Editorial Notes

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35 substituted “section 2060(f) of this title” for “section 2059(e)(4) of this title”.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–486, § 3(a), struck out provision subjecting actions under this section to section 1331 of title 28 as to the amount in controversy and inserted proviso establishing minimum amount in controversy and excepting actions brought against the United States, or agencies, officers, or employees thereof.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 96–486, § 3(b), added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–284 substituted “shall” for “and shall” and provision permitting the court to award costs in the interest of justice for a prior provision which permitted the court to award costs in its discretion.

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Aug. 13, 1981, see section 1215 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 2052 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment; Applicability

For effective date and applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 96–486, see section 4 of Pub. L. 96–486, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 1331 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date

Section effective on the sixtieth day following Oct. 27, 1972, see section 34 of Pub. L. 92–573, set out as a note under section 2051 of this title.