U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Mar 30, 2023
§ 1065.1001 - Definitions.
The definitions in this section apply to this part. The definitions apply to all subparts unless we note otherwise. All undefined terms have the meaning the Act gives them. The definitions follow:
300 series stainless steel means any stainless steel alloy with a Unified Numbering System for Metals and Alloys number designated from S30100 to S39000. For all instances in this part where we specify 300 series stainless steel, such parts must also have a smooth inner-wall construction. We recommend an average roughness, R
Accuracy means the absolute difference between a reference quantity and the arithmetic mean of ten mean measurements of that quantity. Determine instrument accuracy, repeatability, and noise from the same data set. We specify a procedure for determining accuracy in § 1065.305.
Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q.
Adjustable parameter means any device, system, or element of design that someone can adjust (including those which are difficult to access) and that, if adjusted, may affect emissions or engine performance during emission testing or normal in-use operation. This includes, but is not limited to, parameters related to injection timing and fueling rate. In some cases, this may exclude a parameter that is difficult to access if it cannot be adjusted to affect emissions without significantly degrading engine performance, or if it will not be adjusted in a way that affects emissions during in-use operation.
Aerodynamic diameter means the diameter of a spherical water droplet that settles at the same constant velocity as the particle being sampled.
Aftertreatment means relating to a catalytic converter, particulate filter, or any other system, component, or technology mounted downstream of the exhaust valve (or exhaust port) whose design function is to decrease emissions in the engine exhaust before it is exhausted to the environment. Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) and turbochargers are not aftertreatment.
Allowed procedures means procedures that we either specify in this part 1065 or in the standard-setting part or approve under § 1065.10.
Alternate procedures means procedures allowed under § 1065.10(c)(7).
Applicable standard means an emission standard to which an engine is subject; or a family emission limit to which an engine is certified under an emission credit program in the standard-setting part.
Aqueous condensation means the precipitation of water-containing constituents from a gas phase to a liquid phase. Aqueous condensation is a function of humidity, pressure, temperature, and concentrations of other constituents such as sulfuric acid. These parameters vary as a function of engine intake-air humidity, dilution-air humidity, engine air-to-fuel ratio, and fuel composition - including the amount of hydrogen and sulfur in the fuel.
Atmospheric pressure means the wet, absolute, atmospheric static pressure. Note that if you measure atmospheric pressure in a duct, you must ensure that there are negligible pressure losses between the atmosphere and your measurement location, and you must account for changes in the duct's static pressure resulting from the flow.
Auto-ranging means a gas analyzer function that automatically changes the analyzer digital resolution to a larger range of concentrations as the concentration approaches 100% of the analyzer's current range. Auto-ranging does not mean changing an analog amplifier gain within an analyzer.
Auxiliary emission-control device means any element of design that senses temperature, motive speed, engine RPM, transmission gear, or any other parameter for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying, or deactivating the operation of any part of the emission-control system.
Average means the arithmetic mean of a sample.
Brake power has the meaning given in the standard-setting part. If it is not defined in the standard-setting part, brake power means the usable power output of the engine, not including power required to fuel, lubricate, or heat the engine, circulate coolant to the engine, or to operate aftertreatment devices. If the engine does not power these accessories during a test, subtract the work required to perform these functions from the total work used in brake-specific emission calculations. Subtract engine fan work from total work only for air-cooled engines.
Calibration means the process of setting a measurement system's response so that its output agrees with a range of reference signals. Contrast with “verification”.
Calibration gas means a purified gas mixture used to calibrate gas analyzers. Calibration gases must meet the specifications of § 1065.750. Note that calibration gases and span gases are qualitatively the same, but differ in terms of their primary function. Various performance verification checks for gas analyzers and sample handling components might refer to either calibration gases or span gases.
Certification means relating to the process of obtaining a certificate of conformity for an engine family that complies with the emission standards and requirements in the standard-setting part.
Compression-ignition means relating to a type of reciprocating, internal-combustion engine that is not a spark-ignition engine.
Confidence interval means the range associated with a probability that a quantity will be considered statistically equivalent to a reference quantity.
Constant-speed engine means an engine whose certification is limited to constant-speed operation. Engines whose constant-speed governor function is removed or disabled are no longer constant-speed engines.
Constant-speed operation means engine operation with a governor that automatically controls the operator demand to maintain engine speed, even under changing load. Governors do not always maintain speed exactly constant. Typically speed can decrease (0.1 to 10) % below the speed at zero load, such that the minimum speed occurs near the engine's point of maximum power. (Note: An engine with an adjustable governor setting may be considered to operate at constant speed, subject to our approval. For such engines, the governor setting is considered an adjustable parameter.)
Coriolis meter means a flow-measurement instrument that determines the mass flow of a fluid by sensing the vibration and twist of specially designed flow tubes as the flow passes through them. The twisting characteristic is called the Coriolis effect. According to Newton's Second Law of Motion, the amount of sensor tube twist is directly proportional to the mass flow rate of the fluid flowing through the tube. See § 1065.220.
Dewpoint means a measure of humidity stated as the equilibrium temperature at which water condenses under a given pressure from moist air with a given absolute humidity. Dewpoint is specified as a temperature in °C or K, and is valid only for the pressure at which it is measured. See § 1065.645 to determine water vapor mole fractions from dewpoints using the pressure at which the dewpoint is measured.
Diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) means a liquid reducing agent (other than the engine fuel) used in conjunction with selective catalytic reduction to reduce NO
Dilution ratio (DR) means the amount of diluted exhaust per amount of undiluted exhaust.
