U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Jul 18, 2024

§ 1065.901 - Applicability.

(a) Field testing. This subpart specifies procedures for field-testing engines to determine brake-specific emissions and mass rate emissions using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). These procedures are designed primarily for in-field measurements of engines that remain installed in vehicles or equipment the field. Field-test procedures apply to your engines only as specified in the standard-setting part.

(b) Laboratory testing. You may use PEMS for any testing in a laboratory or similar environment without restriction or prior approval if the PEMS meets all applicable specifications for laboratory testing. You may also use PEMS for any testing in a laboratory or similar environment if we approve it in advance, subject to the following provisions:

(1) Follow the laboratory test procedures specified in this part 1065, according to § 1065.905(e).

(2) Do not apply any PEMS-related field-testing adjustments or measurement allowances to laboratory emission results or standards.

(3) Do not use PEMS for laboratory measurements if it prevents you from demonstrating compliance with the applicable standards in this chapter. Some of the PEMS requirements in this part 1065 are less stringent than the corresponding laboratory requirements. Depending on actual PEMS performance, you might therefore need to account for some additional measurement uncertainty when using PEMS for laboratory testing. If we ask, you must show us by engineering analysis that any additional measurement uncertainty due to your use of PEMS for laboratory testing is offset by the extent to which your engine's emissions are below the applicable standards in this chapter. For example, you might show that PEMS versus laboratory uncertainty represents 5% of the standard, but your engine's deteriorated emissions are at least 20% below the standard for each pollutant.

[70 FR 40516, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 37344, June 30, 2008; 88 FR 4687, Jan. 24, 2023]

§ 1065.905 - General provisions.

(a) General. Unless the standard-setting part specifies deviations from the provisions of this subpart, field testing and laboratory testing with PEMS must conform to the provisions of this subpart. Use good engineering judgment when testing with PEMS to ensure proper function of the instruments under test conditions. For example, this may require additional maintenance or calibration for field testing or may require verification after moving the PEMS unit.

(b) Field-testing scope. Field testing conducted under this subpart may include any normal in-use operation of an engine.

(c) Field testing and the standard-setting part. This subpart J specifies procedures for field-testing various categories of engines. See the standard-setting part for specific provisions for a particular type of engine. Before using this subpart's procedures for field testing, read the standard-setting part to answer at least the following questions:

(1) How many engines must I test in the field?

(2) How many times must I repeat a field test on an individual engine?

(3) How do I select vehicles for field testing?

(4) What maintenance steps may I take before or between tests?

(5) What data are needed for a single field test on an individual engine?

(6) What are the limits on ambient conditions for field testing? Note that the ambient condition limits in § 1065.520 do not apply for field testing. Field testing may occur at any ambient temperature, pressure, and humidity unless otherwise specified in the standard-setting part.

(7) Which exhaust constituents do I need to measure?

(8) How do I account for crankcase emissions?

(9) Which engine and ambient parameters do I need to measure?

(10) How do I process the data recorded during field testing to determine if my engine meets field-testing standards? How do I determine individual test intervals? Note that “test interval” is defined in subpart K of this part 1065.

(11) Should I warm up the test engine before measuring emissions, or do I need to measure cold-start emissions during a warm-up segment of in-use operation?

(12) Do any unique specifications apply for test fuels?

(13) Do any special conditions invalidate parts of a field test or all of a field test?

(14) Does any special measurement allowance apply to field-test emission results or standards, based on using PEMS for field-testing versus using laboratory equipment and instruments for laboratory testing?

(15) Do results of initial field testing trigger any requirement for additional field testing or laboratory testing?

(16) How do I report field-testing results?

(d) Field testing and this part 1065. Use the following specifications for field testing:

(1) Use the applicability and general provisions of subpart A of this part.

(2) Use equipment specifications in § 1065.101 and in the sections from § 1065.140 to the end of subpart B of this part, with the exception of §§ 1065.140(e)(1) and (4), 1065.170(c)(1)(vi), and 1065.195(c). Section 1065.910 identifies additional equipment that is specific to field testing.

(i) For PM samples, configure dilution systems as follows:

(A) Use good engineering judgment to control dilution air temperature. If you choose to directly and actively control dilution air temperature, set the temperature to 25 °C.

(B) Control sample temperature to a (32 to 62) °C tolerance, as measured anywhere within 20 cm upstream or downstream of the PM storage media (such as a filter or oscillating crystal), where the tolerance applies only during sampling.

