U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Nov 30, 2022

GRADES

§ 51.2646 - U.S. No. 1.

“U.S. No. 1” consists of sweet cherries which meet the following requirements:

(a) Similar varietal characteristics;

(b) Mature;

(c) Fairly well colored;

(d) Well formed; and

(e) Clean.

(f) Free from:

(1) Decay;

(2) Insect larvae or holes caused by them;

(3) Soft, overripe or shriveled;

(4) Undeveloped doubles; and,

(5) Sunscald.

(g) Free from damage by any other cause. (See § 51.2655.)

(h) Size. Unless otherwise specified, the minimum diameter of each cherry shall be not less than three-fourths inch. The maximum diameter of the cherries in any lot may be specified in accordance with the facts.

(i) For tolerances see § 51.2648.

§ 51.2647 - U.S. Commercial.

“U.S. Commercial” consists of sweet cherries which meet the requirements for the U.S. No. 1 grade except for minimum diameter and except for increased tolerances.

(a) Size. Unless otherwise specified, the diameter of each cherry shall be not less than five-eighths inch. The maximum diameter of the cherries in any lot may be specified in accordance with the facts.

(b) For tolerances see § 51.2648.

TOLERANCES

§ 51.2648 - Tolerances.

In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling in each of the foregoing grades, the following tolerances, by count, are provided as specified:

(a) For defects at shipping point 2 - (1) U.S. No. 1. 8 percent for cherries which fail to meet the requirements for this grade: Provided, That included in this amount not more than 4 percent shall be allowed for defects causing serious damage, including in this latter amount not more than one-half of 1 percent for cherries which are affected by decay.

2 Shipping point, as used in these standards, means the point of origin of the shipment in the producing area or at port of loading for ship stores or overseas shipment, or, in the case of shipments from outside the continental United States, the port of entry into the United States.

(2) U.S. Commercial. 16 percent for cherries which fail to meet the requirements for this grade: Provided, That included in this amount not more than 4 percent shall be allowed for defects causing serious damage, including in this latter amount not more than one-half of 1 percent for cherries affected by decay.

(b) For defects en route or at destination - (1) U.S. No. 1. 12 percent for cherries in any lot which fail to meet the requirements for this grade: Provided, That included in this amount not more than the following percentages shall be allowed for defects listed:

(i) 8 percent for cherries which fail to meet the requirements for this grade because of permanent defects; or,

(ii) 6 percent for cherries which are seriously damaged, including therein not more than 4 percent for cherries which are seriously damaged by permanent defects and not more than 2 percent for cherries which are affected by decay.

(2) U.S. Commercial. 24 percent for cherries in any lot which fail to meet the requirements for this grade: Provided, That included in this amount not more than the following percentages shall be allowed for defects listed:

(i) 16 percent for cherries which fail to meet the requirements for this grade because of permanent defects; or,

(ii) 6 percent for cherries which are seriously damaged, including therein not more than 4 percent for cherries which are seriously damaged by permanent defects and not more than 2 percent for cherries which are affected by decay.

(c) For off-size. 5 percent for cherries which fail to meet the specified minimum diameter and 10 percent for cherries that fail to meet any specified maximum diameter.

APPLICATION OF TOLERANCES

§ 51.2649 - Application of tolerances.

Individual samples shall have not more than double the tolerances specified, except that at least two defective and two off-size specimens may be permitted in any sample: Provided, That the averages for the entire lot are within the tolerances specified for the grade.

DEFINITIONS

§ 51.2650 - Similar varietal characteristics.

Similar varietal characteristics means that the cherries in any container are similar in color and shape.

§ 51.2651 - Mature.

Mature means that the cherries have reached the stage of growth which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process.

§ 51.2652 - Fairly well colored.

Fairly well colored means that at least 95 percent of the surface of the cherry shows characteristic color for mature cherries of the variety.

§ 51.2653 - Well formed.

Well formed means that the cherry has the normal shape characteristic of the variety, except that mature well developed doubles shall be considered well formed when each of the halves is approximately evenly formed.

§ 51.2654 - Clean.

Clean means that the cherries are practically free from dirt, dust, spray residue, or other foreign material.

§ 51.2655 - Damage.

Damage means any specific defect described in this section; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which materially detracts from the appearance, or the edible or marketing quality of the fruit. The following specific defects shall be considered as damage:

(a) Cracks within the stem cavity when deep or not well healed, or when the appearance is affected to a greater extent than that of a cherry which has a superficial well healed crack one-sixteenth inch in width extending one-half the greatest circumference of the stem cavity;

(b) Cracks outside of the stem cavity when deep or not well healed, or when the crack has weakened the cherry to the extent that it is likely to split or break in the process of proper grading, packing, and handling, or when materially affecting the appearance;

(c) Hail injury when deep or not well healed, or when the aggregate area exceeds the area of a circle three-sixteenths inch in diameter;

(d) Insects when scale or more than one scale mark is present, or when the appearance is materially affected by any insect;

(e) Limbrubs when affecting the appearance of the cherry to a greater extent than the amount of scarring permitted;

(f) Pulled stems when the skin or flesh is torn, or when the cherry is leaking;

(g) Russeting when affecting the appearance of the cherry to a greater extent than the amount of scarring permitted;

(h) Scars when excessively deep or rough or dark colored and the aggregate area exceeds the area of a circle three-sixteenths inch in diameter, or when smooth or fairly smooth, light colored and superficial and the aggregate area exceeds the area of a circle one-fourth inch in diameter;

(i) Skin breaks when not well healed or when the appearance of the cherry is materially affected; and,

(j) Sutures when excessively deep or when affecting the shape of the cherry to the extent that it is not well formed.

§ 51.2656 - Diameter.

Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from the stem to the blossom end of the cherry.

§ 51.2657 - Serious damage.

Serious damage means any specific defect described in this section; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects which seriously detracts from the appearance or the edible or marketing quality of the fruit. The following specific defects shall be considered as serious damage:

(a) Decay;

(b) Insect larvae or holes caused by them;

(c) Skin breaks which are not well healed;

(d) Cracks which are not well healed; and,

(e) Pulled stems with skin or flesh of cherry torn or which causes the cherry to leak.

[36 FR 8502, May 5, 1971; 36 FR 9061, May 19, 1971. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and further redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981]

§ 51.2658 - Permanent defects.

Permanent defects means defects which are not subject to change during shipping or storage; including, but not limited to factors of shape, scarring, skin breaks, injury caused by hail or insects, and mechanical injury which is so located as to indicate that it occurred prior to shipment.

§ 51.2659 - Condition defects.

Condition defects means defects which may develop or change during shipment or storage; including, but not limited to decayed or soft cherries and such factors as pitting, shriveling, sunken areas, brown discoloration and bruising which is so located as to indicate that it occurred after packing.

METRIC CONVERSION TABLE

§ 51.2660 - Metric conversion table.

Inches Millimeters (mm)
8/64 equals3.2
16/64 equals6.4
24/64 equals9.5
32/64 equals12.7
40/64 equals15.9
48/64 equals19.1
51/64 equals20.2
52/64 equals20.6
54/64 equals21.4
56/64 equals22.2
1 equals25.4
1 8/64 equals28.6
1 16/64 equals31.8
1 24/64 equals34.9