Discrete-mode means relating to a discrete-mode type of steady-state test, as described in the standard-setting part.
Dispersion means either:
(1) The broadening and lowering of a signal due to any fluid capacitance, fluid mixing, or electronic filtering in a sampling system. (Note: To adjust a signal so its dispersion matches that of another signal, you may adjust the system's fluid capacitance, fluid mixing, or electronic filtering.)
(2) The mixing of a fluid, especially as a result of fluid mechanical forces or chemical diffusion.
Drift means the difference between a zero or calibration signal and the respective value reported by a measurement instrument immediately after it was used in an emission test, as long as you zeroed and spanned the instrument just before the test.
Dual-fuel has the meaning given in the standard-setting part.
Duty cycle means one of the following:
(1) A series of speed and torque values (or power values) that an engine must follow during a laboratory test. Duty cycles are specified in the standard-setting part. A single duty cycle may consist of one or more test intervals. A series of speed and torque values meeting the definition of this paragraph (1) may also be considered a test cycle. For example, a duty cycle may be a ramped-modal cycle, which has one test interval; a cold-start plus hot-start transient cycle, which has two test intervals; or a discrete-mode cycle, which has one test interval for each mode.
(2) A set of weighting factors and the corresponding speed and torque values, where the weighting factors are used to combine the results of multiple test intervals into a composite result.
Electric power generation application means an application whose purpose is to generate a precise frequency of electricity, which is characterized by an engine that controls engine speed very precisely. This would generally not apply to welders or portable home generators.
Electronic control module means an engine's electronic device that uses data from engine sensors to control engine parameters.
Emission-control system means any device, system, or element of design that controls or reduces the emissions of regulated pollutants from an engine.
Emission-data engine means an engine that is tested for certification. This includes engines tested to establish deterioration factors.
Emission-related maintenance means maintenance that substantially affects emissions or is likely to substantially affect emission deterioration.
Engine family means a group of engines with similar emission characteristics throughout the useful life, as specified in the standard-setting part.
Engine governed speed means the engine operating speed when it is controlled by the installed governor.
Enhanced-idle means a mode of engine idle operation where idle speed is elevated above warm idle speed as determined by the electronic control module, for example during engine warm-up or to increase exhaust temperature.
EPA Program Officer means the Director, Compliance Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000 Traverwood Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48105.
Exhaust-gas recirculation means a technology that reduces emissions by routing exhaust gases that had been exhausted from the combustion chamber(s) back into the engine to be mixed with incoming air before or during combustion. The use of valve timing to increase the amount of residual exhaust gas in the combustion chamber(s) that is mixed with incoming air before or during combustion is not considered exhaust-gas recirculation for the purposes of this part.
Fall time, t
(1) The point at which the response has fallen 10% of the total amount it will fall in response to the step change.
(2) The point at which the response has fallen 90% of the total amount it will fall in response to the step change.
Flexible-fuel has the meaning given in the standard-setting part.
Flow-weighted mean means the mean of a quantity after it is weighted proportional to a corresponding flow rate. For example, if a gas concentration is measured continuously from the raw exhaust of an engine, its flow-weighted mean concentration is the sum of the products of each recorded concentration times its respective exhaust flow rate, divided by the sum of the recorded flow rates. As another example, the bag concentration from a CVS system is the same as the flow-weighted mean concentration, because the CVS system itself flow-weights the bag concentration.
Fuel type means a general category of fuels such as gasoline or LPG. There can be multiple grades within a single type of fuel, such as all-season and winter-grade gasoline.
Good engineering judgment means judgments made consistent with generally accepted scientific and engineering principles and all available relevant information. See 40 CFR 1068.5 for the administrative process we use to evaluate good engineering judgment.
HEPA filter means high-efficiency particulate air filters that are rated to achieve a minimum initial particle-removal efficiency of 99.97% using ASTM F1471 (incorporated by reference in § 1065.1010).
High-idle speed means the engine speed at which an engine governor function controls engine speed with operator demand at maximum and with zero load applied. “Warm high-idle speed” is the high-idle speed of a warmed-up engine.
High-speed governor means any device, system, or element of design that modulates the engine output torque for the purpose of limiting the maximum engine speed.
Hydraulic diameter means the diameter of a circle whose area is equal to the area of a noncircular cross section of tubing, including its wall thickness. The wall thickness is included only for the purpose of facilitating a simplified and nonintrusive measurement.
Hydrocarbon (HC) means THC, THCE, NMHC, NMNEHC, NMOG, or NMHCE, as applicable. Hydrocarbon generally means the hydrocarbon group on which the emission standards are based for each type of fuel and engine.
Identification number means a unique specification (for example, a model number/serial number combination) that allows someone to distinguish a particular engine from other similar engines.
Idle speed means the engine speed at which an engine governor function controls engine speed with operator demand at minimum and with minimum load applied (greater than or equal to zero). For engines without a governor function that controls idle speed, idle speed means the manufacturer-declared value for lowest engine speed possible with minimum load. This definition does not apply for operation designated as “high-idle speed.” “Warm idle speed” is the idle speed of a warmed-up engine.
Intermediate speed has the meaning given in § 1065.610.
Linearity means the degree to which measured values agree with respective reference values. Linearity is quantified using a linear regression of pairs of measured values and reference values over a range of values expected or observed during testing. Perfect linearity would result in an intercept, a
Manufacturer has the meaning given in section 216(1) of the Act. In general, this term includes any person who manufactures an engine or vehicle for sale in the United States or otherwise introduces a new nonroad engine into commerce in the United States. This includes importers who import engines or vehicles for resale.
