuously during testing. Alternatively, you may continuously measure the mole fraction of water in the dilute exhaust prior to any condensation during testing. Use good engineering judgment to select, calibrate and verify water analyzers/detectors. The linearity verification requirements of § 1065.307 do not apply to water analyzers/detectors used to correct for the water content in exhaust samples.
(B) Use good engineering judgment to select and monitor locations on the CVS tunnel walls prior to the last emission sample probe. If you are also verifying limited condensation from the last emission sample probe to the CVS flow meter, use good engineering judgment to select and monitor locations on the CVS tunnel walls, optional CVS heat exchanger, and CVS flow meter. For optional CVS heat exchangers, you may use the lowest water temperature at the inlet(s) and outlet(s) to determine the minimum internal surface temperature. Identify the minimum surface temperature on a continuous basis.
(C) Identify the maximum potential mole fraction of dilute exhaust lost on a continuous basis during the entire test interval. This value must be less than or equal to 0.02. Calculate on a continuous basis the mole fraction of water that would be in equilibrium with liquid water at the measured minimum surface temperature. Subtract this mole fraction from the mole fraction of water that would be in the exhaust without condensation (either measured or from the chemical balance), and set any negative values to zero. This difference is the potential mole fraction of the dilute exhaust that would be lost due to water condensation on a continuous basis.
(D) Integrate the product of the molar flow rate of the dilute exhaust and the potential mole fraction of dilute exhaust lost, and divide by the totalized dilute exhaust molar flow over the test interval. This is the potential mole fraction of the dilute exhaust that would be lost due to water condensation over the entire test interval. Note that this assumes no re-evaporation. This value must be less than or equal to 0.005.
(7) Flow compensation. Maintain nominally constant molar, volumetric or mass flow of diluted exhaust. You may maintain nominally constant flow by either maintaining the temperature and pressure at the flow meter or by directly controlling the flow of diluted exhaust. You may also directly control the flow of proportional samplers to maintain proportional sampling. For an individual test, verify proportional sampling as described in § 1065.545.
(d) Partial-flow dilution (PFD). You may dilute a partial flow of raw or previously diluted exhaust before measuring emissions. Section 1065.240 describes PFD-related flow measurement instruments. PFD may consist of constant or varying dilution ratios as described in paragraphs (d)(2) and (3) of this section. An example of a constant dilution ratio PFD is a “secondary dilution PM” measurement system.
(1) Applicability. (i) You may use PFD to extract a proportional raw exhaust sample for any batch or continuous PM emission sampling over any transient duty cycle, any steady-state duty cycle, or any ramped-modal cycle.
(ii) You may use PFD to extract a proportional raw exhaust sample for any batch or continuous gaseous emission sampling over any transient duty cycle, any steady-state duty cycle, or any ramped-modal cycle.
(iii) You may use PFD to extract a proportional raw exhaust sample for any batch or continuous field-testing.
(iv) You may use PFD to extract a proportional diluted exhaust sample from a CVS for any batch or continuous emission sampling.
(v) You may use PFD to extract a constant raw or diluted exhaust sample for any continuous emission sampling.
(vi) You may use PFD to extract a constant raw or diluted exhaust sample for any steady-state emission sampling.
(2) Constant dilution-ratio PFD. Do one of the following for constant dilution-ratio PFD:
(i) Dilute an already proportional flow. For example, you may do this as a way of performing secondary dilution from a CVS tunnel to achieve overall dilution ratio for PM sampling.
(ii) Continuously measure constituent concentrations. For example, you might dilute to precondition a sample of raw exhaust to control its temperature, humidity, or constituent concentrations upstream of continuous analyzers. In this case, you must take into account the dilution ratio before multiplying the continuous concentration by the sampled exhaust flow rate.
(iii) Extract a proportional sample from a separate constant dilution ratio PFD system. For example, you might use a variable-flow pump to proportionally fill a gaseous storage medium such as a bag from a PFD system. In this case, the proportional sampling must meet the same specifications as varying dilution ratio PFD in paragraph (d)(3) of this section.
(iv) For each mode of a discrete-mode test (such as a locomotive notch setting or a specific setting for speed and torque), use a constant dilution ratio for any PM sampling. You must change the overall PM sampling system dilution ratio between modes so that the dilution ratio on the mode with the highest exhaust flow rate meets § 1065.140(e)(2) and the dilution ratios on all other modes is higher than this (minimum) dilution ratio by the ratio of the maximum exhaust flow rate to the exhaust flow rate of the corresponding other mode. This is the same dilution ratio requirement for RMC or field transient testing. You must account for this change in dilution ratio in your emission calculations.
