Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 71 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, § 28, 36 Stat. 1094; Jan. 20, 1914, ch. 11, 38 Stat. 278; Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, § 1, 45 Stat. 54).

The words “or its receivers or trustees” were inserted in both subsections to make clear that nonremovable actions against a carrier do not become removable under section 1442 of this title when filed against court receivers or trustees.

This was the unquestioned rule prior to the act of Aug. 23, 1916, ch. 399, 39 Stat. 532, amending section 76 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and permitting removal of actions against officers of United States courts. The cases are in conflict as to whether under that amendment the case becomes removable when the carrier is in receivership or undergoing reorganization. The revised section resolves the conflict by denying the right of removal to receivers and trustees where it would be nonexistent if the carrier were the party defendant. Thus the subject matter rather than legalistic distinctions as to the identity of the parties is made determinative consideration.

A reference in section 71 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., to sections 51–59 of title 45, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Railroads, was changed to “51–60.” Such sections 51–59 embraced all of chapter 2 of said title 45 when the law on which such section 71 is based was enacted, but a new section (60) was added in 1939.

Other provisions of section 71 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., appear in section 1441 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Editorial Notes
References in Text

Section 40302 of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994, referred to in subsec. (d), is section 40302 of title IV of Pub. L. 103–322, which is classified to section 12361 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement.


1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted “sections 1–4 and 5–10 of the Act of April 22, 1908 (45 U.S.C. 51–54, 55–60)” for “sections 51–60 of Title 45”.

1995—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–88 substituted “carrier” for “common carrier” and “11706 or 14706” for “11707”.

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–322 added subsec. (d).

1978—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–486 substituted “$10,000” for “$3,000”.

Pub. L. 95–473 substituted “section 11707 of title 49” for “section 20 of Title 49”.

1958—Pub. L. 85–554 substituted “Nonremovable actions” for “Carriers; nonremovable actions” in section catchline and added subsec. (c).

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–287 effective July 5, 1994, see section 8(1) of Pub. L. 104–287, set out as a note under section 5303 of Title 49, Transportation.

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1301 of Title 49, Transportation.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–554 applicable only in the case of actions commenced after July 25, 1958, see section 3 of Pub. L. 85–554, set out as a note under section 1331 of this title.