Maximum test speed has the meaning given in § 1065.610.
Maximum test torque has the meaning given in § 1065.610.
Measurement allowance means a specified adjustment in the applicable emission standard or a measured emission value to reflect the relative quality of the measurement. See the standard-setting part to determine whether any measurement allowances apply for your testing. Measurement allowances generally apply only for field testing and are intended to account for reduced accuracy or precision that result from using field-grade measurement systems.
Mode means one of the following:
(1) A distinct combination of engine speed and load for steady-state testing.
(2) A continuous combination of speeds and loads specifying a transition during a ramped-modal test.
(3) A distinct operator demand setting, such as would occur when testing locomotives or constant-speed engines.
NIST-accepted means relating to a value that has been assigned or named by NIST.
NIST-traceable means relating to a standard value that can be related to NIST-stated references through an unbroken chain of comparisons, all having stated uncertainties, as specified in NIST Technical Note 1297 (incorporated by reference in § 1065.1010). Allowable uncertainty limits specified for NIST-traceability refer to the propagated uncertainty specified by NIST.
Noise means the precision of 30 seconds of updated recorded values from a measurement instrument as it quantifies a zero or reference value. Determine instrument noise, repeatability, and accuracy from the same data set. We specify a procedure for determining noise in § 1065.305.
No-load means a dynamometer setting of zero torque.
Nonmethane hydrocarbon equivalent (NMHCE) means the sum of the carbon mass contributions of non-oxygenated nonmethane hydrocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes, or other organic compounds that are measured separately as contained in a gas sample, expressed as exhaust nonmethane hydrocarbon from petroleum-fueled engines. The hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of the equivalent hydrocarbon is 1.85:1.
Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) means the sum of all hydrocarbon species except methane. Refer to § 1065.660 for NMHC determination.
Nonmethane nonethane hydrocarbon (NMNEHC) means the sum of all hydrocarbon species except methane and ethane. Refer to § 1065.660 for NMNEHC determination.
Nonroad means relating to nonroad engines.
Nonroad engine has the meaning we give in 40 CFR 1068.30. In general this means all internal-combustion engines except motor vehicle engines, stationary engines, engines used solely for competition, or engines used in aircraft.
Open crankcase emissions means any flow from an engine's crankcase that is emitted directly into the environment. Crankcase emissions are not “open crankcase emissions” if the engine is designed to always route all crankcase emissions back into the engine (for example, through the intake system or an aftertreatment system) such that all the crankcase emissions, or their products, are emitted into the environment only through the engine exhaust system.
Operator demand means an engine operator's input to control engine output. The “operator” may be a person (i.e., manual), or a governor (i.e., automatic) that mechanically or electronically signals an input that demands engine output. Input may be from an accelerator pedal or signal, a throttle-control lever or signal, a fuel lever or signal, a speed lever or signal, or a governor setpoint or signal. Output means engine power, P, which is the product of engine speed, f
Oxides of nitrogen means NO and NO
Oxygenated fuels means fuels composed of at least 25% oxygen-containing compounds, such as ethanol or methanol. Testing engines that use oxygenated fuels generally requires the use of the sampling methods in subpart I of this part. However, you should read the standard-setting part and subpart I of this part to determine appropriate sampling methods.
Partial pressure means the pressure, p, attributable to a single gas in a gas mixture. For an ideal gas, the partial pressure divided by the total pressure is equal to the constituent's molar concentration, x.
Percent (%) means a representation of exactly 0.01. Numbers expressed as percentages in this part (such as a tolerance of ±2%) have infinite precision, so 2% and 2.000000000% have the same meaning. This means that where we specify some percentage of a total value, the calculated value has the same number of significant digits as the total value. For example, 2% of a span value where the span value is 101.3302 is 2.026604.
Portable emission measurement system (PEMS) means a measurement system consisting of portable equipment that can be used to generate brake-specific emission measurements during field testing or laboratory testing.
Precision means two times the standard deviation of a set of measured values of a single zero or reference quantity. See also the related definitions of noise and repeatability in this section.
Procedures means all aspects of engine testing, including the equipment specifications, calibrations, calculations and other protocols and specifications needed to measure emissions, unless we specify otherwise.
Proving ring is a device used to measure static force based on the linear relationship between stress and strain in an elastic material. It is typically a steel alloy ring, and you measure the deflection (strain) of its diameter when a static force (stress) is applied across its diameter.
PTFE means polytetrafluoroethylene, commonly known as Teflon
Purified air means air meeting the specifications for purified air in § 1065.750. Purified air may be produced by purifying ambient air. The purification may occur at the test site or at another location (such as at a gas supplier's facility). Alternatively, purified air may be synthetically generated, using good engineering judgment, from purified oxygen and nitrogen. The addition of other elements normally present in purified ambient air (such as Ar) is not required.
Ramped-modal means relating to a ramped-modal type of steady-state test, as described in the standard-setting part.
Recommend has the meaning given in § 1065.201.
Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) means the components of a hybrid engine or vehicle that store recovered energy for later use, such as the battery system in a hybrid electric vehicle.
Regression statistics means any of the regression statistics specified in § 1065.602.
Repeatability means the precision of ten mean measurements of a reference quantity. Determine instrument repeatability, accuracy, and noise from the same data set. We specify a procedure for determining repeatability in § 1065.305.
Revoke has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.
Rise time, t
(1) The point at which the response has risen 10% of the total amount it will rise in response to the step change.
(2) The point at which the response has risen 90% of the total amount it will rise in response to the step change.
Roughness (or average roughness, R
Round means to apply the rounding convention specified in § 1065.20(e), unless otherwise specified.
