U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Mar 25, 2023
(a) Development is related to all stages prior to serial production, such as design, design research, design analyses, design concepts, assembly and testing of prototypes, pilot production schemes, design data, process of transforming design data into a product, configuration design, integration design, and layouts. Development includes modification of an existing design.
(b)(1) Production means all production stages, such as product engineering, manufacture, integration, assembly (mounting), inspection, testing, and quality assurance. This includes serial production where commodities have passed production readiness testing (i.e., an approved, standardized design ready for large scale production) and have been or are being produced on an assembly line for multiple commodities using the approved, standardized design.
(2) Commodities in production that are subsequently subject to development activities, such as those that would result in enhancements or improvements only in the reliability or maintainability of the commodity (e.g., an increased mean time between failure), including those pertaining to quality improvements, cost reductions, or feature enhancements, remain in production. However, any new models or versions of such commodities developed from such efforts that change the basic performance or capability of the commodity are in development until and unless they enter into production.
(c) Design methodology includes the underlying engineering methods and design philosophy utilized (i.e., information that explains the rationale for a particular design decision, engineering feature, or performance requirement); engineering experience (e.g., lessons learned); and the rationale and associated databases (e.g., design allowables, factors of safety, component life predictions, failure analysis criteria) that establish the operational requirements (e.g., performance, mechanical, electrical, electronic, reliability and maintainability) of a defense article. (Final analytical results and the initial conditions and parameters may be provided.)
(d) Engineering analysis includes the analytical methods and tools used to design or evaluate a defense article's performance against the operational requirements. Analytical methods and tools include the development and/or use of mockups, computer models and simulations, and test facilities. (Final analytical results and the initial conditions and parameters may be provided.)
(e) Manufacturing know-how includes information that provides detailed manufacturing processes and techniques needed to translate a detailed design into a qualified, finished defense article. (Information may be provided in a build-to-print package that is necessary in order to produce an acceptable defense article.)
(f) Build-to-print means that a foreign consignee can produce a defense article from engineering drawings without any technical assistance from a U.S. exporter. This transaction is based strictly on a hands-off approach since the foreign consignee is understood to have the inherent capability to produce the defense article and only lacks the necessary drawings. Supporting documentation (e.g., acceptance criteria, object code software for numerically controlled machines) may be released on an as-required basis (i.e., must have) such that the foreign consignee would not be able to produce an acceptable defense article without this additional supporting documentation. Build-to-print does not include the release of any information which discloses design methodology, engineering analysis, detailed process information or manufacturing know-how. Documentation which is not absolutely necessary to permit manufacture of an acceptable defense article (i.e. nice to have) is not considered within the boundaries of a build-to-print data package.
(g) Build/design-to-specification means that a foreign consignee can design and produce a defense article from requirement specifications without any technical assistance from the U.S. exporter. This transaction is based strictly on a hands-off approach since the foreign consignee is understood to have the inherent capability to both design and produce the defense article and only lacks the necessary requirement information.
(h) Basic research means a systemic study directed toward greater knowledge or understanding of the fundamental aspects of phenomena and observable facts without specific applications towards processes or products in mind. It does not include applied research.
(i) Applied research means a systemic study to gain knowledge or understanding necessary to determine the means by which a recognized and specific need may be met. It is a systematic application of knowledge toward the production of useful materials, devices, and systems or methods, including design, development, and improvement of prototypes and new processes to meet specific requirements.