U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Jul 20, 2024

§ 1068.401 - What is a selective enforcement audit?

(a) We may conduct or require you as a certificate holder to conduct emission tests on production engines/equipment in a selective enforcement audit. This requirement is independent of any requirement for you to routinely test production-line engines/equipment. Where there are multiple entities meeting the definition of manufacturer, we may require manufacturers other than the certificate holder to conduct or participate in the audit as necessary. For products subject to equipment-based standards, but tested using engine-based test procedures, this subpart applies to the engines and/or the equipment, as applicable. Otherwise this subpart applies to engines for products subject to engine-based standards and to equipment for products subject to equipment-based standards.

(b) If we send you a signed test order, you must follow its directions and the provisions of this subpart. We may tell you where to test the engines/equipment. This may be where you produce the engines/equipment or any other emission testing facility. You are responsible for all testing costs whether the testing is conducted at your facility or another facility.

(c) If we select one or more of your families for a selective enforcement audit, we will send the test order to the person who signed the application for certification or we will deliver it in person.

(d) If we do not select a testing facility, notify the Designated Compliance Officer within one working day of receiving the test order where you will test your engines/equipment.

(e) You must do everything we require in the audit without delay. We may suspend or revoke your certificate of conformity for the affected engine families if you do not fulfill your obligations under this subpart.

[81 FR 74232, Oct. 25, 2016]

§ 1068.405 - What is in a test order?

(a) In the test order, we will specify the following things:

(1) The family we have identified for testing. We may also specify individual configurations.

(2) The engine/equipment assembly plant, storage facility, or (if you import the engines/equipment) port facility from which you must select engines/equipment.

(3) The procedure for selecting engines/equipment for testing, including a selection rate.

(4) The test procedures, duty cycles, and test points, as appropriate, for testing the engines/equipment to show that they meet emission standards.

(b) We may state that we will select the test engines/equipment.

(c) We may identify alternate families or configurations for testing in case we determine the intended engines/equipment are not available for testing or if you do not produce enough engines/equipment to meet the minimum rate for selecting test engines/equipment.

(d) We may include other directions or information in the test order.

(e) We may ask you to show us that you meet any additional requirements that apply to your engines/equipment (closed crankcases, for example).

(f) In anticipation of a potential audit, you may give us a list of your preferred families and the corresponding assembly plants, storage facilities, or (if you import the engines/equipment) port facilities from which we should select engines/equipment for testing. The information would apply only for a single model year so it would be best to include this information in your application for certification. If you give us this list before we issue a test order, we will consider your recommendations, but we may select different engines/equipment.

(g) If you also do routine production-line testing with the selected family in the same time period, the test order will tell you what changes you might need to make in your production-line testing schedule.

[73 FR 59344, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74132, Oct. 25, 2016]

§ 1068.410 - How must I select and prepare my engines/equipment?

(a) Selecting engines/equipment. Select engines/equipment as described in the test order. If you are unable to select test engines/equipment this way, you may ask us to approve an alternate plan as long as you make the request before you start selecting engines/equipment.

(b) Assembling engines/equipment. Produce and assemble test engines/equipment using your normal production and assembly process for that family.

(1) Notify us directly if you make any change in your production, assembly, or quality control processes that might affect emissions between the time you receive the test order and the time you finish selecting test engines/equipment.

(2) If you do not fully assemble engines/equipment at the specified location, we will describe in the test order how to select components to finish assembling the engines/equipment. Assemble these components onto the test engines/equipment using your documented assembly and quality control procedures.

(c) Modifying engines/equipment. Once an engine or piece of equipment is selected for testing, you may adjust, repair, prepare, or modify it or check its emissions only if one of the following is true:

(1) You document the need for doing so in your procedures for assembling and inspecting all your production engines/equipment and make the action routine for all the engines/equipment in the family.

(2) This subpart otherwise allows your action.

(3) We approve your action in advance.

(d) Engine/equipment malfunction. If an engine/equipment malfunction prevents further emission testing, ask us to approve your decision to either repair the engine or delete it from the test sequence.

(e) Setting adjustable parameters. Before any test, we may adjust or require you to adjust any adjustable parameter to any setting within its physically adjustable range.

