U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Sep 21, 2023
This subpart prescribes the policies and procedures for servicing Community and Business Program loans and/or grants made by Rural Development when it is determined that the borrower or grantee was not eligible for all or part of the financial assistance received in the form of a loan, grant, or subsidy granted, or any other direct financial assistance. It does not apply to guaranteed loans. Loans sold without insurance by Rural Development to the private sector will be serviced in the private sector and will not be serviced under this subpart. The provisions of this subpart are not applicable to such loans. Future changes to this subpart will not be made applicable to such loans. This subpart does not apply to Water and Waste Programs of the Rural Utilities Service, Watershed loans, and Resource Conservation and Development Loans, which are serviced under part 1782 of this title.
As used in this subpart, the following definitions apply:
Active borrower. A borrower who has an outstanding account in the records of the Office of the Deputy Chief Financial Officer (ODCFO), including collection-only or an unsatisfied account balance where a voluntary conveyance was accepted without release from liability of foreclosure did not satisfy the indebtedness.
Assistance. Finance assistance in the form of a loan, grant, or subsidy received.
Debt instrument. Used as a collective term to include promissory note, assumption agreement, grant agreement, or bond.
False information. Information, known to be incorrect, provided with the intent to obtain benefits which would not have been obtainable based on correct information.
Inaccurate information. Incorrect information provided inadvertently without intent to obtain benefits fraudulently.
Inactive borrower. A former borrower whose loan(s) has been paid in full or assumed by another party(ies) and who does not have an outstanding account in the records of the ODCFO.
Recipient. “Recipient” refers to an individual or entity that received a loan, or portion of a loan, an interest subsidy, a grant, or a portion of a grant which was unauthorized.
Rural Development. A mission area within the U.S. Department of Agriculture consisting of the Office of the Under Secretary for Rural Development, Office of Community Development, Rural Business-Cooperative Service, Rural Housing Service, and Rural Utilities Service and their successors.
Unauthorized assistance. Any loan, interest subsidy, grant, or portion thereof received by a recipient for which there was no regulatory authorization or for which the recipient was not eligible. Interest subsidy includes subsidy benefits received because a loan was closed at a lower interest rate than that to which the recipient was entitled, whether the incorrect interest rate was selected erroneously by the approval official or the documents were prepared in error.
When unauthorized assistance has been received, an expeditious effort must be made to collect from the recipient the sum which is determined to be unauthorized, regardless of amount.
Unauthorized assistance may be identified through audits conducted by the USDA Office of Inspector General (OIG), through reviews made by Rural Development personnel, or through other means such as information provided by a private citizen who documents that unauthorized assistance has been received by a recipient of Rural Development assistance.
(a) Unauthorized loan amount. The unauthorized loan amount will be the unauthorized principal plus any interest accruing on the unauthorized principal at the note interest rate until the date paid unless otherwise agreed in writing by Rural Development.
(b) Unauthorized grant amount. The unauthorized amount will be the unauthorized grant amount actually expended under the grant agreement plus interest accrued beginning on the date of the demand letter at the interest rate stipulated in the applicable grant agreement, or, if none is stated, the default rate established by the U.S. Department of the Treasury, until the date paid unless otherwise agreed in writing by Rural Development.
(a) Upon determination that unauthorized assistance was received, Rural Development will send a demand letter to the recipient that:
(1) Specifies the amount of unauthorized assistance, including any accrued interest to be repaid, and the standards for imposing accrued interest;
(2) States the amount of penalties and administrative costs to be paid, the standards for imposing them, and the date on which they will begin to accrue;
(3) Provides detailed reason(s) why the assistance was determined to be unauthorized;
(4) States the amount is immediately due and payable to Rural Development;
(5) Describes the rights the recipient has for seeking review of Rural Development's determination pursuant to 7 CFR part 11;
(6) Describes the Agency's available remedies regarding enforced collection, including referral of debt delinquent more than 180 days for Federal salary, benefit, and tax offset under the Department of Treasury Offset Program (TOP); and
(7) Provides an opportunity for the recipient to meet with Rural Development to provide facts, figures, written records, or other information which might refute Rural Development's determination.
(b) If the recipient meets with Rural Development, Rural Development will outline to the recipient why the assistance was determined to be unauthorized. The recipient will be given an opportunity to provide information to refute Rural Development's findings. When requested by the recipient, Rural Development may grant additional time for the recipient to assemble documentation. Such extension of time for payment will be valid only if Rural Development documents the extension in writing and specifies the period in days during which period the payment obligation created by the demand letter (but not the ongoing accrual of interest) will be suspended. Interest and other charges will continue to accrue pursuant to the demand letter during any extension period unless the terms of the demand letter are modified in writing by Rural Development.
(c) Unless Rural Development modifies the original demand, it will remain in full force and effect.