(3) Varying dilution-ratio PFD. All the following provisions apply for varying dilution-ratio PFD:
(i) Use a control system with sensors and actuators that can maintain proportional sampling over intervals as short as 200 ms (i.e., 5 Hz control).
(ii) For control input, you may use any sensor output from one or more measurements; for example, intake-air flow, fuel flow, exhaust flow, engine speed, and intake manifold temperature and pressure.
(iii) Account for any emission transit time in the PFD system, as necessary.
(iv) You may use preprogrammed data if they have been determined for the specific test site, duty cycle, and test engine from which you dilute emissions.
(v) We recommend that you run practice cycles to meet the verification criteria in § 1065.545. Note that you must verify every emission test by meeting the verification criteria with the data from that specific test. Data from previously verified practice cycles or other tests may not be used to verify a different emission test.
(vi) You may not use a PFD system that requires preparatory tuning or calibration with a CVS or with the emission results from a CVS. Rather, you must be able to independently calibrate the PFD.
(e) Dilution air temperature, dilution ratio, residence time, and temperature control of PM samples. Dilute PM samples at least once upstream of transfer lines. You may dilute PM samples upstream of a transfer line using full-flow dilution, or partial-flow dilution immediately downstream of a PM probe. In the case of partial-flow dilution, you may have up to 26 cm of insulated length between the end of the probe and the dilution stage, but we recommend that the length be as short as practical. The intent of these specifications is to minimize heat transfer to or from the emission sample before the final stage of dilution, other than the heat you may need to add to prevent aqueous condensation. This is accomplished by initially cooling the sample through dilution. Configure dilution systems as follows:
(1) Set the dilution air temperature to (25 ±5) °C. Use good engineering judgment to select a location to measure this temperature that is as close as practical upstream of the point where dilution air mixes with raw exhaust.
(2) For any PM dilution system (i.e., CVS or PFD), add dilution air to the raw exhaust such that the minimum overall ratio of diluted exhaust to raw exhaust is within the range of (5:1 to 7:1) and is at least 2:1 for any primary dilution stage. Base this minimum value on the maximum engine exhaust flow rate during a given duty cycle for discrete-mode testing and on the maximum engine exhaust flow rate during a given test interval for other testing. Either measure the maximum exhaust flow during a practice run of the test interval or estimate it based on good engineering judgment (for example, you might rely on manufacturer-published literature).
(3) Configure any PM dilution system to have an overall residence time of (1.0 to 5.5) s, as measured from the location of initial dilution air introduction to the location where PM is collected on the sample media. Also configure the system to have a residence time of at least 0.50 s, as measured from the location of final dilution air introduction to the location where PM is collected on the sample media. When determining residence times within sampling system volumes, use an assumed flow temperature of 25 °C and pressure of 101.325 kPa.
(4) Control sample temperature to a (47 ±5) °C tolerance, as measured anywhere within 20 cm upstream or downstream of the PM storage media (such as a filter). Measure this temperature with a bare-wire junction thermocouple with wires that are (0.500 ±0.025) mm diameter, or with another suitable instrument that has equivalent performance.
(a) Continuous and batch sampling. Determine the total mass of each constituent with continuous or batch sampling. Both types of sampling systems have probes, transfer lines, and other sampling system components that are described in this section.
(b) Options for engines with multiple exhaust stacks. Measure emissions from a test engine as described in this paragraph (b) if it has multiple exhaust stacks. You may choose to use different measurement procedures for different pollutants under this paragraph (b) for a given test. For purposes of this part 1065, the test engine includes all the devices related to converting the chemical energy in the fuel to the engine's mechanical output energy. This may or may not involve vehicle- or equipment-based devices. For example, all of an engine's cylinders are considered to be part of the test engine even if the exhaust is divided into separate exhaust stacks. As another example, all the cylinders of a diesel-electric locomotive are considered to be part of the test engine even if they transmit power through separate output shafts, such as might occur with multiple engine-generator sets working in tandem. Use one of the following procedures to measure emissions with multiple exhaust stacks:
(1) Route the exhaust flow from the multiple stacks into a single flow as described in § 1065.130(c)(6). Sample and measure emissions after the exhaust streams are mixed. Calculate the emissions as a single sample from the entire engine. We recommend this as the preferred option, since it requires only a single measurement and calculation of the exhaust molar flow for the entire engine.