Scheduled maintenance means adjusting, repairing, removing, disassembling, cleaning, or replacing components or systems periodically to keep a part or system from failing, malfunctioning, or wearing prematurely. It also may mean actions you expect are necessary to correct an overt indication of failure or malfunction for which periodic maintenance is not appropriate.
Shared atmospheric pressure meter means an atmospheric pressure meter whose output is used as the atmospheric pressure for an entire test facility that has more than one dynamometer test cell.
Shared humidity measurement means a humidity measurement that is used as the humidity for an entire test facility that has more than one dynamometer test cell.
Span means to adjust an instrument so that it gives a proper response to a calibration standard that represents between 75% and 100% of the maximum value in the instrument range or expected range of use.
Span gas means a purified gas mixture used to span gas analyzers. Span gases must meet the specifications of § 1065.750. Note that calibration gases and span gases are qualitatively the same, but differ in terms of their primary function. Various performance verification checks for gas analyzers and sample handling components might refer to either calibration gases or span gases.
Spark-ignition means relating to a gasoline-fueled engine or any other type of engine with a spark plug (or other sparking device) and with operating characteristics significantly similar to the theoretical Otto combustion cycle. Spark-ignition engines usually use a throttle to regulate intake air flow to control power during normal operation.
Special procedures means procedures allowed under § 1065.10(c)(2).
Specified procedures means procedures we specify in this part 1065 or the standard-setting part. Other procedures allowed or required by § 1065.10(c) are not specified procedures.
Standard deviation has the meaning given in § 1065.602. Note this is the standard deviation for a non-biased sample.
Standard-setting part means the part in the Code of Federal Regulations that defines emission standards for a particular engine. See § 1065.1(a).
Steady-state means relating to emission tests in which engine speed and load are held at a finite set of nominally constant values. Steady-state tests are generally either discrete-mode tests or ramped-modal tests.
Stoichiometric means relating to the particular ratio of air and fuel such that if the fuel were fully oxidized, there would be no remaining fuel or oxygen. For example, stoichiometric combustion in a gasoline-fueled engine typically occurs at an air-to-fuel mass ratio of about 14.7:1.
Storage medium means a particulate filter, sample bag, or any other storage device used for batch sampling.
(1) The point at which the step change is initiated at the sample probe.
(2) The point at which the response has risen 50% of the total amount it will rise in response to the step change.
(1) The point at which the step change is initiated at the sample probe.
(2) The point at which the response has fallen 50% of the total amount it will fall in response to the step change.
Test engine means an engine in a test sample.
Test interval means a duration of time over which you determine mass of emissions. For example, the standard-setting part may specify a complete laboratory duty cycle as a cold-start test interval, plus a hot-start test interval. As another example, a standard-setting part may specify a field-test interval, such as a “not-to-exceed” (NTE) event, as a duration of time over which an engine operates within a certain range of speed and torque. In cases where multiple test intervals occur over a duty cycle, the standard-setting part may specify additional calculations that weight and combine results to arrive at composite values for comparison against the applicable standards in this chapter.
Test sample means the collection of engines selected from the population of an engine family for emission testing.
Tolerance means the interval in which at least 95% of a set of recorded values of a certain quantity must lie. Use the specified recording frequencies and time intervals to determine if a quantity is within the applicable tolerance. The concept of tolerance is intended to address random variability. You may not take advantage of the tolerance specification to incorporate a bias into a measurement.
Total hydrocarbon (THC) means the combined mass of organic compounds measured by the specified procedure for measuring total hydrocarbon, expressed as a hydrocarbon with a hydrogen-to-carbon mass ratio of 1.85:1.
Total hydrocarbon equivalent (THCE) means the sum of the carbon mass contributions of non-oxygenated hydrocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes, or other organic compounds that are measured separately as contained in a gas sample, expressed as exhaust hydrocarbon from petroleum-fueled engines. The hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of the equivalent hydrocarbon is 1.85:1.
Transformation time, t
Uncertainty means uncertainty with respect to NIST-traceability. See the definition of NIST-traceable in this section.
United States means the States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Useful life means the period during which a new engine is required to comply with all applicable emission standards. The standard-setting part defines the specific useful-life periods for individual engines.
Variable-speed engine means an engine that is not a constant-speed engine.
Vehicle means any vehicle, vessel, or type of equipment using engines to which this part applies. For purposes of this part, the term “vehicle” may include nonmotive machines or equipment such as a pump or generator.
Verification means to evaluate whether or not a measurement system's outputs agree with a range of applied reference signals to within one or more predetermined thresholds for acceptance. Contrast with “calibration”.
We (us, our) means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and any authorized representatives.
Work has the meaning given in § 1065.110.
Zero means to adjust an instrument so it gives a zero response to a zero calibration standard, such as purified nitrogen or purified air for measuring concentrations of emission constituents.
Zero gas means a gas that yields a zero response in an analyzer. This may either be purified nitrogen, purified air, a combination of purified air and purified nitrogen. For field testing, zero gas may include ambient air.
§ 1065.1005 - Symbols, abbreviations, acronyms, and units of measure.
The procedures in this part generally follow the International System of Units (SI), as detailed in NIST Special Publication 811, which we incorporate by reference in § 1065.1010. See § 1065.20 for specific provisions related to these conventions. This section summarizes the way we use symbols, units of measure, and other abbreviations.
