1
 So in original. Probably should be paragraph “(7)”.
to prevent a significant risk to the well being of any such species.
Editorial Notes
References in Text

Reorganization Plan Numbered 4 of 1970, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is Reorg. Plan No. 4 of 1970, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b)(4), (8), (e)(C), and (g)(1), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 93–205, Dec. 28, 1973, 81 Stat. 884, known as the Endangered Species Act of 1973, which is classified principally to this chapter. This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(B)(iii)(II), was in the original “the Act” and was translated as if it read “this Act”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1531 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(2), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 108–136, § 318(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), redesignated former subpars. (A) and (B) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 108–136, § 318(b), inserted “the impact on national security,” after “the economic impact,”.

1988—Subsec. (b)(3)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 100–478, § 1002(a), added subcl. (iii).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–478, § 1002(b), substituted “regulation of commerce or taking,” for “regulation,” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–478, § 1003, amended subsec. (f) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (f) read as follows: “The Secretary shall develop and implement plans (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as ‘recovery plans’) for the conservation and survival of endangered species and threatened species listed pursuant to this section, unless he finds that such a plan will not promote the conservation of the species. The Secretary, in developing and implementing recovery plans (1) shall, to the maximum extent practicable, give priority to those endangered species or threatened species most likely to benefit from such plans, particularly those species that are, or may be, in conflict with construction or other developmental projects or other forms of economic activity, and (2) may procure the services of appropriate public and private agencies and institutions, and other qualified persons. Recovery teams appointed pursuant to this subsection shall not be subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act.”

Subsecs. (g) to (i). Pub. L. 100–478, § 1004, added subsec. (g) and redesignated former subsecs. (g) and (h) as (h) and (i), respectively.

1982—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 97–304, § 2(a)(1)(B), (D), inserted “promulgated in accordance with subsection (b)” after “shall by regulation” in introductory provisions preceding subpar. (A), and struck out provision following subpar. (E), which directed the Secretary, at the time regulations were proposed, to specify any habitat of a species considered to be a critical habitat but that such specification of critical habitats not apply to species listed prior to Nov. 10, 1978.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 97–304, § 2(a)(1)(A), redesignated subpar. (1) as (A).

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 97–304, § 2(a)(1)(A), (C), redesignated subpar. (2) as (B) and substituted “recreational,” for “sporting,”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 97–304, § 2(a)(1)(A), redesignated subpars. (3), (4), and (5) as (C), (D), and (E), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 97–304, § 2(a)(1)(E), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–304, § 2(a)(2), completely revised subsec. (b) by, among other changes, requiring the Secretary to base determinations regarding the listing or delisting of species “solely” on the basis of the best scientific and commercial data available, streamlining the listing process by reducing the time periods for rulemaking, consolidating public meetings and hearing requirements, and establishing virtually identical procedures for the listing and delisting of species and for the designation of critical habitat, and altering the evidentiary standard which petitioners must satisfy to warrant a status review of the species proposed for listing or delisting.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 97–304, § 2(a)(3)(A), struck out “, and from time to time he may by regulation revise,” after “Federal Register” and inserted at end “The Secretary shall from time to time revise each list published under the authority of this subsection to reflect recent determinations, designations, and revisions made in accordance with subsections (a) and (b).”

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 97–304, § 2(a)(3)(B), (C), redesignated par. (4) as (2). Former par. (2), directing the Secretary, within 90 days of the receipt of the petition of an interested person under section 553(e) of title 5, to conduct and publish in the Federal Register a review of the status of any listed or unlisted species proposed to be removed from or added to either of the lists published pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection, but only if he made and published a finding that such person had presented substantial evidence which in his judgment warranted such a review, was struck out.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 97–304, § 2(a)(3)(B), struck out par. (3) which had provided that any list in effect on Dec. 27, 1973, of species of fish or wildlife determined by the Secretary of the Interior, pursuant to the Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969, to be threatened with extinction be republished to conform to the classification for endangered species or threatened species, as the case might be, provided for in this chapter, but until such republication, any such species so listed was to be deemed an endangered species within the meaning of this chapter, and that the republication of any species pursuant to this paragraph did not require public hearing or comment under section 553 of title 5.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 97–304, § 2(a)(3)(C), redesignated par. (4) as (2).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–304, § 2(a)(4)(A), substituted “section 1535(c) of this title” for “section 1535(a) of this title”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–304, § 2(a)(4)(B), (C), (D), redesignated subsec. (g) as (f) and substituted “recovery plans (1) shall, to the maximum extent practicable, give priority to those endangered species or threatened species most likely to benefit from such plans, particularly those species that are, or may be, in conflict with construction or other developmental projects or other forms of economic activity, and (2)” for “recovery plans,”. Former subsec. (f), relating to the promulgation of regulations, was struck out.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 97–304, § 2(a)(4)(C), (E), redesignated subsec. (h) as (g), substituted reference to subsection (b)(3) of this section for reference to subsection (c)(2) of this section in par. (1), substituted “under subsection (a)(1) of this section” for “for listing” in par. (3), and substituted “subsection (f) of this section” for “subsection (g) of this section” in par. (4). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–304, § 2(a)(4)(C), (F), added subsec. (h) and redesignated former subsec. (h) as (g).