(2) Sample and measure emissions from each stack and calculate emissions separately for each stack. Add the mass (or mass rate) emissions from each stack to calculate the emissions from the entire engine. Testing under this paragraph (b)(2) requires measuring or calculating the exhaust molar flow for each stack separately. If the exhaust molar flow in each stack cannot be calculated from combustion air flow(s), fuel flow(s), and measured gaseous emissions, and it is impractical to measure the exhaust molar flows directly, you may alternatively proportion the engine's calculated total exhaust molar flow rate (where the flow is calculated using combustion air mass flow(s), fuel mass flow(s), and emissions concentrations) based on exhaust molar flow measurements in each stack using a less accurate, non-traceable method. For example, you may use a total pressure probe and static pressure measurement in each stack.
(3) Sample and measure emissions from one stack and repeat the duty cycle as needed to collect emissions from each stack separately. Calculate the emissions from each stack and add the separate measurements to calculate the mass (or mass rate) emissions from the entire engine. Testing under this paragraph (b)(3) requires measuring or calculating the exhaust molar flow for each stack separately. You may alternatively proportion the engine's calculated total exhaust molar flow rate based on calculation and measurement limitations as described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Use the average of the engine's total power or work values from the multiple test runs to calculate brake-specific emissions. Divide the total mass (or mass rate) of each emission by the average power (or work). You may alternatively use the engine power or work associated with the corresponding stack during each test run if these values can be determined for each stack separately.
(4) Sample and measure emissions from each stack separately and calculate emissions for the entire engine based on the stack with the highest concentration. Testing under this paragraph (b)(4) requires only a single exhaust flow measurement or calculation for the entire engine. You may determine which stack has the highest concentration by performing multiple test runs, reviewing the results of earlier tests, or using good engineering judgment. Note that the highest concentration of different pollutants may occur in different stacks. Note also that the stack with the highest concentration of a pollutant during a test interval for field testing may be a different stack than the one you identified based on average concentrations over a duty cycle.
(5) Sample emissions from each stack separately and combine the wet sample streams from each stack proportionally to the exhaust molar flows in each stack. Measure the emission concentrations and calculate the emissions for the entire engine based on these weighted concentrations. Testing under this paragraph (b)(5) requires measuring or calculating the exhaust molar flow for each stack separately during the test run to proportion the sample streams from each stack. If it is impractical to measure the exhaust molar flows directly, you may alternatively proportion the wet sample streams based on less accurate, non-traceable flow methods. For example, you may use a total pressure probe and static pressure measurement in each stack. The following restrictions apply for testing under this paragraph (b)(5):
(i) You must use an accurate, traceable measurement or calculation of the engine's total exhaust molar flow rate for calculating the mass of emissions from the entire engine.
(ii) You may dry the single, combined, proportional sample stream; you may not dry the sample streams from each stack separately.
(iii) You must measure and proportion the sample flows from each stack with active flow controls. For PM sampling, you must measure and proportion the diluted sample flows from each stack with active flow controls that use only smooth walls with no sudden change in cross-sectional area. For example, you may control the dilute exhaust PM sample flows using electrically conductive vinyl tubing and a control device that pinches the tube over a long enough transition length so no flow separation occurs.
(iv) For PM sampling, the transfer lines from each stack must be joined so the angle of the joining flows is 12.5° or less. Note that the exhaust manifold must meet the same specifications as the transfer line according to paragraph (d) of this section.
(6) Sample emissions from each stack separately and combine the wet sample streams from each stack equally. Measure the emission concentrations and calculate the emissions for the entire engine based on these measured concentrations. Testing under this paragraph (b)(6) assumes that the raw-exhaust and sample flows are the same for each stack. The following restrictions apply for testing under this paragraph (b)(6):
(i) You must measure and demonstrate that the sample flow from each stack is within 5% of the value from the stack with the highest sample flow. You may alternatively ensure that the stacks have equal flow rates without measuring sample flows by designing a passive sampling system that meets the following requirements:
(A) The probes and transfer line branches must be symmetrical, have equal lengths and diameters, have the same number of bends, and have no filters.
(B) If probes are designed such that they are sensitive to stack velocity, the stack velocity must be similar at each probe. For example, a static pressure probe used for gaseous sampling is not sensitive to stack velocity.
(C) The stack static pressure must be the same at each probe. You can meet this requirement by placing probes at the end of stacks that are vented to atmosphere.
