1
 So in original. Probably should be “National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (Public Law 91–190; 42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C))”.
2
 See References in Text note below.
and, in addition, before any crude oil subject to this section may be exported under the limitations and licensing requirements and penalty and enforcement provisions of the Export Administration Act of 1979 the President must make and publish an express finding that such exports will not diminish the total quantity or quality of petroleum available to the United States, and are in the national interest and are in accord with the provisions of the Export Administration Act of 1979:
Editorial Notes
References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (h)(1), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§ 4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (k), the effective date of this provision, referred to in subsec. (q), and the effective date of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (t), probably mean the date of approval of Pub. L. 93–153, which was Nov. 16, 1973.

The Natural Gas Act, referred to in subsec. (r)(3)(A), is act June 21, 1938, ch. 556, 52 Stat. 821, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 15B (§ 717 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 717w of Title 15 and Tables.

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsec. (s)(3), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§ 1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

The National Emergencies Act, referred to in subsec. (s)(3), is Pub. L. 94–412, Sept. 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 1255, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 34 (§ 1601 et seq.) of Title 50. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 50 and Tables.

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act, referred to in subsec. (s)(3), is Pub. L. 94–163, Dec. 22, 1975, 89 Stat. 871, as amended. Part B of title II of the Act is classified generally to part B (§ 6271 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 77 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6201 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Export Administration Act of 1979, referred to in subsec. (u), is Pub. L. 96–72, Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 503, which was classified principally to section 2401 et seq. of the former Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as chapter 56 (§ 4601 et seq.) of Title 50, and was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XVII, § 1766(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2232, except for sections 11A, 11B, and 11C thereof (50 U.S.C. 4611, 4612, 4613).

Codification

In subsec. (s)(2), “section 50501 of title 46” substituted for “section 2 of the Shipping Act, 1916 (46 U.S.C. App. 802)” on authority of Pub. L. 109–304, § 18(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1709, which Act enacted section 50501 of Title 46, Shipping.

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 104–58 amended heading and text of subsec. (s) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (s) provided that the Secretary of Interior, in consultation with Federal and State agencies, review need for national system of transportation and utility corridors across Federal lands and report to Congress and the President by July 1, 1975.

Subsec. (w)(4). Pub. L. 104–66 struck out par. (4) which read as follows: “The Secretary of the Department of Transportation shall report annually to the President, the Congress, the Secretary of the Interior, and the Secretary of Energy any potential dangers of or actual explosions, or potential or actual spillage on Federal lands and shall include in such report a statement of corrective action taken to prevent such explosion or spillage.”

1994—Subsec. (w)(1), (2). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted “Natural Resources” for “Interior and Insular Affairs” before “of the United States House”.

1990—Subsec. (w)(1). Pub. L. 101–475, § 1(a), substituted “Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the United States House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the United States Senate” for “House and Senate Committees on Interior and Insular Affairs”.

Subsec. (w)(2). Pub. L. 101–475, § 1(b), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “The Secretary or agency head shall notify the House and Senate Committees on Interior and Insular Affairs promptly upon receipt of an application for a right-of-way for a pipeline twenty-four inches or more in diameter, and no right-of-way for such a pipeline shall be granted until sixty days (not counting days on which the House of Representatives or the Senate has adjourned for more than three days) after a notice of intention to grant the right-of-way, together with the Secretary’s or agency head’s detailed findings as to terms and conditions he proposes to impose, has been submitted to such committees, unless each committee by resolution waives the waiting period.”

1985—Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 99–64 substituted “Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2401 and following)” for “Export Administration Act of 1969 (Act of December 30, 1969; 83 Stat. 841)” and “Export Administration Act of 1979” for “Export Administration Act of 1969” in two places.

1973—Pub. L. 93–153 completely rewrote the section substituting 25 subsecs. lettered (a) through (y) covering all aspects of the granting of rights-of-way for pipelines through Federal lands for the former single unlettered paragraph under which rights-of-way of 25 feet on each side of the pipeline could be granted and under which the pipeline was to be operated as a common carrier.

