United States Code

USC most recently checked for updates: Jul 23, 2024

§ 2293.
Long-term development assistance for sub-Saharan Africa
The Congress finds that—
drought and famine have caused countless deaths and untold suffering among the people of sub-Saharan Africa;
drought and famine in combination with other factors such as desertification, government neglect of the agricultural sector, and inappropriate economic policies have severely affected long-term development in sub-Saharan Africa; and
the most cost-effective and efficient way of overcoming Africa’s vulnerability to drought and famine is to address Africa’s long-term development needs through a process that builds upon the needs and capabilities of the African people, promotes sustained and equitable economic growth, preserves the environment, and protects the rights of the individual.
Authority to furnish assistance

The President is authorized to furnish project and program assistance, on such terms and conditions as he may determine in accordance with the policies contained in this section, for long-term development in sub-Saharan Africa.

Purpose of assistance

The purpose of assistance under this section shall be to help the poor majority of men and women in sub-Saharan Africa to participate in a process of long-term development through economic growth that is equitable, participatory, environmentally sustainable, and self-reliant.

Use of assistance to encourage private sector development

Assistance under this section should, in a manner consistent with paragraph (1), be used to promote sustained economic growth, encourage private sector development, promote individual initiatives, and help to reduce the role of central governments in areas more appropriate for the private sector.

Application of development assistance general authorities and policies
Except to the extent inconsistent with this section—
any reference in any law to part I of this subchapter (including references to sections 2151a through 2151d of this title) shall be deemed to include a reference to this section; and
assistance under this section shall be provided consistent with the policies contained in section 2151–1 of this title.
Private and voluntary organizations
Consultation to ensure local perspectives

The Agency for International Development shall take into account the local-level perspectives of the rural and urban poor in sub-Saharan Africa, including women, during the planning process for project and program assistance under this section. In order to gain that perspective the Agency for International Development should consult closely with African, United States, and other private and voluntary organizations that have demonstrated effectiveness in or commitment to the promotion of local, grassroots activities on behalf of long-term development in sub-Saharan Africa as described in subsection (c).

“Private and voluntary organization” defined

Local involvement in project implementation

Local people, including women, shall be closely consulted and involved in the implementation of every project under this section which as 1

 So in original. Probably should be “has”.
a local focus.

Participation of African women

The Agency for International Development shall ensure that development activities assisted under this section incorporate a significant expansion of the participation (including decisionmaking) and integration of African women in each of the critical sectors described in subsection (i).

Types of assistance
Projects and programs to address critical sectoral priorities

Assistance under this section shall emphasize primarily projects and programs to address critical sectoral priorities for long-term development described in subsection (i).

Reform of economic policies
Use of program assistance

Assistance under this section may also include program assistance to promote reform of sectoral economic policies affecting long-term development in sub-Saharan Africa as described in subsection (c), with primary emphasis on reform of economic policies to support the critical sectoral priorities described in subsection (i).

Protection of vulnerable groups

Assisted policy reforms shall also include provisions to protect vulnerable groups (especially poor, isolated, and female farmers, the urban poor, and children including displaced children) and long-term environmental interests from possible negative consequences of the reforms.

Democratization and conflict resolution capabilities
Assistance under this section may also include program assistance—
to promote democratization, good governance, and strong civil societies in sub-Saharan Africa; and
to strengthen conflict resolution capabilities of governmental, intergovernmental, and nongovernmental entities in sub-Saharan Africa.
Other assistance

Funds made available to carry out this section shall be used almost exclusively for assistance in accordance with paragraphs (1), (2), and (3). Assistance consistent with the purpose of subsection (c) may also be furnished under this section to carry out the provisions of sections 2151a through 2151d of this title.

Critical sectoral priorities
The critical sectoral priorities for long-term development, as described in subsection (c), are the following:
Agricultural production and natural resources
Agricultural production

Increasing agricultural production in ways which protect and restore the natural resource base, especially food production, through agricultural policy changes, agricultural research (including participatory research directly involving small farmers) and extension, development and promotion of agriculture marketing activities, credit facilities, and appropriate production packages, and the construction and improvement of needed production-related infrastructure such as farm-to-market roads, small-scale irrigation, and rural electrification. Within this process, emphasis shall be given to promoting increased equity in rural income distribution, recognizing the role of small farmers.