(1) [Reserved]

(2) We may make or specify adjustments within the physically adjustable range by considering their effect on emission levels. We may also consider how likely it is that someone will make such an adjustment with in-use engines/equipment.

(f) Stabilizing emission levels. (1) Before you test production-line engines/equipment for exhaust emission, you may operate the engine/equipment to stabilize the exhaust emission levels. Using good engineering judgment, operate your engines/equipment in a way that represents the way production engines/equipment will be used. You may operate each engine or piece of equipment for no more than the greater of two periods:

(i) 50 hours.

(ii) The number of hours you operated your emission-data engine/equipment for certifying the family (see 40 CFR part 1065, subpart E).

(2) Use good engineering judgment and follow the standard-setting part to stabilize equipment for evaporative emissions, where appropriate.

(g) Damage during shipment. If shipping the engine/equipment to a remote facility for testing under a selective enforcement audit makes necessary an adjustment or repair, you must wait until after the initial emission test to do this work. We may waive this requirement if the test would be impossible or unsafe or if it would permanently damage the engine/equipment. Report to us, in your written report under § 1068.450, all adjustments or repairs you make on test engines/equipment before each test.

(h) Shipping engines/equipment. If you need to ship engines/equipment to another facility for testing, make sure the test engines/equipment arrive at the test facility within 24 hours after being selected. You may ask that we allow more time if you are unable to do this.

(i) Retesting after invalid tests. You may retest an engine or piece of equipment if you determine an emission test is invalid under the standard-setting part. Explain in your written report reasons for invalidating any test and the emission results from all tests. If you retest an engine or piece of equipment and, within ten days after testing, ask to substitute results of the new tests for the original ones, we will answer within ten days after we receive your information.

(j) Retesting after reaching a fail decision. You may retest your engines/equipment once a fail decision for the audit has been reached based on the first test on each engine or piece of equipment under § 1068.420(c). You may test each engine or piece of equipment up to a total of three times, but you must perform the same number of tests on each engine or piece of equipment. You may further operate the engine/equipment to stabilize emission levels before testing, subject to the provisions of paragraph (f) of this section. We may approve retesting at other times if you send us a request with satisfactory justification.

[73 FR 59344, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23064, Apr. 30, 2010]

§ 1068.415 - How do I test my engines/equipment?

(a) Use the test procedures specified in the standard-setting part for showing that your engines/equipment meet emission standards. The test order will give further testing instructions.

(b) If no test cells are available at a given facility, you may make alternate testing arrangements with our approval.

(c) Test at least two engines/equipment in each 24-hour period (including void tests). However, for engines with maximum engine power above 560 kW, you may test one engine per 24-hour period. If you request and justify it, we may approve a lower testing rate.

(d) For exhaust emissions, accumulate service on test engines/equipment at a minimum rate of 6 hours per engine or piece of equipment during each 24-hour period; however, service accumulation to stabilize an engine's emission levels may not take longer than eight days. The first 24-hour period for service accumulation begins when you finish preparing an engine or piece of equipment for testing. The minimum service accumulation rate does not apply on weekends or holidays. We may approve a longer stabilization period or a lower service accumulation rate if you request and justify it. We may require you to accumulate hours more rapidly than the minimum rate, as appropriate. Plan your service accumulation to allow testing at the rate specified in paragraph (c) of this section. Select operation for accumulating operating hours on your test engines/equipment to represent normal in-use operation for the family.

(e) Test engines/equipment in the same order you select them.

[73 FR 59344, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74232, Oct. 25, 2016]

§ 1068.420 - How do I know when my engine family fails an SEA?

(a) A failed engine or piece of equipment is one whose final deteriorated test results exceed an applicable emission standard for any regulated pollutant.

(b) Continue testing engines/equipment until you reach a pass decision for all pollutants or a fail decision for one pollutant, as described in paragraph (c) of this section.