(a) Symbols for quantities. This part uses the following symbols and units of measure for various quantities:
Table 1 of § 1065.1005 - Symbols for Quantities
|Symbol||Quantity||Unit||Unit symbol||Units in terms of SI base units|
|atomic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio||mole per mole||mol/mol||1.|
|intercept of least squares regression|
|slope of least squares regression|
|acceleration of Earth's gravity||meter per square second||m/s||m· s|
|ratio of diameters||meter per meter||m/m||1.|
|atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio||mole per mole||mol/mol||1.|
|number of carbon atoms in a molecule|
|power-specific carbon mass error coefficient||gram per kilowatt-hour||g/(kW·hr)||3.6|
|atomic nitrogen-to-carbon ratio||mole per mole||mol/mol||1.|
|power-specific carbon mass rate absolute error coefficent||gram per kilowatt-hour||g/(kW·hr)||3.6|
|dilution ratio||mole per mole||mol/mol||1.|
|error between a quantity and its reference|
|∈||difference or error quantity|
|brake-specific emission or fuel consumption||gram per kilowatt hour||g/(kW·hr)||3.6|
|ƒ||angular speed (shaft)||revolutions per minute||r/min||π · 30|
|γ||ratio of specific heats||(joule per kilogram kelvin) per (joule per kilogram kelvin)||(J/(kg·K))/(J/(kg·K))||1.|
|γ||atomic sulfur-to-carbon ratio||mole per mole||mol/mol||1.|
|viscosity, dynamic||pascal second||Pa·s||m|
|molar mass ||gram per mole||g/mol||10|
|mass rate||kilogram per second||kg/s||kg · s|
|viscosity, kinematic||meter squared per second||m||m|
|total number in series|
|amount of substance||mole||mol||mol.|
|amount of substance rate||mole per second||mol/s||mol · s|
|mass density||kilogram per cubic meter||kg/m||m|
|differential static pressure||pascal||Pa||m|
|ratio of pressures||pascal per pascal||Pa/Pa||1.|
|coefficient of determination|
|average surface roughness||micrometer||µm||10|
|non-biased standard deviation|
|standard error of the estimate|
|Celsius temperature||degree Celsius||°C||K−273.15.|
|torque (moment of force)||newton meter||N·m||m|
|time interval, period, 1/frequency||second||s||s.|
|volume rate||cubic meter per second||m||m|
|work||kilowatt-hour||kW·hr||3.6 · 10|
|carbon mass fraction||gram per gram||g/g||1.|
|amount of substance mole fraction.||mole per mole||mol/mol||1.|
|flow-weighted mean concentration||mole per mole||mol/mol||1.|
(b) Symbols for chemical species. This part uses the following symbols for chemical species and exhaust constituents:
Table 2 of § 1065.1005 - Symbols for Chemical Species and Exhaust Constituents
|NMHCE||nonmethane hydrocarbon equivalent.|
|NO||oxides of nitrogen.|
|NMOG||nonmethane organic gases.|
|NONMHC||non-oxygenated nonmethane hydrocarbon.|
|NOTHC||non-oxygenated total hydrocarbon.|
|SVOC||semi-volatile organic compound.|
|THCE||total hydrocarbon equivalent.|
(c) Prefixes. This part uses the following prefixes for units and unit symbols:
Table 3 of § 1065.1005 - Prefixes
(d) Superscripts. This part uses the following superscripts for modifying quantity symbols:
Table 4 of § 1065.1005 - Superscripts
|overbar (such as ||arithmetic mean.|
|overdot (such as ||quantity per unit time.|
(e) Subscripts. This part uses the following subscripts for modifying quantity symbols:
Table 5 of § 1065.1005 - Subscripts
|CFV||critical flow venturi.|
|∈||related to a difference or error quantity.|
|hi,idle||condition at high-idle.|
|i||an individual of a series.|
|idle||condition at idle.|
|init||initial quantity, typically before an emission test.|
|j||an individual of a series.|
|mapped||conditions over which an engine can operate.|
|max||the maximum (|
|media||PM sample media.|
|mix||mixture of diluted exhaust and air.|
|post||after the test interval.|
|pre||before the test interval.|
|rate||rate (divided by time).|
|stroke||engine strokes per power stroke.|
|test,alt||alternate test quantity.|
|vac||vacuum side of the sampling system.|
(1) This part uses the following constants for the composition of dry air:
Table 6 of § 1065.1005 - Constants
|amount of argon in dry air||0.00934|
|amount of carbon dioxide in dry air||0.000375|
|amount of nitrogen in dry air||0.78084|
|amount of oxygen in dry air||0.209445|
(2) This part uses the following molar masses or effective molar masses of chemical species:
Table 7 of § 1065.1005 - Molar Masses
|molar mass of dry air ||28.96559|
|molar mass of argon||39.948|
|molar mass of carbon||12.0107|
|molar mass of methanol||32.04186|
|molar mass of ethanol||46.06844|
|molar mass of acetaldehyde||44.05256|
|molar mass of urea||60.05526|
|molar mass of ethane||30.06904|
|molar mass of propane||44.09562|
|molar mass of propanol||60.09502|
|molar mass of carbon monoxide||28.0101|
|molar mass of methane||16.0425|
|molar mass of carbon dioxide||44.0095|
|molar mass of atomic hydrogen||1.00794|
|molar mass of molecular hydrogen||2.01588|
|molar mass of water||18.01528|
|molar mass of formaldehyde||30.02598|
|molar mass of helium||4.002602|
|molar mass of atomic nitrogen||14.0067|
|molar mass of molecular nitrogen||28.0134|
|molar mass of ammonia||17.03052|
|effective C1 molar mass of nonmethane hydrocarbon ||13.875389|
|effective C1 molar mass of nonmethane hydrocarbon equivalent ||13.875389|
|effective C1 molar mass of nonmethane-nonethane hydrocarbon ||13.875389|
|effective molar mass of oxides of nitrogen ||46.0055|
|molar mass of nitrous oxide||44.0128|
