U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Aug 08, 2022
(a) Adsorbable organic halides (AOX). A bulk parameter that measures the total mass of chlorinated organic matter in water and wastewater. The approved method of analysis for AOX is Method 1650, which is available in Appendix A of this part, and online at http://water.epa.gov/scitech/methods/cwa/index.cfm.
(b) Annual average. The mean concentration, mass loading or production-normalized mass loading of a pollutant over a period of 365 consecutive days (or such other period of time determined by the permitting authority to be sufficiently long to encompass expected variability of the concentration, mass loading, or production-normalized mass loading at the relevant point of measurement).
(c) Bleach plant. All process equipment used for bleaching beginning with the first application of bleaching agents (e.g., chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, sodium or calcium hypochlorite, or peroxide), each subsequent extraction stage, and each subsequent stage where bleaching agents are applied to the pulp. For mills in subpart E of this part producing specialty grades of pulp, the bleach plant includes process equipment used for the hydrolysis or extraction stages prior to the first application of bleaching agents. Process equipment used for oxygen delignification prior to the application of bleaching agents is not part of the bleach plant.
(d) Bleach plant effluent. The total discharge of process wastewaters from the bleach plant from each physical bleach line operated at the mill, comprising separate acid and alkaline filtrates or the combination thereof.
(e) Chemical oxygen demand (COD). A bulk parameter that measures the oxygen-consuming capacity of organic and inorganic matter present in water or wastewater. It is expressed as the amount of oxygen consumed from a chemical oxidant in a specific test.
(f) Elemental chlorine-free (ECF). Any process for bleaching pulps in the absence of elemental chlorine and hypochlorite that uses exclusively chlorine dioxide as the only chlorine-containing bleaching agent.
(g) End of the pipe. The point at which final mill effluent is discharged to waters of the United States or introduced to a POTW.
(h) Fiber line. A series of operations employed to convert wood or other fibrous raw material into pulp. If the final product is bleached pulp, the fiber line encompasses pulping, de-knotting, brownstock washing, pulp screening, centrifugal cleaning, and multiple bleaching and washing stages.
(i) Minimum level (ML). The level at which the analytical system gives recognizable signals and an acceptable calibration point. The following minimum levels apply to pollutants in this part:
|2,3,7,8-TCDD||1613||10 pg/L a|
|2,3,7,8-TCDF||1613||10 pg/L a|
|Trichlorosyringol||1653||2.5 ug/L b|
|3,4,5-Trichlorocatechol||1653||5.0 ug/L b|
|3,4,6-Trichlorocatechol||1653||5.0 ug/L b|
|3,4,5-Trichloroguaiacol||1653||2.5 ug/L b|
|3,4,6-Trichloroguaiacol||1653||2.5 ug/L b|
|4,5,6-Trichloroguaiacol||1653||2.5 ug/L b|
|2,4,5-Trichlorophenol||1653||2.5 ug/L b|
|2,4,6-Trichlorophenol||1653||2.5 ug/L b|
|Tetrachlorocatechol||1653||5.0 ug/L b|
|Tetrachloroguaiacol||1653||5.0 ug/L b|
|2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol||1653||2.5 ug/L b|
|Pentachlorophenol||1653||5.0 ug/L b|
|AOX||1650||20 ug/L b|
a Picograms per liter.
b Micrograms per liter.
(j) New source. (1) Notwithstanding the criteria codified at 40 CFR 122.29(b)(1), a source subject to subpart B or E of this part is a “new source” if it meets the definition of “new source” at 40 CFR 122.2 and:
(i) It is constructed at a site at which no other source is located; or
(ii) It totally replaces the process or production equipment that causes the discharge of pollutants at an existing source, including the total replacement of a fiber line that causes the discharge of pollutants at an existing source, except as provided in paragraph (j)(2) of this section; or
(iii) Its processes are substantially independent of an existing source at the same site. In determining whether these processes are substantially independent, the Director shall consider such factors as the extent to which the new facility is integrated with the existing plant; and the extent to which the new facility is engaged in the same general type of activity as the existing source.
(2) The following are examples of changes made by mills subject to subparts B or E of this part that alone do not cause an existing mill to become a “new source”:
(i) Upgrades of existing pulping operations;
(ii) Upgrades or replacement of pulp screening and washing operations;
(iii) Installation of extended cooking and/or oxygen delignification systems or other post-digester, pre-bleaching delignification systems;
(iv) Bleach plant modifications including changes in methods or amounts of chemical applications, new chemical applications, installation of new bleaching towers to facilitate replacement of sodium or calcium hypochlorite, and installation of new pulp washing systems; or
(v) Total replacement of process or production equipment that causes the discharge of pollutants at an existing source (including a replacement fiber line), but only if such replacement is performed for the purpose of achieving limitations that have been included in the discharger's NPDES permit pursuant to § 430.24(b).