(D) For PM sampling, the transfer lines from each stack must be joined so the angle of the joining flows is 12.5° or less. Note that the exhaust manifold must meet the same specifications as the transfer line according to paragraph (d) of this section.
(ii) You may use the procedure in this paragraph (b)(6) only if you perform an analysis showing that the resulting error due to imbalanced stack flows and concentrations is either at or below 2%. You may alternatively show that the resulting error does not impact your ability to demonstrate compliance with applicable standards. For example, you may use less accurate, non-traceable measurements of emission concentrations and molar flow in each stack and demonstrate that the imbalances in flows and concentrations cause 2% or less error.
(iii) For a two-stack engine, you may use the procedure in this paragraph (b)(6) only if you can show that the stack with the higher flow has the lower average concentration for each pollutant over the duty cycle.
(iv) You must use an accurate, traceable measurement or calculation of the engine's total exhaust molar flow rate for calculating the mass of emissions from the entire engine.
(v) You may dry the single, equally combined, sample stream; you may not dry the sample streams from each stack separately.
(vi) You may determine your exhaust flow rates with a chemical balance of exhaust gas concentrations and either intake air flow or fuel flow.
(c) Gaseous and PM sample probes. A probe is the first fitting in a sampling system. It protrudes into a raw or diluted exhaust stream to extract a sample, such that its inside and outside surfaces are in contact with the exhaust. A sample is transported out of a probe into a transfer line, as described in paragraph (d) of this section. The following provisions apply to sample probes:
(1) Probe design and construction. Use sample probes with inside surfaces of 300 series stainless steel or, for raw exhaust sampling, use any nonreactive material capable of withstanding raw exhaust temperatures. Locate sample probes where constituents are mixed to their mean sample concentration. Take into account the mixing of any crankcase emissions that may be routed into the raw exhaust. Locate each probe to minimize interference with the flow to other probes. We recommend that all probes remain free from influences of boundary layers, wakes, and eddies - especially near the outlet of a raw-exhaust stack where unintended dilution might occur. Make sure that purging or back-flushing of a probe does not influence another probe during testing. You may use a single probe to extract a sample of more than one constituent as long as the probe meets all the specifications for each constituent.
(2) Gaseous sample probes. Use either single-port or multi-port probes for sampling gaseous emissions. You may orient these probes in any direction relative to the raw or diluted exhaust flow. For some probes, you must control sample temperatures, as follows:
(i) For probes that extract NO
(ii) For probes that extract hydrocarbons for THC or NMHC analysis from the diluted exhaust of compression-ignition engines, two-stroke spark-ignition engines, or four-stroke spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW, we recommend heating the probe to minimize hydrocarbon contamination consistent with good engineering judgment. If you routinely fail the contamination check in the 1065.520 pretest check, we recommend heating the probe section to approximately 190 °C to minimize contamination.
(3) PM sample probes. Use PM probes with a single opening at the end. Orient PM probes to face directly upstream. If you shield a PM probe's opening with a PM pre-classifier such as a hat, you may not use the preclassifier we specify in paragraph (f)(1) of this section. We recommend sizing the inside diameter of PM probes to approximate isokinetic sampling at the expected mean flow rate.
(d) Transfer lines. You may use transfer lines to transport an extracted sample from a probe to an analyzer, storage medium, or dilution system, noting certain restrictions for PM sampling in § 1065.140(e). Minimize the length of all transfer lines by locating analyzers, storage media, and dilution systems as close to probes as practical. We recommend that you minimize the number of bends in transfer lines and that you maximize the radius of any unavoidable bend. Avoid using 90° elbows, tees, and cross-fittings in transfer lines. Where such connections and fittings are necessary, take steps, using good engineering judgment, to ensure that you meet the temperature tolerances in this paragraph (d). This may involve measuring temperature at various locations within transfer lines and fittings. You may use a single transfer line to transport a sample of more than one constituent, as long as the transfer line meets all the specifications for each constituent. The following construction and temperature tolerances apply to transfer lines:
(1) Gaseous samples. Use transfer lines with inside surfaces of 300 series stainless steel, PTFE, Viton
(i) For NO
(ii) For THC transfer lines for testing compression-ignition engines, two-stroke spark-ignition engines, or four-stroke spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW, maintain a wall temperature tolerance throughout the entire line of (191 ±11) °C. If you sample from raw exhaust, you may connect an unheated, insulated transfer line directly to a probe. Design the length and insulation of the transfer line to cool the highest expected raw exhaust temperature to no lower than 191 °C, as measured at the transfer line's outlet. For dilute sampling, you may use a transition zone between the probe and transfer line of up to 92 cm to allow your wall temperature to transition to (191 ±11) °C.
