So in original.
 See References in Text note below.
Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 943 (Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, § 421, 60 Stat. 845).

Changes were made in phraseology.

Section 946 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which was derived from section 424(b) of the Federal Tort Claims Act, was omitted from this revised title. It preserved the existing authority of federal agencies to settle tort claims not cognizable under section 2672 of this title. Certain enumerated laws granting such authority were specifically repealed by section 424(a) of the Federal Tort Claims Act, which section was also omitted from this revised title. These provisions were not included in this revised title as they are not properly a part of a code of general and permanent law.

Senate Revision Amendment

Sections 2680 and 2681 were renumbered “2679” and “2680”, respectively, by Senate amendment. See 80th Congress Senate Report No. 1559.

Editorial Notes
References in Text

Sections 1–31 of Title 50, Appendix, referred to in subsec. (e), was in the original source of this section (section 943 of act Aug. 2, 1946) a reference to the Trading with the Enemy Act. The Trading with the Enemy Act is now comprised of sections 1 to 43, which were formerly classified to sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of the former Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to editorial reclassification as chapter 53 (§ 4301 et seq.) of Title 50. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The date of the enactment of this proviso, referred to in subsec. (h), means Mar. 16, 1974, the date on which Pub. L. 93–253, which enacted the proviso, was approved.

Panama Canal Company, referred to in subsec. (m), deemed to refer to Panama Canal Commission, see section 3602(b)(5) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.


2006—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–304 substituted “chapter 309 or 311 of title 46” for “sections 741–752, 781–790 of Title 46,”.

2000—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–185 substituted “any goods, merchandise, or other property” for “any goods or merchandise” and “law enforcement” for “law-enforcement”, inserted “, except that the provisions of this chapter and section 1346(b) of this title apply to any claim based on injury or loss of goods, merchandise, or other property, while in the possession of any officer of customs or excise or any other law enforcement officer, if—”, and added pars. (1) to (4).

1974—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 93–253 inserted proviso.

1959—Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 86–168 added subsec. (n).

1950—Subsec. (g). Act Sept. 26, 1950, § 13(5), repealed subsec. (g).

Subsec. (m). Act Sept. 26, 1950, § 2, substituted “Panama Canal Company” for “Panama Railroad Company”.

1949—Subsec. (m). Act July 16, 1949, added subsec. (m).

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–185 applicable to any forfeiture proceeding commenced on or after the date that is 120 days after Apr. 25, 2000, see section 21 of Pub. L. 106–185, set out as a note under section 1324 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Effective Date of 1959 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–168 effective Jan. 1, 1960, see section 203(c) of Pub. L. 86–168.

Effective Date of 1950 Amendment

Amendment by act Sept. 26, 1950, to take effect upon effective date of transfer to the Panama Canal Company, pursuant to the provisions of section 256 of the former Canal Zone Code, as added by section 10 of that act, of the Panama Canal together with the facilities and appurtenances related thereto, see section 14 of act Sept. 26, 1950.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Coast Guard transferred to Department of Transportation and all functions, powers, and duties, relating to Coast Guard, of Secretary of the Treasury and of all other offices and officers of Department of the Treasury transferred to Secretary of Transportation by Pub. L. 89–670, § 6(b)(1), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 938. Section 6(b)(2) of Pub. L. 89–670, however, provided that notwithstanding such transfer of functions, Coast Guard shall operate as part of Navy in time of war or when President directs as provided in former section 3 (now 103) of Title 14, Coast Guard. See section 108 of Title 49, Transportation.

Northern Mariana Islands—Applicability of Subsec. (k)

Pub. L. 97–357, title II, § 204, Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1708, provided: “That the Northern Mariana Islands shall not be considered a foreign country for purposes of subsection (k) of section 2680 of title 28, United States Code, with respect to claims which accrued no more than two years prior to the effective date of this Act [Oct. 19, 1982].”

Termination of National Emergency

Declaration of national emergency in effect on Sept. 14, 1976, was terminated two years from that date by section 1601 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Applicability of Subsec. (j)

Joint Res. July 3, 1952, ch. 570, § 1(a)(32), 66 Stat. 333, as amended by Joint Res. Mar. 31, 1953, ch. 13, § 1, 67 Stat. 18, and Joint Res. June 30, 1953, ch. 172, 67 Stat. 132, provided that subsec. (j) of this section, in addition to coming into full force and effect in time of war, should continue in force until six months after the termination of the national emergency proclaimed by the President on Dec. 16, 1950 by 1950 Proc. No. 2914, 15 F.R. 9029, set out as a note preceding section 1 of Title 50, War and National Defense, or such earlier date or dates as may be provided for by Congress, but in no event beyond Aug. 1, 1953. Section 7 of Joint Res. July 3, 1952, provided that it should become effective June 16, 1952.

Joint Res. July 3, 1952, ch. 570, § 6, 66 Stat. 334, repealed Joint Res. Apr. 14, 1952, ch. 204, 66 Stat. 54 as amended by Joint Res. May 28, 1952, ch. 339, 66 Stat. 96; Joint Res. June 14, 1952, ch. 437, 66 Stat. 137; Joint Res. June 30, 1952, ch. 526, 66 Stat. 296, which continued provisions of subsec. (j) of this section until July 3, 1952. This repeal was made effective June 16, 1952, by section 7 of Joint Res. July 3, 1952.

Executive Documents
Transfer of Functions

For transfer of certain functions relating to claims and litigation, insofar as they pertain to the Air Force, from Secretary of the Army to Secretary of the Air Force, see Secretary of Defense Transfer Order No. 34 [§ 1a(2)(4)], eff. July 1, 1949.