(c) You reach a pass decision for the SEA requirements when the number of failed engines/equipment is less than or equal to the pass decision number in Appendix A to this subpart for the total number of engines/equipment tested. You reach a fail decision for the SEA requirements when the number of failed engines/equipment is greater than or equal to the fail decision number in Appendix A to this subpart for the total number of engines/equipment you test. An acceptable quality level of 40 percent is the basis for the pass or fail decision.

(d) Consider test results in the same order as the engine/equipment testing sequence.

(e) If you reach a pass decision for one pollutant, but need to continue testing for another pollutant, we will not use these later test results for the pollutant with the pass decision as part of the SEA.

(f) Appendix A to this subpart lists multiple sampling plans. Use the sampling plan for the projected sales volume you reported in your application for the audited family.

(g) We may choose to stop testing after any number of tests.

(h) If we test some of your engines/equipment in addition to your own testing, we may decide not to include your test results as official data for those engines/equipment if there is substantial disagreement between your testing and our testing. We will reinstate your data as valid if you show us that we made an error and your data are correct.

(i) If we rely on our test data instead of yours, we will notify you in writing of our decision and the reasons we believe your facility is not appropriate for doing the tests we require under this subpart. You may request in writing that we consider your test results from the same facility for future testing if you show us that you have made changes to resolve the problem.

[73 FR 59344, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74232, Oct. 25, 2016]

§ 1068.425 - What happens if one of my production-line engines/equipment exceeds the emission standards?

(a) If one of your production-line engines/equipment fails to meet one or more emission standards (see § 1068.420), the certificate of conformity is automatically suspended for that engine or piece of equipment. You must take the following actions before your certificate of conformity can cover that engine or piece of equipment:

(1) Correct the problem and retest the engine/equipment to show it complies with all emission standards.

(2) Include in your written report a description of the test results and the remedy for each engine or piece of equipment (see § 1068.450).

(b) You may ask for a hearing relative to the suspended certificate of conformity for the failing engine/equipment as specified in subpart G of this part.

[73 FR 59344, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74232, Oct. 25, 2016]

§ 1068.430 - What happens if a family fails an SEA?

(a) We may suspend your certificate of conformity for a family if it fails the SEA under § 1068.420. The suspension may apply to all facilities producing engines/equipment from a family even if you find noncompliant engines/equipment only at one facility.

(b) We will tell you in writing if we suspend your certificate in whole or in part. We will not suspend a certificate until at least 15 days after the family fails the SEA. The suspension is effective when you receive our notice.

(c) You may ask for a hearing as described in subpart G of this part up to 15 days after we suspend the certificate for a family. If we agree that we used erroneous information in deciding to suspend the certificate before a hearing is held, we will reinstate the certificate.

[73 FR 59344, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74232, Oct. 25, 2016]

§ 1068.435 - May I sell engines/equipment from a family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

You may sell engines/equipment that you produce after we suspend the family's certificate of conformity only if one of the following occurs:

(a) You test each engine or piece of equipment you produce and show it complies with emission standards that apply.

(b) We conditionally reinstate the certificate for the family. We may do so if you agree to recall all the affected engines/equipment and remedy any noncompliance at no expense to the owner if later testing shows that engines/equipment in the family still do not comply.

§ 1068.440 - How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate?

(a) Send us a written report asking us to reinstate your suspended certificate. In your report, identify the reason for the SEA failure, propose a remedy, and commit to a date for carrying it out. In your proposed remedy include any quality control measures you propose to keep the problem from happening again.

(b) Give us test data from production engines/equipment showing that engines/equipment in the remedied family comply with all the emission standards that apply.

[73 FR 59344, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23064, Apr. 30, 2010]

§ 1068.445 - When may EPA revoke my certificate under this subpart and how may I sell these engines/equipment again?

(a) We may revoke your certificate for a family in the following cases:

(1) You do not meet the reporting requirements under this subpart.

(2) Your family fails an SEA and your proposed remedy to address a suspended certificate is inadequate to solve the problem or requires you to change the engine/equipment's design or emission control system.

(b) To sell engines/equipment from a family with a revoked certificate of conformity, you must modify the family and then show it complies with the applicable requirements.

(1) If we determine your proposed design change may not control emissions for the engine/equipment's full useful life, we will tell you within five working days after receiving your report. In this case we will decide whether production-line testing will be enough for us to evaluate the change or whether you need to do more testing.

(2) Unless we require more testing, you may show compliance by testing production-line engines/equipment as described in this subpart.

(3) We will issue a new or updated certificate of conformity when you have met these requirements.

§ 1068.450 - What records must I send to EPA?

(a) Within 30 days of the end of each audit, send us a report with the following information:

(1) Describe any facility used to test production-line engines/equipment and state its location.

(2) State the total U.S.-directed production volume and number of tests for each family.

(3) Describe your test engines/equipment, including the family's identification and the engine/equipment's model year, build date, model number, identification number, and number of hours of operation before testing for each test engine or piece of equipment.

(4) Identify where you accumulated hours of operation on the engines/equipment and describe the procedure and schedule you used.

(5) Provide the test number; the date, time and duration of testing; test procedure; initial test results before and after rounding; final test results; and final deteriorated test results for all tests. Provide the emission figures for all measured pollutants. Include information for both valid and invalid tests and the reason for any invalidation.

(6) Describe completely and justify any nonroutine adjustment, modification, repair, preparation, maintenance, or test for the test engine/equipment if you did not report it separately under this subpart. Include the results of any emission measurements, regardless of the procedure or type of equipment.

(7) Report on each failed engine or piece of equipment as described in § 1068.425.

(b) We may ask you to add information to your written report, so we can determine whether your new engines/equipment conform to the requirements of this subpart.

(c) An authorized representative of your company must sign the following statement: We submit this report under Sections 208 and 213 of the Clean Air Act. Our testing conformed completely with the requirements of 40 CFR part 1068. We have not changed production processes or quality-control procedures for the family in a way that might affect the emission control from production engines/equipment. All the information in this report is true and accurate to the best of my knowledge. I know of the penalties for violating the Clean Air Act and the regulations. (Authorized Company Representative)

(d) Send reports of your testing to the Designated Compliance Officer using an approved information format. If you want to use a different format, send us a written request with justification for a waiver.

(e) We may post test results on publicly accessible databases and we will send copies of your reports to anyone from the public who asks for them, consistent with § 1068.11.

[73 FR 59344, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 81 FR 74232, Oct. 25, 2016; 88 FR 4718, Jan. 24, 2023]

§ 1068.455 - What records must I keep?

(a) We may review your records at any time so it is important to keep required information readily available. Organize and maintain your records as described in this section.

(b) Keep paper records for testing under this subpart for one full year after you complete all the testing required for the selective enforcement audit. For additional storage, you may use any format or media.

(c) Keep a copy of the written reports described in § 1068.450.

(d) Keep the following additional records:

(1) The names of supervisors involved in each test.

(2) The name of anyone who authorizes adjusting, repairing, preparing, or modifying a test engine/equipment and the names of all supervisors who oversee this work.

(3) If you shipped the engine/equipment for testing, the date you shipped it, the associated storage or port facility, and the date the engine/equipment arrived at the testing facility.

(4) Any records related to your audit that are not in the written report.

(5) A brief description of any significant events during testing not otherwise described in the written report or in this section.

(e) If we ask, you must give us projected or actual production for a family. Include each assembly plant if you produce engines/equipment at more than one plant.

(f) We may ask you to keep or send other information necessary to implement this subpart.

Appendix Appendix A - Appendix A to Subpart E of Part 1068—Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing

The following tables describe sampling plans for selective enforcement audits, as described in § 1068.420:

Table A-1—Sampling Plan Code Letter

Projected family sales Code letter 1 Minimum number of tests Maximum number of tests
To pass To fail
500 + D5660

1 A manufacturer may optionally use either the sampling plan for code letter “AA” or sampling plan for code letter “A” for Selective Enforcement Audits of families with annual sales between 20 and 50 engines/equipment. Additionally, the manufacturer may switch between these plans during the audit.

Table A-2—Sampling Plans for Different Engine Family Sales Volumes

Stage a AA A B C D
Pass # Fail # Pass # Fail # Pass # Fail # Pass # Fail # Pass # Fail #

a Stage refers to the cumulative number of engines/equipment tested.