Natural resource base
Maintaining and restoring the renewable natural resource base primarily in ways which increase agricultural production, through the following:
Small-scale, affordable, resource-conserving, low-risk local projects, using appropriate technologies (including traditional agricultural methods) suited to local environmental, resource, and climatic conditions, and featuring close consultation with and involvement of local people at all stages of project design and implementation. Emphasis shall be given to grants for African local government organizations, international or African nongovernmental organizations, and United States private and voluntary organizations.
Support for efforts at national and regional levels to provide technical and other support for projects of the kinds described in clause (i) and to strengthen the capacities of African countries to provide effective extension and other services in support of environmentally sustainable increases in food production.
Support for special training and education efforts to improve the capacity of countries in sub-Saharan Africa to manage their own environments and natural resources.
Support for low-cost desalination activities in order to increase the availability of fresh water sources in sub-Saharan Africa.

Improving health conditions, with special emphasis on meeting the health needs of mothers and children (including displaced children) through the establishment of primary health care systems that give priority to preventive health and that will be ultimately self-sustaining. In addition, providing training and training facilities, in sub-Saharan Africa, for doctors and other health care providers, notwithstanding any provision of law that restricts assistance to foreign countries.

Voluntary family planning services

Providing increased access to voluntary family planning services, including encouragement of private, community, and local government initiatives.


Improving the relevance, equity, and efficiency of education, with special emphasis on improving primary education.

Income-generating opportunities

Developing income-generating opportunities for the unemployed and underemployed in urban and rural areas through, among other things, support for off-farm employment opportunities in micro- and small-scale labor-intensive enterprises.

Minimum levels of assistance for certain critical sectors
The Agency for International Development should target the equivalent of 10 percent of the amount authorized to be appropriated for each fiscal year to carry out this part for each of the following:
The activities described in subsection (i)(1)(B), including identifiable components of agricultural production projects.
The activities described in subsection (i)(2).
The activities described in subsection (i)(3).
Effective use of assistance

Assistance provided under this section shall be concentrated in countries which will make the most effective use of such assistance in order to fulfill the purpose specified in subsection (c), especially those countries (including those of the Sahel region) having the greatest need for outside assistance.

Promotion of regional integration

Assistance under this section shall, to the extent consistent with this section, include assistance to promote the regional and sub­regional integration of African production structures, markets, and infrastructure.

Donor coordination mechanism

Funds made available to carry out this section may be used to assist the governments of countries in sub-Saharan Africa to increase their capacity to participate effectively in donor coordination mechanisms at the country, regional, and sector levels.

Relation to other authorities
Assistance under other authorities

The authority granted by this section to provide assistance for long-term development in sub-Saharan Africa is not intended to preclude the use of other authorities for that purpose. Centrally funded programs which benefit sub-Saharan Africa shall continue to be funded under part I of this subchapter.

Transfer authorities
The transfer authority contained in section 2151g of this title shall not apply with respect to this section.
The transfer authority contained in section 2360(a) of this title may not be used to transfer funds made available to carry out this section in order to allow them to be used in carrying out any other provision of this chapter.
Reprogramming notifications

Section 2394–1 of this title does not apply with respect to funds made available to carry out this section.

Procurement of goods and services

In order to allow the assistance authorized by this section to be furnished as effectively and expeditiously as possible, section 2354(a) of this title, and similar provisions relating to the procurement of goods and services, shall not apply with respect to goods and services procured for use in carrying out this section. The exemption provided by this paragraph shall not be construed to apply to the Comprehensive Anti/Apartheid Act of 1986.

Support for SADCC projects
Authority to provide assistance

To the extent funds are provided for such purpose in the annual Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, funds made available to carry out this part may be used to assist sector projects, in the sectors specified in paragraph (2), that are supported by the Southern Africa Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) to enhance the economic development of the member states forming that regional institution.


The sectors with respect to which assistance may be provided under this subsection are the following: transportation; manpower development; agriculture and natural resources; energy (including the improved utilization of electrical power sources which already exist in the member states and offer the potential to swiftly reduce the dependence of those states on South Africa for electricity); and industrial development and trade (including private sector initiatives).

Relation to DFA policies and authorities

To the maximum extent feasible, the assistance authorized by this subsection shall be provided consistent with the policies and authorities contained in the preceding subsection of this section.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, § 496, as added Pub. L. 101–513, title V, § 562(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2026; amended Pub. L. 106–200, title I, § 127(c), May 18, 2000, 114 Stat. 273; Pub. L. 106–264, title I, § 111(b), Aug. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 752.)
cite as: 22 USC 2293