|molar mass of atomic oxygen||15.9994|
|molar mass of molecular oxygen||31.9988|
|molar mass of sulfur||32.065|
(3) This part uses the following molar gas constant for ideal gases:
Table 8 of § 1065.1005 - Molar Gas Constant for Ideal Gases
|molar gas constant||8.314472|
(4) This part uses the following ratios of specific heats for dilution air and diluted exhaust:
Table 9 of § 1065.1005 - Ratios of Specific Heats for Dilution Air and Diluted Exhaust
|ratio of specific heats for intake air or dilution air||1.399|
|ratio of specific heats for diluted exhaust||1.399|
|ratio of specific heats for raw exhaust||1.385|
(g) Other acronyms and abbreviations. This part uses the following additional abbreviations and acronyms:
Table 10 of § 1065.1005 - Other Acronyms and Abbreviations
|BSFC||brake-specific fuel consumption.|
|CARB||California Air Resources Board.|
|CFR||Code of Federal Regulations.|
|CITT||Curb Idle Transmission Torque.|
|DEF||diesel exhaust fluid.|
|ECM||electronic control module.|
|EFC||electronic flow control.|
|exempli gratia, for example.|
|EGR||exhaust gas recirculation.|
|EPA||Environmental Protection Agency.|
|FEL||Family Emission Limit.|
|FTIR||Fourier transform infrared.|
|GC-ECD||gas chromatograph with an electron-capture detector.|
|GC-FID||gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector.|
|HEPA||high-efficiency particulate air.|
|IBP||initial boiling point.|
|IBR||incorporated by reference.|
|id est, in other words.|
|ISO||International Organization for Standardization.|
|LPG||liquefied petroleum gas.|
|NIST||National Institute for Standards and Technology.|
|PEMS||portable emission measurement system.|
|PLOT||porous layer open tubular.|
|pt.||a single point at the mean value expected at the standard.|
|psi||pounds per square inch.|
|PTFE||polytetrafluoroethylene (commonly known as Teflon|
|RESS||rechargeable energy storage system.|
|RFPF||response factor penetration fraction.|
|RTD||resistive temperature detector.|
|SAW||surface acoustic wave.|
|SEE||standard error of the estimate.|
|THC-FID||total hydrocarbon flame ionization detector.|
|TINV||inverse student |
|UCL||upper confidence limit.|
|UFM||ultrasonic flow meter.|
|U.S.C.||United States Code|
§ 1065.1010 - Incorporation by reference.
Certain material is incorporated by reference into this part with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, EPA must publish a document in the
(a) ASTM material. The following standards are available from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, (877) 909-ASTM, or http://www.astm.org:
(1) ASTM D86-12, Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure, approved December 1, 2012 (“ASTM D86”), IBR approved for §§ 1065.703(b) and 1065.710(b) and (c).
(2) ASTM D93-13, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester, approved July 15, 2013 (“ASTM D93”), IBR approved for § 1065.703(b).
(3) ASTM D130-12, Standard Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test, approved November 1, 2012 (“ASTM D130”), IBR approved for § 1065.710(b).
(4) ASTM D381-12, Standard Test Method for Gum Content in Fuels by Jet Evaporation, approved April 15, 2012 (“ASTM D381”), IBR approved for § 1065.710(b).
(5) ASTM D445-12, Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity), approved April 15, 2012 (“ASTM D445”), IBR approved for § 1065.703(b).
(6) ASTM D525-12a, Standard Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Gasoline (Induction Period Method), approved September 1, 2012 (“ASTM D525”), IBR approved for § 1065.710(b).
(7) ASTM D613-13, Standard Test Method for Cetane Number of Diesel Fuel Oil, approved December 1, 2013 (“ASTM D613”), IBR approved for § 1065.703(b).
(8) ASTM D910-13a, Standard Specification for Aviation Gasolines, approved December 1, 2013 (“ASTM D910”), IBR approved for § 1065.701(f).
(9) ASTM D975-13a, Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils, approved December 1, 2013 (“ASTM D975”), IBR approved for § 1065.701(f).
(10) ASTM D1267-12, Standard Test Method for Gage Vapor Pressure of Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases (LP-Gas Method), approved November 1, 2012 (“ASTM D1267”), IBR approved for § 1065.720(a).
(11) ASTM D1319-13, Standard Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Liquid Petroleum Products by Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption, approved May 1, 2013 (“ASTM D1319”), IBR approved for § 1065.710(c).
(12) ASTM D1655-13a, Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels, approved December 1, 2013 (“ASTM D1655”), IBR approved for § 1065.701(f).
(13) ASTM D1837-11, Standard Test Method for Volatility of Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases, approved October 1, 2011 (“ASTM D1837”), IBR approved for § 1065.720(a).
(14) ASTM D1838-12a, Standard Test Method for Copper Strip Corrosion by Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases, approved December 1, 2012 (“ASTM D1838”), IBR approved for § 1065.720(a).
(15) ASTM D1945-03 (Reapproved 2010), Standard Test Method for Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography, approved January 1, 2010 (“ASTM D1945”), IBR approved for § 1065.715(a).
(16) ASTM D2158-11, Standard Test Method for Residues in Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases, approved January 1, 2011 (“ASTM D2158”), IBR approved for § 1065.720(a).
