U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Jun 05, 2023
(a) Lead-based paint inspections and paint testing. Lead-based paint inspections shall be performed in accordance with methods and standards established either by a State or Tribal program authorized by the EPA under 40 CFR 745.324, or by the EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(b) and (h). Paint testing to determine the presence or absence of lead-based paint on deteriorated paint surfaces or surfaces to be disturbed or replaced shall be performed by a certified lead-based paint inspector or risk assessor.
(b) Risk assessments, lead-hazard screens and reevaluations. (1) Risk assessments and lead-hazard screens shall be performed in accordance with methods and standards established either by a state or tribal program authorized by the EPA, or by the EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(c), (d), and (h) and paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Reevaluations shall be performed by a certified risk assessor in accordance with § 35.1355(b) and paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
(2) Risk assessors shall use standards for determining dust-lead hazards and soil-lead hazards that are at least as protective as those promulgated by the EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(h) or, if such standards are not in effect, the following levels for dust or soil:
(i) Dust. A dust-lead hazard is surface dust that contains a mass-per-area concentration (loading) of lead, based on wipe samples, equal to or exceeding the applicable level in the following table:
Dust Lead Standards
sills, µg/ft 2
µg/ft 2 (mg/m 2)
|Risk Assessment||40 (0.43)||250 (2.7)||Not Applicable.|
|Lead Hazard Screen||25 (0.27)||125 (1.4)||Not Applicable.|
|Reevaluation||40 (0.43)||250 (2.7)||Not Applicable.|
|Clearance||40 (0.43)||250 (2.7)||400 (4.3).|
Note 1: “Floors” includes carpeted and uncarpeted interior floors.
Note 2: A dust-lead hazard is present or clearance fails when the weighted arithmetic mean lead loading for all single-surface or composite samples is equal to or greater than the applicable standard. For composite samples of two to four subsamples, the standard is determined by dividing the standard in the table by one half the number of subsamples. See EPA regulations at 40 CFR 745.63 and 745.227(h)(3)(i).
(ii) Soil. (A) A soil-lead hazard for play areas frequented by children under six years of age is bare soil with lead equal to or exceeding 400 parts per million (micrograms per gram).
(B) For the rest of the yard, a soil-lead hazard is bare soil that totals more than 9 square feet (0.8 square meters) per property with lead equal to or exceeding an average of 1,200 parts per million (micrograms per gram).
(3) Lead-hazard screens shall be performed in accordance with the methods and standards established either by a state or Tribal program authorized by the EPA, or by the EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(c), and paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. If the lead-hazard screen indicates the need for a follow-up risk assessment (e.g., if dust-lead measurements exceed the levels established for lead-hazard screens in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section), a risk assessment shall be conducted in accordance with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. Dust, soil, and paint samples collected for the lead-hazard screen may be used in the risk assessment. If the lead hazard screen does not indicate the need for a follow-up risk assessment, no further risk assessment is required.
(c) It is strongly recommended, but not required, that lead-based paint inspectors, risk assessors, and sampling technicians provide a plain-language summary of the results suitable for posting or distribution to occupants in compliance with § 35.125.