U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Oct 04, 2023
The purpose of this part is to establish programs designed to help prevent accidents and injuries resulting from the misuse of alcohol or use of controlled substances by drivers of commercial motor vehicles.
(a) This part applies to service agents and to every person and to all employers of such persons who operate a commercial motor vehicle in commerce in any State and are subject to:
(1) The commercial driver's license requirements of part 383 of this subchapter;
(2) The Licencia Federal de Conductor (Mexico) requirements; or
(3) The commercial drivers license requirements of the Canadian National Safety Code.
(b) An employer who employs himself/herself as a driver must comply with both the requirements in this part that apply to employers and the requirements in this part that apply to drivers. An employer who employs only himself/herself as a driver shall implement a random alcohol and controlled substances testing program of two or more covered employees in the random testing selection pool.
(c) The exceptions contained in § 390.3(f) of this subchapter do not apply to this part. The employers and drivers identified in § 390.3(f) of this subchapter must comply with the requirements of this part, unless otherwise specifically provided in paragraph (d) of this section.
(d) Exceptions. This part shall not apply to employers and their drivers:
(1) Required to comply only with the alcohol and/or controlled substances testing requirements of part 655 of this title (Federal Transit Administration alcohol and controlled substances testing regulations); or
(2) Who a State must waive from the requirements of part 383 of this subchapter. These individuals include active duty military personnel; members of the reserves; and members of the national guard on active duty, including personnel on full-time national guard duty, personnel on part-time national guard training and national guard military technicians (civilians who are required to wear military uniforms), and active duty U.S. Coast Guard personnel; or
(3) Who a State has, at its discretion, exempted from the requirements of part 383 of this subchapter. These individuals may be:
(i) Operators of a farm vehicle which is:
(A) Controlled and operated by a farmer;
(B) Used to transport either agricultural products, farm machinery, farm supplies, or both to or from a farm;
(C) Not used in the operations of a for-hire motor carrier, except for an exempt motor carrier as defined in § 390.5 of this subchapter; and
(D) Used within 241 kilometers (150 miles) of the farmer's farm.
(ii) Firefighters or other persons who operate commercial motor vehicles which are necessary for the preservation of life or property or the execution of emergency governmental functions, are equipped with audible and visual signals, and are not subject to normal traffic regulation.
(4) Who operate “covered farm vehicles,” as defined in 49 CFR 390.5.
Each employer shall ensure that all alcohol or controlled substances testing conducted under this part complies with the procedures set forth in part 40 of this title. The provisions of part 40 of this title that address alcohol or controlled substances testing are made applicable to employers by this part.
Words or phrases used in this part are defined in §§ 386.2 and 390.5 of this subchapter, and § 40.3 of this title, except as provided in this section—
Actual knowledge for the purpose of subpart B of this part, means actual knowledge by an employer that a driver has used alcohol or controlled substances based on the employer's direct observation of the employee, information provided by the driver's previous employer(s), a traffic citation for driving a CMV while under the influence of alcohol or controlled substances or an employee's admission of alcohol or controlled substance use, except as provided in § 382.121. Direct observation as used in this definition means observation of alcohol or controlled substances use and does not include observation of employee behavior or physical characteristics sufficient to warrant reasonable suspicion testing under § 382.307. As used in this section, “traffic citation” means a ticket, complaint, or other document charging driving a CMV while under the influence of alcohol or controlled substances.
Alcohol means the intoxicating agent in beverage alcohol, ethyl alcohol, or other low molecular weight alcohols including methyl and isopropyl alcohol.
Alcohol concentration (or content) means the alcohol in a volume of breath expressed in terms of grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath as indicated by an evidential breath test under this part.
Alcohol use means the drinking or swallowing of any beverage, liquid mixture or preparation (including any medication), containing alcohol.
(1) Any trade, traffic or transportation within the jurisdiction of the United States between a place in a State and a place outside of such State, including a place outside of the United States; or
(2) Trade, traffic, and transportation in the United States which affects any trade, traffic, and transportation described in paragraph (1) of this definition.