(2) PM samples. We recommend heated transfer lines or a heated enclosure to minimize temperature differences between transfer lines and exhaust constituents. Use transfer lines that are inert with respect to PM and are electrically conductive on the inside surfaces. We recommend using PM transfer lines made of 300 series stainless steel. Electrically ground the inside surface of PM transfer lines.
(e) Optional sample-conditioning components for gaseous sampling. You may use the following sample-conditioning components to prepare gaseous samples for analysis, as long as you do not install or use them in a way that adversely affects your ability to show that your engines comply with all applicable gaseous emission standards.
(2) Sample dryer. You may use either type of sample dryer described in this paragraph (e)(2) to decrease the effects of water on gaseous emission measurements. You may not use a chemical dryer, or use dryers upstream of PM sample filters.
(i) Osmotic-membrane. You may use an osmotic-membrane dryer upstream of any gaseous analyzer or storage medium, as long as it meets the temperature specifications in paragraph (d)(1) of this section. Because osmotic-membrane dryers may deteriorate after prolonged exposure to certain exhaust constituents, consult with the membrane manufacturer regarding your application before incorporating an osmotic-membrane dryer. Monitor the dewpoint, T
(ii) Thermal chiller. You may use a thermal chiller upstream of some gas analyzers and storage media. You may not use a thermal chiller upstream of a THC measurement system for compression-ignition engines, two-stroke spark-ignition engines, or four-stroke spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW. If you use a thermal chiller upstream of an NO
(3) Sample pumps. You may use sample pumps upstream of an analyzer or storage medium for any gas. Use sample pumps with inside surfaces of 300 series stainless steel, PTFE, or any other material that you demonstrate has better properties for emission sampling. For some sample pumps, you must control temperatures, as follows:
(i) If you use a NO
(ii) For testing compression-ignition engines, two-stroke spark-ignition engines, or four-stroke spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW, if you use a THC sample pump upstream of a THC analyzer or storage medium, its inner surfaces must be heated to a tolerance of (191 ±11) °C.
(4) Ammonia Scrubber. You may use ammonia scrubbers for any or all gaseous sampling systems to prevent interference with NH
(f) Optional sample-conditioning components for PM sampling. You may use the following sample-conditioning components to prepare PM samples for analysis, as long as you do not install or use them in a way that adversely affects your ability to show that your engines comply with the applicable PM emission standards. You may condition PM samples to minimize positive and negative biases to PM results, as follows:
(1) PM preclassifier. You may use a PM preclassifier to remove large-diameter particles. The PM preclassifier may be either an inertial impactor or a cyclonic separator. It must be constructed of 300 series stainless steel. The preclassifier must be rated to remove at least 50% of PM at an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm and no more than 1% of PM at an aerodynamic diameter of 1 µm over the range of flow rates for which you use it. Follow the preclassifier manufacturer's instructions for any periodic servicing that may be necessary to prevent a buildup of PM. Install the preclassifier in the dilution system downstream of the last dilution stage. Configure the preclassifier outlet with a means of bypassing any PM sample media so the preclassifier flow may be stabilized before starting a test. Locate PM sample media within 75 cm downstream of the preclassifier's exit. You may not use this preclassifier if you use a PM probe that already has a preclassifier. For example, if you use a hat-shaped preclassifier that is located immediately upstream of the probe in such a way that it forces the sample flow to change direction before entering the probe, you may not use any other preclassifier in your PM sampling system.
(2) Other components. You may request to use other PM conditioning components upstream of a PM preclassifier, such as components that condition humidity or remove gaseous-phase hydrocarbons from the diluted exhaust stream. You may use such components only if we approve them under § 1065.10.
You may use continuous sampling techniques for measurements that involve raw or dilute sampling. Make sure continuous sampling systems meet the specifications in § 1065.145. Make sure continuous analyzers meet the specifications in subparts C and D of this part.