(a) Payment in full. If the recipient agrees with Rural Development's determination or will pay the amount in question, Rural Development may allow a reasonable period of time (usually not to exceed 90 days) for the recipient to arrange for repayment. The amount due will be determined according to § 1951.707.
(b) Continuation with recipient. If the recipient agrees with Rural Development's determination or is willing to pay the amount in question but cannot repay the unauthorized assistance within a reasonable period of time, continuation is authorized and servicing actions outlined in § 1951.711 may be taken provided all of the following conditions are met:
(1) The recipient did not provide false information as defined in § 1951.702.
(2) It would be highly inequitable to require prompt repayment of the unauthorized assistance.
(3) Failure to collect the unauthorized assistance in full will not adversely affect Rural Development's financial interest.
(c) Appeals. Appeals resulting from the letter prescribed in § 1951.708 will be handled according to 7 CFR Part 11. All appeal provisions will be concluded before proceeding with further actions.
(d) Liquidation of loan(s) or legal action to enforce collection. When a case cannot be handled according to the provisions of paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, or if the recipient refuses to execute the documents necessary to establish an obligation to repay the unauthorized assistance as provided in § 1951.711, one or more of the following actions will be taken:
(1) Active borrower with a secured loan. (i) Rural Development will attempt to have the recipient liquidate voluntarily. If the recipient does not agree to voluntary liquidation, or agrees but it cannot be accomplished within a reasonable period of time (usually not more than 90 days), forced liquidation action will be initiated in accordance with applicable provisions of subpart A of part 1955 of this chapter unless:
(A) The amount of unauthorized assistance outstanding, including principal, accrued interest, and any recoverable costs charged to the account, is less than $1,000; or
(B) It would not be in the best financial interest of the Government to force liquidation.
(ii) When all of the conditions of paragraph (a) or (b) of this section are met, but the recipient does not repay or refuses to execute documents to effect necessary account adjustments according of the provisions of § 1951.711, forced liquidation action will be initiated as provided in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section.
(iii) When forced liquidation would be initiated, except that the loan is being handled in accordance with paragraph (d)(1)(i)(A) or (d)(1)(i)(B) of this section, continuation with the loan on existing terms may be provided.
(iv) If the debt is not otherwise resolved, Rural Development will take appropriate debt collection actions in accordance with 7 CFR Part 3, subparts B and C, and the Federal Claims Collection Standards at 31 CFR Chapter IX, Parts 900–904.
(2) Grantee, inactive borrower, or active borrower with unsecured loan (such as collection-only, or unsatisfied balance after liquidation). Rural Development may pursue all reasonable legal remedies.
When the conditions outlined in § 1951.709(b) are met, the servicing options outlined in this section will be considered.
(a) Continuation on modified terms. When the recipient has the legal and financial capabilities, the case will be serviced according to one of the following, as appropriate.
(1) Unauthorized loan. A loan for the unauthorized amount determined according to § 1951.707(a) will remain accelerated per the demand letter sent in accordance with § 1951.708 unless modified terms are timely reached with the recipient and accrued at the interest rate specified in the outstanding debt instrument or at the present market interest rate, whichever is greater, for the respective Community and Business program area. The loan will be amortized per a repayment schedule satisfactory to Rural Development, but in no event may the revised repayment schedule exceed a period of fifteen (15) years, the remaining term of the original loan, or the remaining useful life of the facility, whichever is shorter.
(2) Unauthorized grant. The unauthorized grant amount determined according to § 1951.707(b) will be converted to an account receivable, with interest payable at the market interest rate for the respective Community Facilities or Business and Industry Program area in effect on the date the financial assistance was provided. In all cases, the receivable will be amortized per a repayment schedule satisfactory to Rural Development, but in no event may the amortization period exceed fifteen (15) years. The recipient will be required to execute a debt instrument to evidence this receivable, and the best security position available to adequately protect Rural Development's interest during the repayment period will be taken as security.
(3) Unauthorized subsidy benefits received. When the recipient was eligible for the loan but should have been charged a higher interest rate than that in the debt instrument, which resulted in the receipt of unauthorized subsidy benefits, the case will be handled as follows:
(i) The recipient will be given the option to submit a written request that the interest rate be corrected to the lower of the rate for which they were eligible that was in effect at the date of loan approval or loan closing.
(ii) Any accrued unauthorized subsidy will be handled in accordance with § 1951.709.
(b) Continuation on existing terms. When the recipient does not have the legal and/or financial capabilities for the options outlined in paragraph (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(3) of this section, the recipient may be allowed to continue to meet the loan obligations outlined in the existing loan instruments. Rural Development will not continue with unauthorized grants on existing terms.
The Administrator may, in individual cases, make an exception to any requirement or provision of this subpart, provided that any such exception is not inconsistent with any applicable law or opinion of the Comptroller General, and provided further, the Administrator determines that the application of the requirement or provision would adversely affect the Government's interest.