Commercial Driver's License Drug and Alcohol Clearinghouse (Clearinghouse) means the FMCSA database that subpart G of this part requires employers and service agents to report information to and to query regarding drivers who are subject to the DOT controlled substance and alcohol testing regulations.
Commercial motor vehicle means a motor vehicle or combination of motor vehicles used in commerce to transport passengers or property if the vehicle
(1) Has a gross combination weight rating or gross combination weight of 11,794 kilograms or more (26,001 pounds or more), whichever is greater, inclusive of a towed unit(s) with a gross vehicle weight rating or gross vehicle weight of more than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds), whichever is greater; or
(2) Has a gross vehicle weight rating or gross vehicle weight of 11,794 or more kilograms (26,001 or more pounds), whichever is greater; or
(3) Is designed to transport 16 or more passengers, including the driver; or
(4) Is of any size and is used in the transportation of materials found to be hazardous for the purposes of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 5103(b)) and which require the motor vehicle to be placarded under the Hazardous Materials Regulations (49 CFR part 172, subpart F).
Confirmation (or confirmatory) drug test means a second analytical procedure performed on a urine or oral fluid specimen to identify and quantify the presence of a specific drug or drug metabolite.
Confirmation (or confirmatory) validity test means a second test performed on a urine or oral fluid specimen to further support a validity test result.
Confirmed drug test means a confirmation test result received by an MRO from a laboratory.
Consortium/Third party administrator (C/TPA) means a service agent that provides or coordinates one or more drug and/or alcohol testing services to DOT-regulated employers. C/TPAs typically provide or coordinate the provision of a number of such services and perform administrative tasks concerning the operation of the employers' drug and alcohol testing programs. This term includes, but is not limited to, groups of employers who join together to administer, as a single entity, the DOT drug and alcohol testing programs of its members (e.g., having a combined random testing pool). C/TPAs are not “employers” for purposes of this part, except as provided in § 382.705(c).
Controlled substances mean those substances identified in § 40.82 of this title.
Designated employer representative (DER) is an individual identified by the employer as able to receive communications and test results from service agents and who is authorized to take immediate actions to remove employees from safety-sensitive duties and to make required decisions in the testing and evaluation processes. The individual must be an employee of the company. Service agents cannot serve as DERs.
Disabling damage means damage which precludes departure of a motor vehicle from the scene of the accident in its usual manner in daylight after simple repairs.
(1) Inclusions. Damage to motor vehicles that could have been driven, but would have been further damaged if so driven.
(2) Exclusions. (i) Damage which can be remedied temporarily at the scene of the accident without special tools or parts.
(ii) Tire disablement without other damage even if no spare tire is available.
(iii) Headlight or taillight damage.
(iv) Damage to turn signals, horn, or windshield wipers which make them inoperative.
DOT Agency means an agency (or “operating administration”) of the United States Department of Transportation administering regulations requiring alcohol and/or drug testing (14 CFR parts 61, 63, 65, 121, and 135; 49 CFR parts 199, 219, 382, and 655), in accordance with part 40 of this title.
Driver means any person who operates a commercial motor vehicle. This includes, but is not limited to: Full time, regularly employed drivers; casual, intermittent or occasional drivers; leased drivers and independent owner-operator contractors.
Employer means a person or entity employing one or more employees (including an individual who is self-employed) that is subject to DOT agency regulations requiring compliance with this part. The term, as used in this part, means the entity responsible for overall implementation of DOT drug and alcohol program requirements, including individuals employed by the entity who take personnel actions resulting from violations of this part and any applicable DOT agency regulations. Service agents are not employers for the purposes of this part.
Licensed medical practitioner means a person who is licensed, certified, and/or registered, in accordance with applicable Federal, State, local, or foreign laws and regulations, to prescribe controlled substances and other drugs.
Negative return-to-duty test result means a return-to-duty test with a negative drug result and/or an alcohol test with an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02, as described in § 40.305 of this title.
Performing (a safety-sensitive function) means a driver is considered to be performing a safety-sensitive function during any period in which he or she is actually performing, ready to perform, or immediately available to perform any safety-sensitive functions.
