Editorial Notes
References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 87–256, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 527, known as the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2451 of this title and Tables.


1993—Pub. L. 103–199, § 301(2)(A), substituted “Exchanges between United States and independent states of the former Soviet Union” for “United States-Soviet exchanges” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–199, § 301(2)(B)–(E), substituted “agreements with the independent states of the former Soviet Union” for “an agreement with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics”, “made by the independent states” for “made by the Soviet Union”, “and the independent states” for “and the Soviet Union”, and “in the United States by citizens of the independent states” for “by Soviet citizens in the United States”.

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

In subsec. (a), independent states of the former Soviet Union and independent states have the meanings given in section 5801 of this title, see section 3 of Pub. L. 103–199, set out as a note under section 5801 of this title.