(C) Maintain filter face velocity to a (5 to 100) cm/s tolerance for flow-through media. Compliance with this provision can be verified by engineering analysis. This provision does not apply for non-flow-through media.

(ii) For inertial PM balances, there is no requirement to control the stabilization environment temperature or dewpoint.

(3) Use measurement instruments in subpart C of this part, except as specified in § 1065.915.

(4) Use calibrations and verifications in subpart D of this part, except as specified in § 1065.920. Section 1065.920 also specifies additional calibrations and verifications for field testing.

(5) Use the provisions of the standard-setting part for selecting and maintaining engines in the field instead of the specifications in subpart E of this part.

(6) Use the procedures in §§ 1065.930 and 1065.935 to start and run a field test. If you use a gravimetric balance for PM, weigh PM samples according to §§ 1065.590 and 1065.595.

(7) Use the calculations in subpart G of this part to calculate emissions over each test interval. Note that “test interval” is defined in subpart K of this part 1065, and that the standard setting part indicates how to determine test intervals for your engine.

Section 1065.940 specifies additional calculations for field testing. Use any calculations specified in the standard-setting part to determine if your engines meet the field-testing standards. The standard-setting part may also contain additional calculations that determine when further field testing is required.

(8) Use a typical in-use fuel meeting the specifications of § 1065.701(d).

(9) Use the lubricant and coolant specifications in §§ 1065.740 and 1065.745.

(10) Use the analytical gases and other calibration standards in § 1065.750 and § 1065.790.

(11) If you are testing with oxygenated fuels, use the procedures specified for testing with oxygenated fuels in subpart I of this part.

(12) Apply the definitions and reference materials in subpart K of this part.

(e) Laboratory testing using PEMS. You may use PEMS for testing in a laboratory as described in § 1065.901(b). Use the following procedures and specifications when using PEMS for laboratory testing:

(1) Use the applicability and general provisions of subpart A of this part.

(2) Use equipment specifications in subpart B of this part. Section 1065.910 specifies additional equipment specific to testing with PEMS.

(3) Use measurement instruments in subpart C of this part, except as specified in § 1065.915.

(4) Use calibrations and verifications in subpart D of this part, except as specified in § 1065.920. Section 1065.920 also specifies additional calibration and verifications for PEMS.

(5) Use the provisions of § 1065.401 for selecting engines for testing. Use the provisions of subpart E of this part for maintaining engines, except as specified in the standard-setting part.

(6) Use the procedures in subpart F of this part and in the standard-setting part to start and run a laboratory test.

(7) Use the calculations in subpart G of this part to calculate emissions over the applicable duty cycle. Section 1065.940 specifies additional calculations for testing with PEMS.

(8) Use a fuel meeting the specifications of subpart H of this part, as specified in the standard-setting part.

(9) Use the lubricant and coolant specifications in §§ 1065.740 and 1065.745.

(10) Use the analytical gases and other calibration standards in §§ 1065.750 and 1065.790.

(11) If you are testing with oxygenated fuels, use the procedures specified for testing with oxygenated fuels in subpart I of this part.

(12) Apply the definitions and reference materials in subpart K of this part.

(f) Summary. The following table summarizes the requirements of paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section:

Table 1 of § 1065.905—Summary of Testing Requirements Specified Outside of This Subpart

Subpart Applicability for field testing a Applicability for laboratory
or similar testing with
PEMS without restriction a
Applicability for laboratory
or similar testing with
PEMS with restrictions a
A: Applicability and general provisionsUse allUse allUse all.
B: Equipment for testingUse §§ 1065.101 and 1065.140 through the end of subpart B of this part, except §§ 1065.140(e)(1) and (4), 1065.170(c)(1)(vi), and 1065.195(c). Section 1065.910 specifies equipment specific to field testingUse allUse all. Section 1065.910 specifies equipment specific to laboratory testing with PEMS.
C: Measurement instrumentsUse all Section 1065.915 allows deviations.Use all except § 1065.295(c)Use all except § 1065.295(c).
Section1065.915 allows deviations.
D: Calibrations and verificationsUse all except §§ 1065.308 and 1065.309. Section 1065.920 allows deviations, but also has additional specificationsUse allUse all. Section 1065.920 allows deviations, but also has additional specifications.
E: Test engine selection, maintenance, and durabilityDo not use Use standard-setting part.Use allUse all.
F: Running an emission test in the laboratoryUse §§ 1065.590 and 1065.595 for PM. §§ 1065.930 and 1065.935 to start and run a field testUse allUse all.
G: Calculations and data requirementsUse all Section 1065.940 has additional calculation instructionsUse allUse all. Section 1065.940 has additional calculation instructions
H: Fuels, engine fluids, analytical gases, and other calibration materialsUse allUse allUse all.
I: Testing with oxygenated fuelsUse allUse allUse all.
K: Definitions and reference materialsUse allUse allUse all.