Batch sampling involves collecting and storing emissions for later analysis. Examples of batch sampling include collecting and storing gaseous emissions in a bag or collecting and storing PM on a filter. You may use batch sampling to store emissions that have been diluted at least once in some way, such as with CVS, PFD, or BMD. You may use batch sampling to store undiluted emissions. You may stop emission sampling anytime the engine is turned off, consistent with good engineering judgment. This is intended to allow for higher concentrations of dilute exhaust gases and more accurate measurements. Account for exhaust transport delay in the sampling system and integrate over the actual sampling duration when determining n
(a) Sampling methods. If you extract from a constant-volume flow rate, sample at a constant-volume flow rate as follows:
(1) Verify proportional sampling after an emission test as described in § 1065.545. You must exclude from the proportional sampling verification any portion of the test where you are not sampling emissions because the engine is turned off and the batch samplers are not sampling, accounting for exhaust transport delay in the sampling system. Use good engineering judgment to select storage media that will not significantly change measured emission levels (either up or down). For example, do not use sample bags for storing emissions if the bags are permeable with respect to emissions or if they off gas emissions to the extent that it affects your ability to demonstrate compliance with the applicable gaseous emission standards in this chapter. As another example, do not use PM filters that irreversibly absorb or adsorb gases to the extent that it affects your ability to demonstrate compliance with the applicable PM emission standard in this chapter.
(2) You must follow the requirements in § 1065.140(e)(2) related to PM dilution ratios. For each filter, if you expect the net PM mass on the filter to exceed 400 µg, assuming a 38 mm diameter filter stain area, you may take the following actions in sequence:
(i) For discrete-mode testing only, you may reduce sample time as needed to target a filter loading of 400 µg, but not below the minimum sample time specified in the standard-setting part.
(ii) Reduce filter face velocity as needed to target a filter loading of 400 µg, down to 50 cm/s or less.
(iii) Increase overall dilution ratio above the values specified in § 1065.140(e)(2) to target a filter loading of 400 µg.
(b) Gaseous sample storage media. Store gas volumes in sufficiently clean containers that minimally off-gas or allow permeation of gases. Use good engineering judgment to determine acceptable thresholds of storage media cleanliness and permeation. To clean a container, you may repeatedly purge and evacuate a container and you may heat it. Use a flexible container (such as a bag) within a temperature-controlled environment, or use a temperature controlled rigid container that is initially evacuated or has a volume that can be displaced, such as a piston and cylinder arrangement. Use containers meeting the specifications in the Table 1 of this section, noting that you may request to use other container materials under § 1065.10. Sample temperatures must stay within the following ranges for each container material:
(1) Up to 40 °C for Tedlar
(2) (191 ±11) °C for Teflon
Table 1 of § 1065.170 - Container Materials for Gaseous Batch Sampling
Four-stroke spark-ignition at or below 19 kW
|All other engines|
|CO, CO||Tedlar TM, Kynar TM, Teflon TM, or 300 series stainless steel||Tedlar TM, Kynar TM, Teflon TM, or 300 series stainless steel.|
|THC, NMHC||Teflon TM or 300 series stainless steel||Tedlar TM, Kynar TM, Teflon TM, or 300 series stainless steel.|
(c) PM sample media. Apply the following methods for sampling particulate emissions:
(1) If you use filter-based sampling media to extract and store PM for measurement, your procedure must meet the following specifications:
(i) If you expect that a filter's total surface concentration of PM will exceed 400 µg, assuming a 38 mm diameter filter stain area, for a given test interval, you may use filter media with a minimum initial collection efficiency of 98%; otherwise you must use a filter media with a minimum initial collection efficiency of 99.7%. Collection efficiency must be measured as described in ASTM D2986 (incorporated by reference in § 1065.1010), though you may rely on the sample-media manufacturer's measurements reflected in their product ratings to show that you meet this requirement.
(ii) The filter must be circular, with an overall diameter of 46.50 ±0.6 mm and an exposed diameter of at least 38 mm. See the cassette specifications in paragraph (c)(1)(vii) of this section.
(iii) We highly recommend that you use a pure PTFE filter material that does not have any flow-through support bonded to the back and has an overall thickness of 40 ±20 µm. An inert polymer ring may be bonded to the periphery of the filter material for support and for sealing between the filter cassette parts. We consider Polymethylpentene (PMP) and PTFE inert materials for a support ring, but other inert materials may be used. See the cassette specifications in paragraph (c)(1)(vii) of this section. We allow the use of PTFE-coated glass fiber filter material, as long as this filter media selection does not affect your ability to demonstrate compliance with the applicable standards, which we base on a pure PTFE filter material. Note that we will use pure PTFE filter material for compliance testing, and we may require you to use pure PTFE filter material for any compliance testing we require, such as for selective enforcement audits.