1979—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 96–159, § 3(1), required the Secretary’s determinations to be preceded with a review of the status of the species.

Subsec. (f)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 96–159, § 3(2), required publication of summary of text rather than of the complete text of proposed regulation specifying any critical habitat and inclusion of a map of the proposed critical habitat.

Subsec. (f)(2)(B)(iv)(II). Pub. L. 96–159, § 3(3), substituted “if requested within 15 days after the date on which the public meeting is conducted,” for “if requested,”.

Subsec. (f)(2)(C). Pub. L. 96–159, § 3(4), (5), inserted in introductory text “, subsection (b)(4) of this section,”; and in cl. (ii), included reference to significant risk to wellbeing of any species of plants, inserted in item (II) reference to regulation applicable to resident species of plants, extended the statutory period to a “240-day period” from a “120-day period”, and provided for withdrawal of an emergency regulation without substantial evidence to warrant it, respectively.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 96–159, § 3(6), added subsec. (h).

1978—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–632, § 11(1), inserted provision requiring the Secretary, at the time a regulation is proposed, to specify by regulation any habitat of the species involved which is considered a critical habitat providing the species was listed subsequent to Nov. 10, 1978.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 95–632, § 11(7), added par. (4).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 95–632, § 11(2), struck out “and shall” after “if any” and inserted “, and specify any critical habitat within such range” after “endangered or threatened”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 95–632, § 11(6), substituted “within 90 days of the receipt of” for “upon” and “conduct and publish in the Federal Register a review of the status of” for “conduct a review of” and inserted a provision requiring that the review and findings be made and published prior to initiation of any procedures under subsec. (b)(1) of this section.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 95–632, § 11(3), added par. (4).

Subsec. (f)(2)(A). Pub. L. 95–632, § 11(4)(A), substituted “Except as provided in subparagraph (B), in” for “In”.

Subsec. (f)(2)(B), (C). Pub. L. 95–632, § 11(4)(B), (C), added subpar. (B), redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C), and as so redesignated, substituted “Neither subparagraph (A) or (B)” for “Neither subparagraph (A)”.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 95–632, § 13, substituted “a summary by the Secretary of the data on which such regulation is based and shall show the relationship of such data to such regulations” for “a statement by the Secretary of the facts on which such regulation is based and the relationship of such facts to such regulation”.

Subsec. (f)(4), (5). Pub. L. 95–632, § 11(4)(D), added pars. (4) and (5).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–632, § 11(5), added subsec. (g).

1976—Subsec. (f)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 94–359 substituted “subsection (b)(1)(A)” for “subsection (b)(A), (B), and (C)”.

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–304, § 2(b), Oct. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1416, provided that:

“(1)
Any petition filed under section 4(c)(2) of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 [subsec. (c)(2) of this section] (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 13, 1982]) and any regulation proposed under section 4(f) of such Act of 1973 [subsec. (f) of this section] (as in effect on such day) that is pending on such date of enactment [Oct. 13, 1982] shall be treated as having been filed or proposed on such date of enactment under section 4(b) of such Act of 1973 [subsec. (b) of this section] (as amended by subsection (a)); and the procedural requirements specified in such section 4(b) [subsec. (b) of this section] (as so amended) regarding such petition or proposed regulation shall be deemed to be complied with to the extent that like requirements under such section 4 [this section] (as in effect before the date of the enactment of this Act) were complied with before such date of enactment.
“(2)
Any regulation proposed after, or pending on, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 13, 1982] to designate critical habitat for a species that was determined before such date of enactment to be endangered or threatened shall be subject to the procedures set forth in section 4 of such Act of 1973 [this section] (as amended by subsection (a)) for regulations proposing revisions to critical habitat instead of those for regulations proposing the designation of critical habitat.
“(3)
Any list of endangered species or threatened species (as in effect under section 4(c) of such Act of 1973 [subsec. (c) of this section] on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 13, 1982]) shall remain in effect unless and until determinations regarding species and designations and revisions of critical habitats that require changes to such list are made in accordance with subsection (b)(5) of such Act of 1973 [subsec. (b)(5) of this section] (as added by subsection (a)).
“(4)
Section 4(a)(3)(A) of such Act of 1973 [subsec. (a)(3)(A) of this section] (as added by subsection (a)) shall not apply with respect to any species which was listed as an endangered species or a threatened species before November 10, 1978.”

Abolition of House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries

Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries of House of Representatives abolished and its jurisdiction transferred by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Jan. 4, 1995. Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Resources of House of Representatives in case of provisions relating to fisheries, wildlife, international fishing agreements, marine affairs (including coastal zone management) except for measures relating to oil and other pollution of navigable waters, or oceanography by section 1(b)(3) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress. Committee on Resources of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Natural Resources of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.