a Refer to paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section for complete specifications.

[70 FR 40516, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 37344, June 30, 2008; 75 FR 68465, Nov. 8, 2010; 79 FR 23813, Apr. 28, 2014; 86 FR 34574, June 29, 2021]

§ 1065.910 - PEMS auxiliary equipment for field testing.

For field testing you may use various types of auxiliary equipment to attach PEMS to a vehicle or engine and to power PEMS.

(a) When you use PEMS, you may route engine intake air or exhaust through a flow meter. Route the engine intake air or exhaust as follows:

(1) Flexible connections. Use short flexible connectors where necessary.

(i) You may use flexible connectors to enlarge or reduce the pipe diameters to match that of your test equipment.

(ii) We recommend that you use flexible connectors that do not exceed a length of three times their largest inside diameter.

(iii) We recommend that you use four-ply silicone-fiberglass fabric with a temperature rating of at least 315 °C for flexible connectors. You may use connectors with a spring-steel wire helix for support and you may use Nomex TM coverings or linings for durability. You may also use any other nonreactive material with equivalent permeation-resistance and durability, as long as it seals tightly.

(iv) Use stainless-steel hose clamps to seal flexible connectors, or use clamps that seal equivalently.

(v) You may use additional flexible connectors to connect to flow meters.

(2) Tubing. We recommend using rigid 300 series stainless steel tubing to connect between flexible connectors. Tubing may be straight or bent to accommodate vehicle geometry. You may use “T” or “Y” fittings to join multiple connections, or you may cap or plug redundant flow paths if the engine manufacturer recommends it.

(3) Flow restriction. Use flow meters, connectors, and tubing that do not increase flow restriction so much that it exceeds the manufacturer's maximum specified value. You may verify this at the maximum exhaust flow rate by measuring pressure at the manufacturer-specified location with your system connected. You may also perform an engineering analysis to verify an acceptable configuration, taking into account the maximum exhaust flow rate expected, the field test system's flexible connectors, and the tubing's characteristics for pressure drops versus flow.

(b) Locate the PEMS to minimize the effects of the following parameters or place the PEMS in an environmental enclosure that minimizes the effect of these parameters on the emission measurement:

(1) Ambient temperature changes.

(2) Electromagnetic radiation.

(3) Mechanical shock and vibration.

(c) Use mounting hardware as required for securing flexible connectors, ambient sensors, and other equipment. Use structurally sound mounting points such as vehicle frames, trailer hitch receivers, walk spaces, and payload tie-down fittings. We recommend mounting hardware such as clamps, suction cups, and magnets that are specifically designed for your application. We also recommend considering mounting hardware such as commercially available bicycle racks, trailer hitches, and luggage racks where applicable.

(d) Field testing may require portable electrical power to run your test equipment. Power your equipment, as follows:

(1) You may use electrical power from the vehicle, equipment, or vessel, up to the highest power level, such that all the following are true:

(i) The power system is capable of safely supplying power, such that the power demand for testing does not overload the power system.

(ii) The engine emissions do not change significantly as a result of the power demand for testing.

(iii) The power demand for testing does not increase output from the engine by more than 1% of its maximum power.

(2) You may install your own portable power supply. For example, you may use batteries, fuel cells, a portable generator, or any other power supply to supplement or replace your use of vehicle power. You may connect an external power source directly to the vehicle's, vessel's, or equipment's power system; however, you must not supply power to the vehicle's power system in excess of 1% of the engine's maximum power.

[73 FR 37344, June 30, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23058, Apr. 30, 2010; 86 FR 34575, June 29, 2021; 88 FR 4688, Jan. 24, 2023]

§ 1065.915 - PEMS instruments.