(17) ASTM D2163-07, Standard Test Method for Determination of Hydrocarbons in Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases and Propane/Propene Mixtures by Gas Chromatography, approved December 1, 2007 (“ASTM D2163”), IBR approved for § 1065.720(a).
(18) ASTM D2598-12, Standard Practice for Calculation of Certain Physical Properties of Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases from Compositional Analysis, approved November 1, 2012 (“ASTM D2598”), IBR approved for § 1065.720(a).
(19) ASTM D2622-16, Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, approved January 1, 2016 (“ASTM D2622”), IBR approved for §§ 1065.703(b) and 1065.710(b) and (c).
(20) ASTM D2699-13b, Standard Test Method for Research Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel, approved October 1, 2013 (“ASTM D2699”), IBR approved for § 1065.710(b).
(21) ASTM D2700-13b, Standard Test Method for Motor Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel, approved October 1, 2013 (“ASTM D2700”), IBR approved for § 1065.710(b).
(22) ASTM D2713-13, Standard Test Method for Dryness of Propane (Valve Freeze Method), approved October 1, 2013 (“ASTM D2713”), IBR approved for § 1065.720(a).
(23) ASTM D2880-13b, Standard Specification for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils, approved November 15, 2013 (“ASTM D2880”), IBR approved for § 1065.701(f).
(24) ASTM D2986-95a, Standard Practice for Evaluation of Air Assay Media by the Monodisperse DOP (Dioctyl Phthalate) Smoke Test, approved September 10, 1995 (“ASTM D2986”), IBR approved for § 1065.170(c). (Note: This standard was withdrawn by ASTM.)
(25) ASTM D3231-13, Standard Test Method for Phosphorus in Gasoline, approved June 15, 2013 (“ASTM D3231”), IBR approved for § 1065.710(b) and (c).
(26) ASTM D3237-12, Standard Test Method for Lead in Gasoline By Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, approved June 1, 2012 (“ASTM D3237”), IBR approved for § 1065.710(b) and (c).
(27) ASTM D4052-11, Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter, approved October 15, 2011 (“ASTM D4052”), IBR approved for § 1065.703(b).
(28) ASTM D4629-12, Standard Test Method for Trace Nitrogen in Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Syringe/Inlet Oxidative Combustion and Chemiluminescence Detection, approved April 15, 2012 (“ASTM D4629”), IBR approved for § 1065.655(e).
(29) ASTM D4814-13b, Standard Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel, approved December 1, 2013 (“ASTM D4814”), IBR approved for § 1065.701(f).
(30) ASTM D4815-13, Standard Test Method for Determination of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE, tertiary-Amyl Alcohol and C1 to C4 Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography, approved October 1, 2013 (“ASTM D4815”), IBR approved for § 1065.710(b).
(31) ASTM D5186-03 (Reapproved 2009), Standard Test Method for Determination of the Aromatic Content and Polynuclear Aromatic Content of Diesel Fuels and Aviation Turbine Fuels By Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, approved April 15, 2009 (“ASTM D5186”), IBR approved for § 1065.703(b).
(32) ASTM D5191-13, Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method), approved December 1, 2013 (“ASTM D5191”), IBR approved for § 1065.710(b) and (c).
(33) ASTM D5291-10, Standard Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants, approved May 1, 2010 (“ASTM D5291”), IBR approved for § 1065.655(e).
(34) ASTM D5453-19a, Standard Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence, approved July 1, 2019 (“ASTM D5453”), IBR approved for §§ 1065.703(b) and 1065.710(b).
(35) ASTM D5599-00 (Reapproved 2010), Standard Test Method for Determination of Oxygenates in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography and Oxygen Selective Flame Ionization Detection, approved October 1, 2010 (“ASTM D5599”), IBR approved for §§ 1065.655(e) and 1065.710(b).
(36) ASTM D5762-12 Standard Test Method for Nitrogen in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Boat-Inlet Chemiluminescence, approved April 15, 2012 (“ASTM D5762”), IBR approved for § 1065.655(e).
(37) ASTM D5769-10, Standard Test Method for Determination of Benzene, Toluene, and Total Aromatics in Finished Gasolines by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, approved May 1, 2010 (“ASTM D5769”), IBR approved for § 1065.710(b).
(38) ASTM D5797-13, Standard Specification for Fuel Methanol (M70- M85) for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engines, approved June 15, 2013 (“ASTM D5797”), IBR approved for § 1065.701(f).
(39) ASTM D5798-13a, Standard Specification for Ethanol Fuel Blends for Flexible Fuel Automotive Spark-Ignition Engines, approved June 15, 2013 (“ASTM D5798”), IBR approved for § 1065.701(f).
(40) ASTM D6348-12
(41) ASTM D6550-10, Standard Test Method for Determination of Olefin Content of Gasolines by Supercritical-Fluid Chromatography, approved October 1, 2010 (“ASTM D6550”), IBR approved for § 1065.710(b).
(42) ASTM D6615-11a, Standard Specification for Jet B Wide-Cut Aviation Turbine Fuel, approved October 1, 2011 (“ASTM D6615”), IBR approved for § 1065.701(f).
(43) ASTM D6667-14 (Reapproved 2019), Standard Test Method for Determination of Total Volatile Sulfur in Gaseous Hydrocarbons and Liquefied Petroleum Gases by Ultraviolet Fluorescence, approved May 1, 2019 (“ASTM D6667”), IBR approved for § 1065.720(a).
(44) ASTM D6751-12, Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels, approved August 1, 2012 (“ASTM D6751”), IBR approved for § 1065.701(f).
