U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Jun 13, 2024

§ 1065.905 - General provisions.

(a) General. Unless the standard-setting part specifies deviations from the provisions of this subpart, field testing and laboratory testing with PEMS must conform to the provisions of this subpart. Use good engineering judgment when testing with PEMS to ensure proper function of the instruments under test conditions. For example, this may require additional maintenance or calibration for field testing or may require verification after moving the PEMS unit.

(b) Field-testing scope. Field testing conducted under this subpart may include any normal in-use operation of an engine.

(c) Field testing and the standard-setting part. This subpart J specifies procedures for field-testing various categories of engines. See the standard-setting part for specific provisions for a particular type of engine. Before using this subpart's procedures for field testing, read the standard-setting part to answer at least the following questions:

(1) How many engines must I test in the field?

(2) How many times must I repeat a field test on an individual engine?

(3) How do I select vehicles for field testing?

(4) What maintenance steps may I take before or between tests?

(5) What data are needed for a single field test on an individual engine?

(6) What are the limits on ambient conditions for field testing? Note that the ambient condition limits in § 1065.520 do not apply for field testing. Field testing may occur at any ambient temperature, pressure, and humidity unless otherwise specified in the standard-setting part.

(7) Which exhaust constituents do I need to measure?

(8) How do I account for crankcase emissions?

(9) Which engine and ambient parameters do I need to measure?

(10) How do I process the data recorded during field testing to determine if my engine meets field-testing standards? How do I determine individual test intervals? Note that “test interval” is defined in subpart K of this part 1065.

(11) Should I warm up the test engine before measuring emissions, or do I need to measure cold-start emissions during a warm-up segment of in-use operation?

(12) Do any unique specifications apply for test fuels?

(13) Do any special conditions invalidate parts of a field test or all of a field test?

(14) Does any special measurement allowance apply to field-test emission results or standards, based on using PEMS for field-testing versus using laboratory equipment and instruments for laboratory testing?

(15) Do results of initial field testing trigger any requirement for additional field testing or laboratory testing?

(16) How do I report field-testing results?

(d) Field testing and this part 1065. Use the following specifications for field testing:

(1) Use the applicability and general provisions of subpart A of this part.

(2) Use equipment specifications in § 1065.101 and in the sections from § 1065.140 to the end of subpart B of this part, with the exception of §§ 1065.140(e)(1) and (4), 1065.170(c)(1)(vi), and 1065.195(c). Section 1065.910 identifies additional equipment that is specific to field testing.

(i) For PM samples, configure dilution systems as follows:

(A) Use good engineering judgment to control dilution air temperature. If you choose to directly and actively control dilution air temperature, set the temperature to 25 °C.

(B) Control sample temperature to a (32 to 62) °C tolerance, as measured anywhere within 20 cm upstream or downstream of the PM storage media (such as a filter or oscillating crystal), where the tolerance applies only during sampling.

(C) Maintain filter face velocity to a (5 to 100) cm/s tolerance for flow-through media. Compliance with this provision can be verified by engineering analysis. This provision does not apply for non-flow-through media.

(ii) For inertial PM balances, there is no requirement to control the stabilization environment temperature or dewpoint.

(3) Use measurement instruments in subpart C of this part, except as specified in § 1065.915.

(4) Use calibrations and verifications in subpart D of this part, except as specified in § 1065.920. Section 1065.920 also specifies additional calibrations and verifications for field testing.

(5) Use the provisions of the standard-setting part for selecting and maintaining engines in the field instead of the specifications in subpart E of this part.

(6) Use the procedures in §§ 1065.930 and 1065.935 to start and run a field test. If you use a gravimetric balance for PM, weigh PM samples according to §§ 1065.590 and 1065.595.

(7) Use the calculations in subpart G of this part to calculate emissions over each test interval. Note that “test interval” is defined in subpart K of this part 1065, and that the standard setting part indicates how to determine test intervals for your engine.

Section 1065.940 specifies additional calculations for field testing. Use any calculations specified in the standard-setting part to determine if your engines meet the field-testing standards. The standard-setting part may also contain additional calculations that determine when further field testing is required.

(8) Use a typical in-use fuel meeting the specifications of § 1065.701(d).

(9) Use the lubricant and coolant specifications in §§ 1065.740 and 1065.745.

(10) Use the analytical gases and other calibration standards in § 1065.750 and § 1065.790.

(11) If you are testing with oxygenated fuels, use the procedures specified for testing with oxygenated fuels in subpart I of this part.

(12) Apply the definitions and reference materials in subpart K of this part.

(e) Laboratory testing using PEMS. You may use PEMS for testing in a laboratory as described in § 1065.901(b). Use the following procedures and specifications when using PEMS for laboratory testing:

(1) Use the applicability and general provisions of subpart A of this part.

(2) Use equipment specifications in subpart B of this part. Section 1065.910 specifies additional equipment specific to testing with PEMS.

(3) Use measurement instruments in subpart C of this part, except as specified in § 1065.915.

(4) Use calibrations and verifications in subpart D of this part, except as specified in § 1065.920. Section 1065.920 also specifies additional calibration and verifications for PEMS.

(5) Use the provisions of § 1065.401 for selecting engines for testing. Use the provisions of subpart E of this part for maintaining engines, except as specified in the standard-setting part.

(6) Use the procedures in subpart F of this part and in the standard-setting part to start and run a laboratory test.

(7) Use the calculations in subpart G of this part to calculate emissions over the applicable duty cycle. Section 1065.940 specifies additional calculations for testing with PEMS.

(8) Use a fuel meeting the specifications of subpart H of this part, as specified in the standard-setting part.

(9) Use the lubricant and coolant specifications in §§ 1065.740 and 1065.745.

(10) Use the analytical gases and other calibration standards in §§ 1065.750 and 1065.790.

(11) If you are testing with oxygenated fuels, use the procedures specified for testing with oxygenated fuels in subpart I of this part.

(12) Apply the definitions and reference materials in subpart K of this part.

(f) Summary. The following table summarizes the requirements of paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section:

Table 1 of § 1065.905—Summary of Testing Requirements Specified Outside of This Subpart

Subpart Applicability for field testing a Applicability for laboratory
or similar testing with
PEMS without restriction a
Applicability for laboratory
or similar testing with
PEMS with restrictions a
A: Applicability and general provisionsUse allUse allUse all.
B: Equipment for testingUse §§ 1065.101 and 1065.140 through the end of subpart B of this part, except §§ 1065.140(e)(1) and (4), 1065.170(c)(1)(vi), and 1065.195(c). Section 1065.910 specifies equipment specific to field testingUse allUse all. Section 1065.910 specifies equipment specific to laboratory testing with PEMS.
C: Measurement instrumentsUse all Section 1065.915 allows deviations.Use all except § 1065.295(c)Use all except § 1065.295(c).
Section1065.915 allows deviations.
D: Calibrations and verificationsUse all except §§ 1065.308 and 1065.309. Section 1065.920 allows deviations, but also has additional specificationsUse allUse all. Section 1065.920 allows deviations, but also has additional specifications.
E: Test engine selection, maintenance, and durabilityDo not use Use standard-setting part.Use allUse all.
F: Running an emission test in the laboratoryUse §§ 1065.590 and 1065.595 for PM. §§ 1065.930 and 1065.935 to start and run a field testUse allUse all.
G: Calculations and data requirementsUse all Section 1065.940 has additional calculation instructionsUse allUse all. Section 1065.940 has additional calculation instructions
H: Fuels, engine fluids, analytical gases, and other calibration materialsUse allUse allUse all.
I: Testing with oxygenated fuelsUse allUse allUse all.
K: Definitions and reference materialsUse allUse allUse all.

a Refer to paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section for complete specifications.

[70 FR 40516, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 37344, June 30, 2008; 75 FR 68465, Nov. 8, 2010; 79 FR 23813, Apr. 28, 2014; 86 FR 34574, June 29, 2021]