(a) Instrument specifications. We recommend that you use PEMS that meet the specifications of subpart C of this part. For unrestricted use of PEMS in a laboratory or similar environment, use a PEMS that meets the same specifications as each lab instrument it replaces. For field testing or for testing with PEMS in a laboratory or similar environment, under the provisions of § 1065.905(b), the specifications in the following table apply instead of the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205:

Table 1 of § 1065.915—Recommended Minimum PEMS Measurement Instrument Performance

Measurement Measured quantity
symbol
Rise time,
t10-90, and
Fall time,
t90-10
Recording
update
frequency
Accuracy a Repeatability a Noise a
Engine speed transducerfn1 s1 Hz means5% of pt. or 1% of max2% of pt. or 1% of max0.5% of max.
Engine torque estimator, BSFC (This is a signal from an engine's ECM)T or BSFC1 s1 Hz means8% of pt. or 5% of max2% of pt. or 1% of max1% of max.
General pressure transducer (not a part of another instrument)p5 s1 Hz5% of pt. or 5% of max2% of pt. or 0.5% of max1% of max.
Atmospheric pressure meterpatmos50 s0.1 Hz250 Pa200 Pa100 Pa.
General temperature sensor (not a part of another instrument)T5 s1 Hz1% of pt. K or 5 K0.5% of pt. K or 2 K0.5% of max 0.5 K.
General dewpoint sensorTdew50 s0.1 Hz3 K1 K1 K.
Exhaust flow metern 1 s1 Hz means5% of pt. or 3% of max2% of pt2% of max.
Dilution air, inlet air, exhaust, and sample flow metersn 1 s1 Hz means2.5% of pt. or 1.5% of max1.25% of pt. or 0.75% of max1% of max.
Continuous gas analyzerx5 s1 Hz4% of pt. or 4% of meas2% of pt. or 2% of meas1% of max.
Gravimetric PM balancemPMSee § 1065.7900.5 µg
Inertial PM balancemPM4% of pt. or 4% of meas2% of pt. or 2% of meas1% of max.

a Accuracy, repeatability, and noise are all determined with the same collected data, as described in § 1065.305, and based on absolute values. “pt.” refers to the overall flow-weighted mean value expected at the standard; “max.” refers to the peak value expected at the standard over any test interval, not the maximum of the instrument's range; “meas” refers to the actual flow-weighted mean measured over any test interval.

(b) Redundant measurements. For all PEMS described in this subpart, you may use data from multiple instruments to calculate test results for a single test. If you use redundant systems, use good engineering judgment to use multiple measured values in calculations or to disregard individual measurements. Note that you must keep your results from all measurements, as described in § 1065.25. This requirement applies whether or not you actually use the measurements in your calculations.

(c) Field-testing ambient effects on PEMS. We recommend that you use PEMS that are only minimally affected by ambient conditions such as temperature, pressure, humidity, physical orientation, mechanical shock and vibration, electromagnetic radiation, and ambient hydrocarbons. Follow the PEMS manufacturer's instructions for proper installation to isolate PEMS from ambient conditions that affect their performance. If a PEMS is inherently affected by ambient conditions that you cannot control, you may monitor those conditions and adjust the PEMS signals to compensate for the ambient effect. The standard-setting part may also specify the use of one or more field-testing adjustments or measurement allowances that you apply to results or standards to account for ambient effects on PEMS.

(d) ECM signals. You may use signals from the engine's electronic control module (ECM) in place of values measured by individual instruments within a PEMS, subject to the following provisions:

(1) Recording ECM signals. If your ECM updates a broadcast signal more or less frequently than 1 Hz, process data as follows:

(i) If your ECM updates a broadcast signal more frequently than 1 Hz, use PEMS to sample and record the signal's value more frequently. Calculate and record the 1 Hz mean of the more frequently updated data.

(ii) If your ECM updates a broadcast signal less frequently than 1 Hz, use PEMS to sample and record the signal's value at the most frequent rate. Linearly interpolate between recorded values and record the interpolated values at 1 Hz.

(iii) Optionally, you may use PEMS to electronically filter the ECM signals to meet the rise time and fall time specifications in Table 1 of this section. Record the filtered signal at 1 Hz.

(2) Omitting ECM signals. Replace any discontinuous or irrational ECM data with linearly interpolated values from adjacent data.

(3) Aligning ECM signals with other data. You must perform time-alignment and dispersion of ECM signals, according to PEMS manufacturer instructions and using good engineering judgment.

(4) ECM signals for determining test intervals. You may use any combination of ECM signals, with or without other measurements, to determine the start-time and end-time of a test interval.

(5) ECM signals for determining brake-specific emissions. You may use any combination of ECM signals, with or without other measurements, to estimate engine speed, torque, brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC, in units of mass of fuel per kW-hr), and fuel rate for use in brake-specific emission calculations. We recommend that the overall performance of any speed, torque, or BSFC estimator should meet the performance specifications in Table 1 of this section. We recommend using one of the following methods:

(i) Speed. Use the engine speed signal directly from the ECM. This signal is generally accurate and precise. You may develop your own speed algorithm based on other ECM signals.

(ii) Torque. Use one of the following:

(A) ECM torque. Use the engine-torque signal directly from the ECM, if broadcast. Determine if this signal is proportional to indicated torque or brake torque. If it is proportional to indicated torque, subtract friction torque from indicated torque and record the result as brake torque. Friction torque may be a separate signal broadcast from the ECM or you may have to determine it from laboratory data as a function of engine speed.

(B) ECM %-load. Use the %-load signal directly from the ECM, if broadcast. Determine if this signal is proportional to indicated torque or brake torque. If it is proportional to indicated torque, subtract the minimum %-load value from the %-load signal. Multiply this result by the maximum brake torque at the corresponding engine speed. Maximum brake torque versus speed information is commonly published by the engine manufacturer.

(C) Your algorithms. You may develop and use your own combination of ECM signals to determine torque.

(iii) BSFC. Use one of the following:

(A) Use ECM engine speed and ECM fuel flow signals to interpolate brake-specific fuel consumption data, which might be available from an engine laboratory as a function of ECM engine speed and ECM fuel signals.

(B) Use a single BSFC value that approximates the BSFC value over a test interval (as defined in subpart K of this part). This value may be a nominal BSFC value for all engine operation determined over one or more laboratory duty cycles, or it may be any other BSFC that you determine. If you use a nominal BSFC, we recommend that you select a value based on the BSFC measured over laboratory duty cycles that best represent the range of engine operation that defines a test interval for field-testing. You may use the methods of this paragraph (d)(5)(iii)(B) only if it does not adversely affect your ability to demonstrate compliance with applicable standards.

(C) You may develop and use your own combination of ECM signals to determine BSFC.

(iv) ECM fuel rate. Use the fuel rate signal directly from the ECM and chemical balance to determine the molar flow rate of exhaust. Use § 1065.655(d) to determine the carbon mass fraction of fuel. You may alternatively develop and use your own combination of ECM signals to determine fuel mass flow rate.

(v) Other ECM signals. You may ask to use other ECM signals for determining brake-specific emissions, such as ECM air flow. We must approve the use of such signals in advance.

(6) Permissible deviations. ECM signals may deviate from the specifications of this part 1065, but the expected deviation must not prevent you from demonstrating that you meet the applicable standards in this chapter. For example, your emission results may be sufficiently below an applicable standard, such that the deviation would not significantly change the result. As another example, a very low engine-coolant temperature may define a logical statement that determines when a test interval may start. In this case, even if the ECM's sensor for detecting coolant temperature was not very accurate or repeatable, its output would never deviate so far as to significantly affect when a test interval may start.

[70 FR 40516, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 37344, June 30, 2008; 73 FR 59342, Oct. 8, 2008; 75 FR 68466, Nov. 8, 2010; 76 FR 57467, Sept. 15, 2011; 79 FR 23813, Apr. 28, 2014; 86 FR 34575, June 29, 2021; 88 FR 4688, Jan. 24, 2023]

§ 1065.920 - PEMS calibrations and verifications.

(a) Subsystem calibrations and verifications. Use all the applicable calibrations and verifications in subpart D of this part, including the linearity verifications in § 1065.307, to calibrate and verify PEMS. Note that a PEMS does not have to meet the system-response and updating-recording verifications of § 1065.308 and § 1065.309 if it meets the overall verification described in paragraph (b) of this section or if it measures PM using any method other than that described in § 1065.170(c)(1). This section does not apply to ECM signals. Note that because the regulations of this part require you to use good engineering judgment, it may be necessary to perform additional verifications and analysis. It may also be necessary to limit the range of conditions under which the PEMS can be used or to include specific additional maintenance to ensure that it functions properly under the test conditions. As provided in 40 CFR 1068.5, we will deem your system to not meet the requirements of this section if we determine that you did not use good engineering judgment to verify the measurement equipment. We may also deem your system to meet these requirements only under certain test conditions. If we ask for it, you must send us a summary of your verifications. We may also ask you to provide additional information or analysis to support your conclusions.

