The National Labor Relations Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), is act July 5, 1935, ch. 372, 49 Stat. 452, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§ 151 et seq.) of chapter 7 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 167 of this title and Tables.
The Railway Labor Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), is act May 20, 1926, ch. 347, 44 Stat. 577, which is classified principally to chapter 8 (§ 151 et seq.) of Title 45, Railroads. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 151 of Title 45 and Tables.
The Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959, referred to in subsec. (h), is Pub. L. 86–257,
For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in subsec. (i), see section 3602(b) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.
The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, referred to in subsec. (i), is act Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 345, 67 Stat. 462, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§ 1331 et seq.) of chapter 29 of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1301 of Title 43 and Tables.
1990—Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 101–433 added subsec. (l).
1986—Subsecs. (j), (k). Pub. L. 99–592 added subsecs. (j) and (k).
1984—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–459 inserted provision defining “employee” as including any individual who is a citizen of the United States employed by an employer in a workplace in a foreign country.
1974—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–259, § 28(a)(1), (2), substituted in first sentence “twenty” for “twenty-five” and, in second sentence, defined term “employer” to include a State or political subdivision of a State and any agency or instrumentality of a State or a political subdivision of a State, and any interstate agency, and deleted text excluding from such term a State or political subdivision thereof.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–259, § 28(a)(3), struck out text excluding from term “employment agency” an agency of a State or political subdivision of a State, but including the United States Employment Service and the system of State and local employment services receiving Federal assistance.
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 93–259, § 28(a)(4), excepted from the term “employee” elected public officials, persons chosen by such officials for such officials’ personal staff, appointees on policymaking level, and immediate advisers with respect to exercise of constitutional or legal powers of the public office but excluded from such exemption employees subject to civil laws of a State government, governmental agency, or political subdivision.
Amendment by Pub. L. 101–433 applicable only to any employee benefit established or modified on or after
Amendment by Pub. L. 99–592 effective
Amendment by Pub. L. 98–459 effective
Amendment by Pub. L. 93–259 effective
Functions vested by this section in Secretary of Labor or Civil Service Commission transferred to Equal Employment Opportunity Commission by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1978, § 2, 43 F.R. 19807, 92 Stat. 3781, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, effective