Positive rate for random drug testing means the number of verified positive results for random drug tests conducted under this part plus the number of refusals of random drug tests required by this part, divided by the total number of random drug tests results (i.e., positives, negatives, and refusals) under this part.
Refuse to submit (to an alcohol or controlled substances test) means that a driver:
(1) Fail to appear for any test (except a pre-employment test) within a reasonable time, as determined by the employer, consistent with applicable DOT agency regulations, after being directed to do so by the employer. This includes the failure of an employee (including an owner-operator) to appear for a test when called by a C/TPA (see § 40.61(a) of this title);
(2) Fail to remain at the testing site until the testing process is complete. Provided, that an employee who leaves the testing site before the testing process commences (see § 40.63(c) of this title) a pre-employment test is not deemed to have refused to test;
(3) Fail to provide a urine or oral fluid specimen for any drug test required by this part or DOT agency regulations. Provided, that an employee who does not provide a urine or oral fluid specimen because he or she has left the testing site before the testing process commences (see § 40.63(c) of this title) for a pre-employment test is not deemed to have refused to test;
(4) In the case of a directly observed or monitored collection in a drug test, fails to permit the observation or monitoring of the driver's provision of a specimen (see §§ 40.67(l) and 40.69(g) of this title);
(5) Fail to provide a sufficient amount of urine or oral fluid when directed, and it has been determined, through a required medical evaluation, that there was no adequate medical explanation for the failure (see § 40.193(d)(2) of this title);
(6) Fail or declines to take a second test the employer or collector has directed the driver to take;
(7) Fail to undergo a medical examination or evaluation, as directed by the MRO as part of the verification process, or as directed by the DER under § 40.193(d) of this title. In the case of a pre-employment drug test, the employee is deemed to have refused to test on this basis only if the pre-employment test is conducted following a contingent offer of employment;
(8) Fail to cooperate with any part of the testing process (e.g., refuse to empty pockets when so directed by the collector, behave in a confrontational way that disrupts the collection process); or
(9) Is reported by the MRO as having a verified adulterated or substituted test result.
Safety-sensitive function means all time from the time a driver begins to work or is required to be in readiness to work until the time he/she is relieved from work and all responsibility for performing work. Safety-sensitive functions shall include:
(1) All time at an employer or shipper plant, terminal, facility, or other property, or on any public property, waiting to be dispatched, unless the driver has been relieved from duty by the employer;
(2) All time inspecting equipment as required by §§ 392.7 and 392.8 of this subchapter or otherwise inspecting, servicing, or conditioning any commercial motor vehicle at any time;
(3) All time spent at the driving controls of a commercial motor vehicle in operation;
(4) All time, other than driving time, in or upon any commercial motor vehicle except time spent resting in a sleeper berth (a berth conforming to the requirements of § 393.76 of this subchapter);
(5) All time loading or unloading a vehicle, supervising, or assisting in the loading or unloading, attending a vehicle being loaded or unloaded, remaining in readiness to operate the vehicle, or in giving or receiving receipts for shipments loaded or unloaded; and
(6) All time repairing, obtaining assistance, or remaining in attendance upon a disabled vehicle.
Screening test (or initial test) means:
(1) In drug testing, a test to eliminate “negative” urine or oral fluid specimens from further analysis or to identify a specimen that requires additional testing for the presence of drugs.
(2) In alcohol testing, an analytical procedure to determine whether an employee may have a prohibited concentration of alcohol in a breath or saliva specimen.
Stand-down means the practice of temporarily removing an employee from the performance of safety-sensitive functions based only on a report from a laboratory to the MRO of a confirmed positive test for a drug or drug metabolite, an adulterated test, or a substituted test, before the MRO has completed verification of the test results.
Violation rate for random alcohol testing means the number of 0.04 and above random alcohol confirmation test results conducted under this part plus the number of refusals of random alcohol tests required by this part, divided by the total number of random alcohol screening tests (including refusals) conducted under this part.