(b) Overall verification. This paragraph (b) specifies methods and criteria for verifying the overall performance of systems not fully compliant with requirements that apply for laboratory testing. Maintain records to show that the particular make, model, and configuration of your PEMS meets this verification. You may rely on data and other information from the PEMS manufacturer. However, we recommend that you generate your own records to show that your specific PEMS meets this verification. If you upgrade or change the configuration of your PEMS, your record must show that your new configuration meets this verification. The verification required by this section consists of operating an engine over a duty cycle in the laboratory and statistically comparing data generated and recorded by the PEMS with data simultaneously generated and recorded by laboratory equipment as follows:

(1) Mount an engine on a dynamometer for laboratory testing. Prepare the laboratory and PEMS for emission testing, as described in this part, to get simultaneous measurements. We recommend selecting an engine with emission levels close to the applicable duty-cycle standards, if possible.

(2) Select or create a duty cycle that has all the following characteristics:

(i) Engine operation that represents normal in-use speeds, loads, and degree of transient activity. Consider using data from previous field tests to generate a cycle.

(ii) A duration of (6 to 9) hours.

(3) Starting with a warmed-up engine, run a valid emission test with the duty cycle from paragraph (b)(2) of this section. The laboratory and PEMS must both meet applicable validation requirements, such as drift validation, hydrocarbon contamination validation, and proportional validation.

(4) Determine the brake-specific emissions and mass rate emissions, as applicable, for each test interval for both laboratory and the PEMS measurements, as follows:

(i) For both laboratory and PEMS measurements, use identical values to determine the beginning and end of each test interval.

(ii) For both laboratory and PEMS measurements, use identical values to determine total work over each test interval.

(iii) If the standard-setting part specifies the use of a measurement allowance for field testing, also apply the measurement allowance during calibration using good engineering judgment. If the measurement allowance is normally added to the standard, this means you must subtract the measurement allowance from measured PEMS emission results.

(iv) Round results to the same number of significant digits as the standard.

(5) For each test interval and emission, subtract the lab result from the PEMS result.

(6) The PEMS passes the verification of this paragraph (b) if any one of the following are true for each constituent:

(i) 91% or more of the differences are zero or less than zero.

(ii) The entire set of test-interval results passes the 95% confidence alternate-procedure statistics for field testing (t-test and F-test) specified in § 1065.12.

[70 FR 40516, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 37345, June 30, 2008; 75 FR 68467, Nov. 8, 2010; 79 FR 23814, Apr. 28, 2014; 88 FR 4688, Jan. 24, 2023]

§ 1065.925 - PEMS preparation for field testing.

Take the following steps to prepare PEMS for field testing:

(a) Verify that ambient conditions at the start of the test are within the limits specified in the standard-setting part. Continue to monitor these values to determine if ambient conditions exceed the limits during the test.

(b) Install a PEMS and any accessories needed to conduct a field test.

(c) Power the PEMS and allow pressures, temperatures, and flows to stabilize to their operating set points.

(d) Bypass or purge any gaseous sampling PEMS instruments with ambient air until sampling begins to prevent system contamination from excessive cold-start emissions.

(e) Conduct calibrations and verifications.

(f) Operate any PEMS dilution systems at their expected flow rates using a bypass.

(g) If you use a gravimetric balance to determine whether an engine meets an applicable PM standard, follow the procedures for PM sample preconditioning and tare weighing as described in § 1065.590. Operate the PM-sampling system at its expected flow rates using a bypass.

(h) Verify the amount of contamination in the PEMS HC sampling system before the start of the field test as follows:

(1) Select the HC analyzer range for measuring the maximum concentration expected at the HC standard.

(2) Zero the HC analyzers using a zero gas or ambient air introduced at the analyzer port. When zeroing a FID, use the FID's burner air that would be used for in-use measurements (generally either ambient air or a portable source of burner air).

(3) Span the HC analyzer using span gas introduced at the analyzer port.

(4) Overflow zero or ambient air at the HC probe inlet or into a tee near the probe outlet.