(iv) You may request to use other filter materials or sizes under the provisions of § 1065.10.
(v) To minimize turbulent deposition and to deposit PM evenly on a filter, use a filter holder with a 12.5° (from center) divergent cone angle to transition from the transfer-line inside diameter to the exposed diameter of the filter face. Use 300 series stainless steel for this transition.
(vi) Maintain a filter face velocity near 100 cm/s with less than 5% of the recorded flow values exceeding 100 cm/s, unless you expect the net PM mass on the filter to exceed 400 µg, assuming a 38 mm diameter filter stain area. Measure face velocity as the volumetric flow rate of the sample at the pressure upstream of the filter and temperature of the filter face as measured in § 1065.140(e), divided by the filter's exposed area. You may use the exhaust stack or CVS tunnel pressure for the upstream pressure if the pressure drop through the PM sampler up to the filter is less than 2 kPa.
(vii) Use a clean cassette designed to the specifications of Figure 1 of § 1065.170. In auto changer configurations, you may use cassettes of similar design. Cassettes must be made of one of the following materials: Delrin
(viii) If you keep the cassette in the filter holder after sampling, prevent flow through the filter until either the holder or cassette is removed from the PM sampler. If you remove the cassettes from filter holders after sampling, transfer the cassette to an individual container that is covered or sealed to prevent communication of semi-volatile matter from one filter to another. If you remove the filter holder, cap the inlet and outlet. Keep them covered or sealed until they return to the stabilization or weighing environments.
(ix) The filters should not be handled outside of the PM stabilization and weighing environments and should be loaded into cassettes, filter holders, or auto changer apparatus before removal from these environments.
(2) You may use other PM sample media that we approve under § 1065.10, including non-filtering techniques. For example, you might deposit PM on an inert substrate that collects PM using electrostatic, thermophoresis, inertia, diffusion, or some other deposition mechanism, as approved.
(a) This section describes the two environments required to stabilize and weigh PM for gravimetric analysis: the PM stabilization environment, where filters are stored before weighing; and the weighing environment, where the balance is located. The two environments may share a common space. These volumes may be one or more rooms, or they may be much smaller, such as a glove box or an automated weighing system consisting of one or more countertop-sized environments.
(b) We recommend that you keep both the stabilization and the weighing environments free of ambient contaminants, such as dust, aerosols, or semi-volatile material that could contaminate PM samples. We recommend that these environments conform with an “as-built” Class Six clean room specification according to ISO 14644-1 (incorporated by reference in § 1065.1010); however, we also recommend that you deviate from ISO 14644-1 as necessary to minimize air motion that might affect weighing. We recommend maximum air-supply and air-return velocities of 0.05 m/s in the weighing environment.
(c) Verify the cleanliness of the PM-stabilization environment using reference filters, as described in § 1065.390(d).
(d) Maintain the following ambient conditions within the two environments during all stabilization and weighing:
(1) Ambient temperature and tolerances. Maintain the weighing environment at a tolerance of (22 ±1) °C. If the two environments share a common space, maintain both environments at a tolerance of (22 ±1) °C. If they are separate, maintain the stabilization environment at a tolerance of (22 ±3) °C.
(2) Dewpoint. Maintain a dewpoint of 9.5 °C in both environments. This dewpoint will control the amount of water associated with sulfuric acid (H
(3) Dewpoint tolerances. If the expected fraction of sulfuric acid in PM is unknown, we recommend controlling dewpoint at within ±1 °C tolerance. This would limit any dewpoint-related change in PM to less than ±2%, even for PM that is 50% sulfuric acid. If you know your expected fraction of sulfuric acid in PM, we recommend that you select an appropriate dewpoint tolerance for showing compliance with emission standards using the following table as a guide:
Table 1 of § 1065.190 - Dewpoint Tolerance as a Function of % PM Change and % Sulfuric Acid PM
|Expected sulfuric acid fraction of PM||±0.5% PM mass change||±1% PM mass change||±2% PM mass change|
|5%||±3 °C||±6 °C||±12 °C|
|50%||±0.3 °C||±0.6 °C||±1.2 °C|
|100%||±0.15 °C||±0.3 °C||±0.6 °C|
(e) Verify the following ambient conditions using measurement instruments that meet the specifications in subpart C of this part:
(1) Continuously measure dewpoint and ambient temperature. Use these values to determine if the stabilization and weighing environments have remained within the tolerances specified in paragraph (d) of this section for at least 60 min. before weighing sample media (e.g., filters). We recommend that you use an interlock that automatically prevents the balance from reporting values if either of the environments have not been within the applicable tolerances for the past 60 min.
(2) Continuously measure atmospheric pressure within the weighing environment. An acceptable alternative is to use a barometer that measures atmospheric pressure outside the weighing environment, as long as you can ensure that atmospheric pressure at the balance is always within ±100 Pa of that outside environment during weighing operations. Record atmospheric pressure as you weigh filters, and use these pressure values to perform the buoyancy correction in § 1065.690.
(f) We recommend that you install a balance as follows:
(1) Install the balance on a vibration-isolation platform to isolate it from external noise and vibration.
(2) Shield the balance from convective airflow with a static-dissipating draft shield that is electrically grounded.
(3) Follow the balance manufacturer's specifications for all preventive maintenance.
(4) Operate the balance manually or as part of an automated weighing system.
(g) Minimize static electric charge in the balance environment, as follows:
(1) Electrically ground the balance.
(2) Use 300 series stainless steel tweezers if PM sample media (e.g., filters) must be handled manually.
(3) Ground tweezers with a grounding strap, or provide a grounding strap for the operator such that the grounding strap shares a common ground with the balance. Make sure grounding straps have an appropriate resistor to protect operators from accidental shock.
(4) Provide a static-electricity neutralizer that is electrically grounded in common with the balance to remove static charge from PM sample media (e.g., filters), as follows:
(i) You may use radioactive neutralizers such as a Polonium (
(ii) You may use other neutralizers, such as corona-discharge ionizers. If you use a corona-discharge ionizer, we recommend that you monitor it for neutral net charge according to the ionizer manufacturer's recommendations.
(5) We recommend that you use a device to monitor the static charge of PM sample media (e.g., filter) surface.
(6) We recommend that you neutralize PM sample media (e.g., filters) to within ±2.0 V of neutral. Measure static voltages as follows:
(i) Measure static voltage of PM sample media (e.g., filters) according to the electrostatic voltmeter manufacturer's instructions.
(ii) Measure static voltage of PM sample media (e.g., filters) while the media is at least 15 cm away from any grounded surfaces to avoid mirror image charge interference.
(a) This section describes the environment required to determine PM in-situ. For in-situ analyzers, such as an inertial balance, this is the environment within a PM sampling system that surrounds the PM sample media (e.g., filters). This is typically a very small volume.
(b) Maintain the environment free of ambient contaminants, such as dust, aerosols, or semi-volatile material that could contaminate PM samples. Filter all air used for stabilization with HEPA filters. Ensure that HEPA filters are installed properly so that background PM does not leak past the HEPA filters.
(c) Maintain the following thermodynamic conditions within the environment before measuring PM:
(1) Ambient temperature. Select a nominal ambient temperature, T
(2) Dewpoint. Select a dewpoint, T
(3) Dewpoint tolerance. If the expected fraction of sulfuric acid in PM is unknown, we recommend controlling dewpoint within ±1.0 °C. This would limit any dewpoint-related change in PM to less than ±2%, even for PM that is 50% sulfuric acid. If you know your expected fraction of sulfuric acid in PM, we recommend that you select an appropriate dewpoint tolerance for showing compliance with emission standards using Table 1 of § 1065.190 as a guide:
(4) Absolute pressure. Use good engineering judgment to maintain a tolerance of absolute pressure if your PM measurement instrument requires it.
(d) Continuously measure dewpoint, temperature, and pressure using measurement instruments that meet the PM-stabilization environment specifications in subpart C of this part. Use these values to determine if the in-situ stabilization environment is within the tolerances specified in paragraph (c) of this section. Do not use any PM quantities that are recorded when any of these parameters exceed the applicable tolerances.
(e) If you use an inertial PM balance, we recommend that you install it as follows:
(1) Isolate the balance from any external noise and vibration that is within a frequency range that could affect the balance.
(2) Follow the balance manufacturer's specifications.
(f) If static electricity affects an inertial balance, you may use a static neutralizer, as follows:
(1) You may use a radioactive neutralizer such as a Polonium (
(2) You may use other neutralizers, such as a corona-discharge ionizer. If you use a corona-discharge ionizer, we recommend that you monitor it for neutral net charge according to the ionizer manufacturer's recommendations.