(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part preempts any State or local law, rule, regulation, or order to the extent that:
(1) Compliance with both the State or local requirement in this part is not possible; or
(2) Compliance with the State or local requirement is an obstacle to the accomplishment and execution of any requirement in this part.
(b) This part shall not be construed to preempt provisions of State criminal law that impose sanctions for reckless conduct leading to actual loss of life, injury, or damage to property, whether the provisions apply specifically to transportation employees, employers, or the general public.
Except as expressly provided in this part, nothing in this part shall be construed to affect the authority of employers, or the rights of drivers, with respect to the use of alcohol, or the use of controlled substances, including authority and rights with respect to testing and rehabilitation.
Before performing each alcohol or controlled substances test under this part, each employer shall notify a driver that the alcohol or controlled substances test is required by this part. No employer shall falsely represent that a test is administered under this part.
(a) All domestic-domiciled employers must implement the requirements of this part on the date the employer begins commercial motor vehicle operations.
(b) All foreign-domiciled employers must implement the requirements of this part on the date the employer begins commercial motor vehicle operations in the United States.
No employer shall use the services of a service agent who is subject to public interest exclusion in accordance with 49 CFR part 40, Subpart R.
(a) Employers are prohibited from standing employees down, except consistent with a waiver from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration as required under this section.
(b) An employer subject to this part who seeks a waiver from the prohibition against standing down an employee before the MRO has completed the verification process shall follow the procedures in 49 CFR 40.21. The employer must send a written request, which includes all of the information required by that section to the Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE., Washington, DC 20590–0001.
(c) The final decision whether to grant or deny the application for a waiver will be made by the Administrator or the Administrator's designee.
(d) After a decision is signed by the Administrator or the Administrator's designee, the employer will be sent a copy of the decision, which will include the terms and conditions for the waiver or the reason for denying the application for a waiver.
(e) Questions regarding waiver applications should be directed to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Office of Safety Programs (MC–SS), 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE., Washington, DC 20590–0001.
(a) Employees who admit to alcohol misuse or controlled substances use are not subject to the referral, evaluation and treatment requirements of this part and part 40 of this title, provided that:
(1) The admission is in accordance with a written employer-established voluntary self-identification program or policy that meets the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section;
(2) The driver does not self-identify in order to avoid testing under the requirements of this part;
(3) The driver makes the admission of alcohol misuse or controlled substances use prior to performing a safety sensitive function (i.e., prior to reporting for duty); and
(4) The driver does not perform a safety sensitive function until the employer is satisfied that the employee has been evaluated and has successfully completed education or treatment requirements in accordance with the self-identification program guidelines.
(b) A qualified voluntary self-identification program or policy must contain the following elements:
(1) It must prohibit the employer from taking adverse action against an employee making a voluntary admission of alcohol misuse or controlled substances use within the parameters of the program or policy and paragraph (a) of this section;
(2) It must allow the employee sufficient opportunity to seek evaluation, education or treatment to establish control over the employee's drug or alcohol problem;
(3) It must permit the employee to return to safety sensitive duties only upon successful completion of an educational or treatment program, as determined by a drug and alcohol abuse evaluation expert, i.e., employee assistance professional, substance abuse professional, or qualified drug and alcohol counselor;
(4) It must ensure that:
(i) Prior to the employee participating in a safety sensitive function, the employee shall undergo a non-DOT return to duty test with a result indicating an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02; and/or
(ii) Prior to the employee participating in a safety sensitive function, the employee shall undergo a non-DOT return to duty controlled substance test with a verified negative test result for controlled substances use; and
(5) It may incorporate employee monitoring and include non-DOT follow-up testing.
(a) Identification information on the Alcohol Testing Form (ATF). For each alcohol test performed under this part, the employer shall provide the driver's commercial driver's license number and State of issuance in Step 1, Section B of the ATF.
(b) Identification information on the Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control Form (CCF). For each controlled substance test performed under this part, the employer shall provide the following information, which must be recorded as follows:
(1) The driver's commercial driver's license number and State of issuance in Step 1, section C of the CCF.
(2) The employer's name and other identifying information required in Step 1, section A of the CCF.