U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Sep 29, 2022

§ 51.1532 - Damage.

“Damage” means any specific defect defined in this section; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which materially detracts from the appearance, or the edible or marketing quality of the fruit. The following specific defects shall be considered as damage:

(a) Broken skins which are unhealed except those caused by pulled stems where the skin is torn only slightly within the stem cavity. (Healed skin breaks shall be considered scars);

(b) Heat injury, sprayburn or sunburn:

(1) When the skin is blistered, cracked or decidedly flattened;

(2) When the normal color of the skin or flesh has materially changed;

(3) When there is more than one indentation; or,

(4) When an indentation exceeds three-sixteenths inch in diameter;

(c) Growth cracks:

(1) When not healed;

(2) When more than one in number;

(3) When more than one-eighth inch in depth;

(4) When more than three-eighths inch in length if within the stem cavity; or,

(5) When more than one-fourth inch in length if outside of the stem cavity;

(6) When extending from within to outside the stem cavity, when more than three-eighths inch in length if the major portion of the crack is within the stem cavity or when more than one-fourth inch in length if the major portion of the crack is outside the stem cavity;

(d) Split pit when causing any unhealed crack, or when healed and aggregating more than one-fourth inch in length, or when affecting the shape to the extent that the fruit is not well formed;

(e) Scab or bacterial spot when cracked, or when the aggregate area exceeds that of a circle one-fourth inch in diameter on a fruit 2 inches in diameter or smaller; or when the aggregate area exceeds that of a circle three-eighths inch in diameter on a fruit larger than 2 inches in diameter;

(f) Drought spots or external gum spots which have an aggregate area exceeding that of a circle one-fourth inch in diameter;

(g) Scale or scale marks when the aggregate area exceeds that of a circle one-fourth inch in diameter;

(h) Scars, including those caused by hail, when the surface of the fruit is depressed more than one-sixteenth inch, or when exceeding any of the following aggregate areas, or a combination of two or more types of scars the seriousness of which exceeds the maximum allowed for any one type:

(1) Dark or rough scars when the area exceeds that of a circle one-fourth inch in diameter on a fruit 2 inches in diameter or smaller; or when the area exceeds that of a circle three-eighths inch in diameter on a fruit larger than 2 inches in diameter.

(2) Fairly light colored, fairly smooth scars when, in the case of Italian type prunes, the area exceeds that of a circle one-half inch in diameter; or when, in the case of other types of plums, the area exceeds that of a circle one-half inch in diameter on a fruit 2 inches in diameter or smaller; or when the area exceeds that of a circle five-eighths inch in diameter on a fruit larger than 2 inches in diameter;

(3) Light colored, smooth scars when, in the case of Italian type prunes, the area exceeds one-twelfth of the fruit surface; or when, in the case of other types of plums, the area exceeds that of a circle three-fourths inch in diameter on a fruit 2 inches in diameter or smaller; or when the area exceeds that of a circle seven-eighths inch in diameter on a fruit larger than 2 inches in diameter;

(4) Twig or limb scratches which are not well healed or which have an aggregate length of more than one-half inch;

(i) Russeting which exceeds any of the following aggregate areas of any one type of russeting, or a combination of two or more types of russeting the seriousness of which exceeds the maximum allowed for any one type:

(1) Rough russeting when the area exceeds that of a circle one-fourth inch in diameter on a fruit 2 inches in diameter or smaller; or when the area exceeds that of a circle one-half inch in diameter on a fruit larger than 2 inches in diameter;

(2) Slightly rough russeting when, in the case of Italian type prunes, the area exceeds one-twelfth of the fruit surface; or when, in the case of other types of plums, the area exceeds that of a circle five-eighths inch in diameter on a fruit 2 inches in diameter or smaller; or when the area exceeds that of a circle three-fourths inch in diameter on a fruit larger than 2 inches in diameter;

(3) Fairly smooth or smooth russeting when, in the case of Italian type prunes, the area exceeds one-twelfth of the fruit surface; or when, in the case of other types of plums the area exceeds that of a circle three-fourths inch in diameter on a fruit 2 inches in diameter or smaller; or when the area exceeds that of a circle 1 inch in diameter on a fruit larger than 2 inches in diameter.

(j) Discoloration when definitely contrasting with the normal surface color of the fruit and affects more than 10 percent of the surface.