(k) Non-continuous discharger. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (k)(2) of this section, a non-continuous discharger is a mill which is prohibited by the NPDES authority from discharging pollutants during specific periods of time for reasons other than treatment plant upset control, such periods being at least 24 hours in duration. A mill shall not be deemed a non-continuous discharger unless its permit, in addition to setting forth the prohibition described above, requires compliance with the effluent limitations established for non-continuous dischargers and also requires compliance with maximum day and average of 30 consecutive days effluent limitations. Such maximum day and average of 30 consecutive days effluent limitations for non-continuous dischargers shall be established by the NPDES authority in the form of concentrations which reflect wastewater treatment levels that are representative of the application of the best practicable control technology currently available, the best conventional pollutant control technology, or new source performance standards in lieu of the maximum day and average of 30 consecutive days effluent limitations for conventional pollutants set forth in each subpart.
(2) A mill is a non-continuous discharger for the purposes of determining applicable effluent limitations under subpart B or E of this part (other than conventional limits for existing sources) if, for reasons other than treatment plant upset control (e.g., protecting receiving water quality), the mill is prohibited by the NPDES authority from discharging pollutants during specific periods of time or if it is required to release its discharge on a variable flow or pollutant loading rate basis.
(l) POTW. Publicly owned treatment works as defined at 40 CFR 403.3(o).
(m) Process wastewater. For subparts B and E only, process wastewater is any water that, during manufacturing or processing, comes into direct contact with or results from the production or use of any raw material, intermediate product, finished product, byproduct, or waste product. For purposes of subparts B and E of this part, process wastewater includes boiler blowdown; wastewaters from water treatment and other utility operations; blowdowns from high rate (e.g., greater than 98 percent) recycled non-contact cooling water systems to the extent they are mixed and co-treated with other process wastewaters; wastewater, including leachates, from landfills owned by pulp and paper mills subject to subpart B or E of this part if the wastewater is commingled with wastewater from the mill's manufacturing or processing facility; and storm waters from the immediate process areas to the extent they are mixed and co-treated with other process wastewaters. For purposes of this part, contaminated groundwaters from on-site or off-site groundwater remediation projects are not process wastewater.
(n) Production. (1) For all limitations and standards specified in this part except those pertaining to AOX and chloroform: Production shall be defined as the annual off-the-machine production (including off-the-machine coating where applicable) divided by the number of operating days during that year. Paper and paperboard production shall be measured at the off-the-machine moisture content, except for subpart C of this part (as it pertains to pulp and paperboard production at unbleached kraft mills including linerboard or bag paper and other mixed products, and to pulp and paperboard production using the unbleached kraft neutral sulfite semi-chemical (cross recovery) process), and subparts F and J of this part (as they pertain to paperboard production from wastepaper from noncorrugating medium furnish or from corrugating medium furnish) where paper and paperboard production shall be measured in air-dry-tons (10% moisture content). Market pulp shall be measured in air-dry tons (10% moisture). Production shall be determined for each mill based upon past production practices, present trends, or committed growth.
(2) For AOX and chloroform limitations and standards specified in subparts B and E of this part: Production shall be defined as the annual unbleached pulp production entering the first stage of the bleach plant divided by the number of operating days during that year. Unbleached pulp production shall be measured in air-dried-metric-tons (10% moisture) of brownstock pulp entering the bleach plant at the stage during which chlorine or chlorine-containing compounds are first applied to the pulp. In the case of bleach plants that use totally chlorine free bleaching processes, unbleached pulp production shall be measured in air-dried-metric tons (10% moisture) of brownstock pulp entering the first stage of the bleach plant from which wastewater is discharged. Production shall be determined for each mill based upon past production practices, present trends, or committed growth.
(o) TCDD. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
(p) TCDF. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran.
(q) Totally chlorine-free (TCF) bleaching. Pulp bleaching operations that are performed without the use of chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, chlorine monoxide, or any other chlorine-containing compound.
(r) Wet Barking. Wet barking operations shall be defined to include hydraulic barking operations and wet drum barking operations which are those drum barking operations that use substantial quantities of water in either water sprays in the barking drums or in a partial submersion of the drums in a “tub” of water.
(s) TCDD. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The approved method of analysis for TCDD is Method 1613B, which is available in Appendix A of this part, and online at http://water.epa.gov/scitech/methods/cwa/index.cfm.
(t) TCDF. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. The approved method of analysis for TCDF is Method 1613B, which is available in Appendix A of this part, and online at http://water.epa.gov/scitech/methods/cwa/index.cfm.
(u) Chloroform. The approved methods of analysis for chloroform are listed in Table IC at 40 CFR 136.3.
(v) The approved method of analysis for the following chlorinated phenolic compounds is Method 1653, which is available in Appendix A of this part, and online at http://water.epa.gov/scitech/methods/cwa/index.cfm: