U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Sep 22, 2023
(a) Definitions. As used in this subsection—
Applied research means that effort which (1) normally follows basic research, but may not be severable from the related basic research, (2) attempts to determine and exploit the potential of scientific discoveries or improvements in technology, materials, processes, methods, devices, or techniques, and (3) attempts to advance the state of the art. Applied research does not include efforts whose principal aim is design, development, or test of specific items or services to be considered for sale; these efforts are within the definition of the term development, defined in this subsection.
Basic research, (See 2.101).
Bid and proposal (B&P) costs means the costs incurred in preparing, submitting, and supporting bids and proposals (whether or not solicited) on potential Government or non-Government contracts. The term does not include the costs of effort sponsored by a grant or cooperative agreement, or required in the performance of a contract.
Company means all divisions, subsidiaries, and affiliates of the contractor under common control.
Development means the systematic use, under whatever name, of scientific and technical knowledge in the design, development, test, or evaluation of a potential new product or service (or of an improvement in an existing product or service) for the purpose of meeting specific performance requirements or objectives. Development includes the functions of design engineering, prototyping, and engineering testing. Development excludes: (1) Subcontracted technical effort which is for the sole purpose of developing an additional source for an existing product, or (2) development effort for manufacturing or production materials, systems, processes, methods, equipment, tools, and techniques not intended for sale.
Independent research and development (IR&D) means a contractor's IR&D cost that consists of projects falling within the four following areas: (1) Basis research, (2) applied research, (3) development, and (4) systems and other concept formulation studies. The term does not include the costs of effort sponsored by a grant or required in the performance of a contract. IR&D effort shall not include technical effort expended in developing and preparing technical data specifically to support submitting a bid or proposal.
Systems and other concept formulation studies means analyses and study efforts either related to specific IR&D efforts or directed toward identifying desirable new systems, equipment or components, or modifications and improvements to existing systems, equipment, or components.
(b) Composition and allocation of costs. The requirements of 48 CFR 9904.420, Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs, are incorporated in their entirety and shall apply as follows—
(1) Fully-CAS-covered contracts. Contracts that are fully-CAS-covered shall be subject to all requirements of 48 CFR 9904.420.
(2) Modified CAS-covered and non-CAS-covered contracts. Contracts that are not CAS-covered or that contain terms or conditions requiring modified CAS coverage shall be subject to all requirements of 48 CFR 9904.420 except 48 CFR 9904.420–50(e)(2) and 48 CFR 9904.420–50(f)(2), which are not then applicable. However, non-CAS-covered or modified CAS-covered contracts awarded at a time the contractor has CAS-covered contracts requiring compliance with 48 CFR 9904.420, shall be subject to all the requirements of 48 CFR 9904.420. When the requirements of 48 CFR 9904.420–50(e)(2) and 48 CFR 9904.420–50(f)(2) are not applicable, the following apply:
(i) IR&D and B&P costs shall be allocated to final cost objectives on the same basis of allocation used for the G&A expense grouping of the profit center (see 31.001) in which the costs are incurred. However, when IR&D and B&P costs clearly benefit other profit centers or benefit the entire company, those costs shall be allocated through the G&A of the other profit centers or through the corporate G&A, as appropriate.
(ii) If allocations of IR&D or B&P through the G&A base do not provide equitable cost allocation, the contracting officer may approve use of a different base.
(c) Allowability. Except as provided in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this subsection, or as provided in agency regulations, costs for IR&D and B&P are allowable as indirect expenses on contracts to the extent that those costs are allocable and reasonable.
(d) Deferred IR&D costs. (1) IR&D costs that were incurred in previous accounting periods are unallowable, except when a contractor has developed a specific product at its own risk in anticipation of recovering the development costs in the sale price of the product provided that—
(i) The total amount of IR&D costs applicable to the product can be identified;
(ii) The proration of such costs to sales of the product is reasonable;
(iii) The contractor had no Government business during the time that the costs were incurred or did not allocate IR&D costs to Government contracts except to prorate the cost of developing a specific product to the sales of that product; and
(iv) No costs of current IR&D programs are allocated to Government work except to prorate the costs of developing a specific product to the sales of that product.
(2) When deferred costs are recognized, the contract (except firm-fixed-price and fixed-price with economic price adjustment) will include a specific provision setting forth the amount of deferred IR&D costs that are allocable to the contract. The negotiation memorandum will state the circumstances pertaining to the case and the reason for accepting the deferred costs.
(e) Cooperative arrangements. (1) IR&D costs may be incurred by contractors working jointly with one or more non-Federal entities pursuant to a cooperative arrangement (for example, joint ventures, limited partnerships, teaming arrangements, and collaboration and consortium arrangements). IR&D costs also may include costs contributed by contractors in performing cooperative research and development agreements, or similar arrangements, entered into under—
(i) Section 12 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Transfer Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3710(a));
(ii) Sections 203(c) (5) and (6) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2473(c) (5) and (6));
(iii) 10 U.S.C. 4021for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; or
(iv) Other equivalent authority.
(2) IR&D costs incurred by a contractor pursuant to these types of cooperative arrangements should be considered as allowable IR&D costs if the work performed would have been allowed as contractor IR&D had there been no cooperative arrangement.
(3) Costs incurred in preparing, submitting, and supporting offers on potential cooperative arrangements are allowable to the extent they are allocable, reasonable, and not otherwise unallowable.