(5) Measure the HC concentration in the sampling system:

(i) For continuous sampling, record the mean HC concentration as overflow zero air flows.

(ii) For batch sampling, fill the sample medium and record its mean concentration.

(6) Record this value as the initial HC concentration, xTHCinit, and use it to correct measured values as described in § 1065.660.

(7) If the initial HC concentration exceeds the greater of the following values, determine the source of the contamination and take corrective action, such as purging the system or replacing contaminated portions:

(i) 2% of the flow-weighted mean concentration expected at the standard or measured during testing.

(ii) 2 µmol/mol.

(8) If corrective action does not resolve the deficiency, you may use a contaminated HC system if it does not prevent you from demonstrating compliance with the applicable emission standards.

[70 FR 40516, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 37345, June 30, 2008; 73 FR 59342, Oct. 8, 2008; 75 FR 68467, Nov. 8, 2010; 76 FR 57467, Sept. 15, 2011]

§ 1065.930 - Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

Unless the standard-setting part specifies otherwise, start, restart, and shut down the test engine for field testing as follows:

(a) Start or restart the engine as described in the owners manual.

(b) If the engine does not start after 15 seconds of cranking, stop cranking and determine the reason it failed to start. However, you may crank the engine longer than 15 seconds, as long as the owners manual or the service-repair manual describes the longer cranking time as normal.

(c) Respond to engine stalling with the following steps:

(1) If the engine stalls during a required warm-up before emission sampling begins, restart the engine and continue warm-up.

(2) If the engine stalls at any other time after emission sampling begins, restart the engine and continue testing.

(d) Shut down and restart the engine according to the manufacturer's specifications, as needed during normal operation in-use, but continue emission sampling until the field test is complete.

§ 1065.935 - Emission test sequence for field testing.

(a) Time the start of field testing as follows:

(1) If the standard-setting part requires only hot-stabilized emission measurements, operate the engine in-use until the engine coolant, block, or head absolute temperature is within ±10% of its mean value for the previous 2 min or until an engine thermostat controls engine temperature with coolant or air flow.

(2) If the standard-setting part requires hot-start emission measurements, shut down the engine after at least 2 min at the temperature tolerance specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Start the field test within 20 min of engine shutdown.

(3) If the standard-setting part requires cold-start emission measurements, proceed to the steps specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Take the following steps before emission sampling begins:

(1) For batch sampling, connect clean storage media, such as evacuated bags or tare-weighed PM sample media.

(2) Operate the PEMS according to the instrument manufacturer's instructions and using good engineering judgment.

(3) Operate PEMS heaters, dilution systems, sample pumps, cooling fans, and the data-collection system.

(4) Pre-heat or pre-cool PEMS heat exchangers in the sampling system to within their tolerances for operating temperatures.

(5) Allow all other PEMS components such as sample lines, filters, and pumps to stabilize at operating temperature.

(6) Verify that no significant vacuum-side leak exists in the PEMS, as described in § 1065.345.

(7) Adjust PEMS flow rates to desired levels, using bypass flow if applicable.

(8) Zero and span all PEMS gas analyzers using NIST-traceable gases that meet the specifications of § 1065.750.

(c) Start testing as follows:

(1) Before the start of the first test interval, zero or re-zero any PEMS electronic integrating devices, as needed.

(2) If the engine is already running and warmed up and starting is not part of field testing, start the field test by simultaneously starting to sample exhaust, record engine and ambient data, and integrate measured values using a PEMS.

(3) If engine starting is part of field testing, start field testing by simultaneously starting to sample from the exhaust system, record engine and ambient data, and integrate measured values using a PEMS. Then start the engine.

(d) Continue the test as follows:

(1) Continue to sample exhaust, record data and integrate measured values throughout normal in-use operation of the engine.

(2) Between each test interval, zero or re-zero any electronic integrating devices, and reset batch storage media, as needed.

(3) The engine may be stopped and started, but continue to sample emissions throughout the entire field test.

(4) Conduct periodic verifications such as zero and span verifications on PEMS gas analyzers and use these to correct for drift according to paragraph (g) of this section. Do not include data recorded during verifications in emission calculations. Conduct the verifications as follows:

(i) For PEMS gas analyzers used to determine NTE emission values, perform verifications as recommended by the PEMS manufacturer or as indicated by good engineering judgment.

(ii) For PEMS gas analyzers used to determine bin emission values, perform zero verifications at least hourly using purified air. Perform span verification at the end of the shift-day or more frequently as recommended by the PEMS manufacturer or as indicated by good engineering judgment.

(5) You may periodically condition and analyze batch samples in-situ, including PM samples; for example you may condition an inertial PM balance substrate if you use an inertial balance to measure PM.

(6) You may have personnel monitoring and adjusting the PEMS during a test, or you may operate the PEMS unattended.

(e) Stop testing as follows:

(1) Continue sampling as needed to get an appropriate amount of emission measurement, according to the standard setting part. If the standard-setting part does not describe when to stop sampling, develop a written protocol before you start testing to establish how you will stop sampling. You may not determine when to stop testing based on emission results.

(2) At the end of the field test, allow the sampling systems' response times to elapse and then stop sampling. Stop any integrators and indicate the end of the test cycle on the data-collection medium.

(3) You may shut down the engine before or after you stop sampling.

(f) For any proportional batch sample, such as a bag sample or PM sample, verify for each test interval whether or not proportional sampling was maintained according to § 1065.545. Void the sample for any test interval that did not maintain proportional sampling according to § 1065.545.

(g) Take the following steps after emission sampling is complete:

(1) As soon as practical after emission sampling, analyze any gaseous batch samples.

(2) If you used dilution air, either analyze background samples or assume that background emissions were zero. Refer to § 1065.140 for dilution-air specifications.

(3) After quantifying all exhaust gases, record mean analyzer values after stabilizing a zero gas to each analyzer, then record mean analyzer values after stabilizing the span gas to the analyzer. Stabilization may include time to purge an analyzer of any sample gas and any additional time to account for analyzer response. Use these recorded values, including pre-test verifications and any zero verifications during testing, to correct for drift as described in § 1065.550.

(4) Verify PEMS gas analyzers used to determine NTE emission values as follows:

(i) Invalidate any data that does not meet the range criteria in § 1065.550. Note that it is acceptable that analyzers exceed 100% of their ranges when measuring emissions between test intervals, but not during test intervals. You do not have to retest an engine if the range criteria are not met.

(ii) Invalidate any data that does not meet the drift criterion in § 1065.550. For HC, invalidate any data if the difference between the uncorrected and the corrected brake-specific HC emission values are not within ±10% of the uncorrected results or the applicable standard, whichever is greater. For data that does meet the drift criterion, correct those test intervals for drift according to § 1065.672 and use the drift corrected results in emissions calculations.

(5) Verify PEMS gas analyzers used to determine bin emission values as follows:

(i) Invalidate data from a whole shift-day if more than 1% of recorded 1 Hz data exceeds 100% of the selected gas analyzer range. For analyzer outputs exceeding 100% of range, calculate emission results using the reported value. You must retest an engine if the range criteria are not met.

(ii) Invalidate any data for periods in which the CO and CO2 gas analyzers do not meet the drift criterion in § 1065.550. For HC, invalidate data if the difference between the uncorrected and the corrected brake-specific HC emission values are not within ±10% of the uncorrected results or the applicable standard, whichever is greater. For data that do meet the drift criterion, correct the data for drift according to § 1065.672 and use the drift-corrected results in emissions calculations.

(iii) For PEMS NOX analyzers used to determine bin emission values, invalidate data for the engine over the entire shift-day if any data do not meet the following drift limits instead of meeting the drift criteria specified in § 1065.550:

(A) The allowable analyzer zero-drift between successive zero verifications is ±2.5 ppm. The analyzer zero-drift limit over the shift-day is ±10 ppm.

(B) The allowable analyzer span-drift limit is ±4% of the measured span value between successive span verifications.

(6) Unless you weighed PM in-situ, such as by using an inertial PM balance, place any used PM samples into covered or sealed containers and return them to the PM-stabilization environment and weigh them as described in § 1065.595.

[70 FR 40516, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 37345, June 30, 2008; 88 FR 4688, Jan. 24, 2023; 89 FR 29826, Apr. 22, 2024]

§ 1065.940 - Emission calculations.

(a) Perform emission calculations as described in § 1065.650 to calculate brake-specific emissions for each test interval using any applicable information and instructions in the standard-setting part.

(b) You may use a fixed molar mass for the diluted exhaust mixture for field testing. Determine this fixed value by engineering analysis.

[75 FR 68467, Nov. 8, 2010]