(45) ASTM D6985-04a, Standard Specification for Middle Distillate Fuel Oil - Military Marine Applications, approved November 1, 2004 (“ASTM D6985”), IBR approved for § 1065.701(f). (Note: This standard was withdrawn by ASTM.)
(46) ASTM D7039-15a (Reapproved 2020), Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, Jet Fuel, Kerosine, Biodiesel, Biodiesel Blends, and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends by Monochromatic Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, approved May 1, 2020 (“ASTM D7039”), IBR approved for §§ 1065.703(b) and 1065.710(b).
(47) ASTM F1471-09, Standard Test Method for Air Cleaning Performance of a High- Efficiency Particulate Air Filter System, approved March 1, 2009 (“ASTM F1471”), IBR approved for § 1065.1001.
(b) California Air Resources Board material. The following documents are available from the California Air Resources Board, Haagen-Smit Laboratory, 9528 Telstar Ave., El Monte, CA 91731-2908, (800) 242-4450, or http://www.arb.ca.gov:
(1) California Non-Methane Organic Gas Test Procedures, Amended July 30, 2002, Mobile Source Division, California Air Resources Board, IBR approved for § 1065.805(f).
(c) Institute of Petroleum material. The following documents are available from the Energy Institute, 61 New Cavendish St., London, W1G 7AR, UK, or by calling + 44-(0)20-7467-7100, or at http://www.energyinst.org:
(1) IP-470, 2005, Determination of aluminum, silicon, vanadium, nickel, iron, calcium, zinc, and sodium in residual fuels by atomic absorption spectrometry, IBR approved for § 1065.705(b).
(2) IP-500, 2003, Determination of the phosphorus content of residual fuels by ultra-violet spectrometry, IBR approved for § 1065.705(b).
(3) IP-501, 2005, Determination of aluminum, silicon, vanadium, nickel, iron, sodium, calcium, zinc and phosphorus in residual fuel oil by ashing, fusion and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry, IBR approved for § 1065.705(b).
(d) ISO material. The following standards are available from the International Organization for Standardization, 1, ch. de la Voie-Creuse, CP 56, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland, 41-22-749-01-11, or http://www.iso.org:
(1) ISO 2719:2002, Determination of flash point - Pensky-Martens closed cup method (“ISO 2719”), IBR approved for § 1065.705(c).
(2) ISO 3016:1994, Petroleum products - Determination of pour point (“ISO 3016”), IBR approved for § 1065.705(c).
(3) ISO 3104:1994/Cor 1:1997, Petroleum products - Transparent and opaque liquids - Determination of kinematic viscosity and calculation of dynamic viscosity (“ISO 3104”), IBR approved for § 1065.705(c).
(4) ISO 3675:1998, Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products - Laboratory determination of density - Hydrometer method (“ISO 3675”), IBR approved for § 1065.705(c).
(5) ISO 3733:1999, Petroleum products and bituminous materials - Determination of water - Distillation method (“ISO 3733”), IBR approved for § 1065.705(c).
(6) ISO 6245:2001, Petroleum products - Determination of ash (“ISO 6245”), IBR approved for § 1065.705(c).
(7) ISO 8217:2012(E), Petroleum products - Fuels (class F) - Specifications of marine fuels, Fifth edition, August 15, 2012 (“ISO 8217”), IBR approved for § 1065.705(b) and (c).
(8) ISO 8754:2003, Petroleum products - Determination of sulfur content - Energy-dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (“ISO 8754”), IBR approved for § 1065.705(c).
(9) ISO 10307-2(E):2009, Petroleum products - Total sediment in residual fuel oils - Part 2: Determination using standard procedures for ageing, Second Ed., February 1, 2009 (“ISO 10307”), as modified by ISO 10307-2:2009/Cor.1:2010(E), Technical Corrigendum 1, published May 15, 2010, IBR approved for § 1065.705(c).
(10) ISO 10370:1993/Cor 1:1996, Petroleum products - Determination of carbon residue - Micro method (“ISO 10370”), IBR approved for § 1065.705(c).
(11) ISO 10478:1994, Petroleum products - Determination of aluminium and silicon in fuel oils - Inductively coupled plasma emission and atomic absorption spectroscopy methods (“ISO 10478”), IBR approved for § 1065.705(c).
(12) ISO 12185:1996/Cor 1:2001, Crude petroleum and petroleum products - Determination of density - Oscillating U-tube method (“ISO 12185”), IBR approved for § 1065.705(c).
(13) ISO 14596:2007, Petroleum products - Determination of sulfur content - Wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (“ISO 14596”), IBR approved for § 1065.705(c).
(14) ISO 14597:1997, Petroleum products - Determination of vanadium and nickel content - Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (“ISO 14597”), IBR approved for § 1065.705(c).
(15) ISO 14644-1:1999, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments (“ISO 14644”), IBR approved for § 1065.190(b).
(e) NIST material. The following documents are available from National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 1070, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-1070, (301) 975-6478, or www.nist.gov:
(1) NIST Special Publication 811, 2008 Edition, Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI), March 2008, IBR approved for §§ 1065.20(a) and 1065.1005.
(2) NIST Technical Note 1297, 1994 Edition, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results, IBR approved for § 1065.1001.
(f) SAE International material. The following standards are available from SAE International, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001, (724) 776-4841, or http://www.sae.org:
(1) SAE 770141, 1977, Optimization of Flame Ionization Detector for Determination of Hydrocarbon in Diluted Automotive Exhausts, Glenn D. Reschke, IBR approved for § 1065.360(c).
(2) SAE J1151, Methane Measurement Using Gas Chromatography, stabilized September 2011, IBR approved for §§ 1065.267(b) and 1065.750(a).