1953—Act Aug. 12, 1953, permitted companies subject to Federal regulation, or public utilities subject to State regulations, to pass through the public domain without incurring the obligation to become a common carrier.

1935—Act Aug. 21, 1935, substituted “may be granted by the Secretary of the Interior” for “are granted” and inserted “and conditions” after “regulations” in two places, and “and shall accept, convey, transport, or purchase without discrimination, oil or natural gas produced from Government lands in the vicinity of the pipe line in such proportionate amounts as the Secretary of the Interior may, after a full hearing with notice thereof to the interested parties and a proper finding of facts, determine to be reasonable:” after “and maintained as common carriers.”.

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Transfer of Functions

“Secretary of Energy or Federal Energy Regulatory Commission” substituted for “Interstate Commerce Commission or Federal Power Commission” in subsec. (r)(5) pursuant to sections 301(b), 306, 402(a), (b), 703, and 707 of Pub. L. 95–91, which are classified to sections 7151(b), 7155, 7172(a), (b), 7293, and 7297 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and which transferred functions vested in the Interstate Commerce Commission, and Chairman and members thereof, relating to transportation of oil by pipeline to the Secretary of Energy (except for certain functions which were transferred to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission within the Department of Energy), and terminated the Federal Power Commission and transferred its functions to the Secretary of Energy (except for certain functions which were transferred to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission).

Reimbursement of Administrative and Other Costs

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, § 101(e) [title II], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–231, 2681–272, provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, hereafter money collected, in advance or otherwise, by the Forest Service under authority of section 101 of Public Law 93–153 (30 U.S.C. 185(1)[(l)]) as reimbursement of administrative and other costs incurred in processing pipeline right-of-way or permit applications and for costs incurred in monitoring the construction, operation, maintenance, and termination of any pipeline and related facilities, may be used to reimburse the applicable appropriation to which such costs were originally charged.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 105–83, title II, Nov. 14, 1997, 111 Stat. 1576.

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, § 101(d) [title II], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–181, 3009–208.

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, § 101(c) [title II], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–156, 1321–184; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, § 1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.

Pub. L. 103–332, title II, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2524.

Pub. L. 103–138, title II, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1403.

Pub. L. 102–381, title II, Oct. 5, 1992, 106 Stat. 1401.

Pub. L. 102–154, title II, Nov. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1017.

GAO Report

Pub. L. 104–58, title II, § 202, Nov. 28, 1995, 109 Stat. 562, directed the Comptroller General of the United States to commence, three years after Nov. 28, 1995, a review of energy production in California and Alaska and the effects of Alaskan North Slope oil exports, if any, on consumers, independent refiners, and shipbuilding and ship repair yards on the West Coast and in Hawaii, and to submit to Congress, within twelve months after commencing the review, a report containing recommendations for Congress and the President to address job loss in the shipbuilding and ship repair industry on the West Coast, as well as adverse impacts on consumers and refiners on the West Coast and in Hawaii, that are attributed to Alaska North Slope oil exports.

Outer Continental Shelf; Pipeline Rights-of-Way

Pipeline rights-of-way in connection with oil, gas, and other leases on submerged lands of outer Continental Shelf, see section 1334 of Title 43, Public Lands.

Executive Documents
Transfer of Functions

Enforcement functions of Secretary or other official in Department of the Interior related to compliance with grants of rights-of-way and temporary use permits for Federal land and such functions of Secretary or other official in Department of Agriculture, insofar as they involve lands and programs under jurisdiction of Department of Agriculture, related to compliance with associated land use permits authorized for and in conjunction with grants of rights-of-way across Federal lands issued under this section with respect to pre-construction, construction, and initial operation of transportation system for Canadian and Alaskan natural gas were transferred to the Federal Inspector, Office of Federal Inspector for the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, until the first anniversary of date of initial operation of the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, see Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1979, §§ 102(e), (f), 203(a), 44 F.R. 33663, 33666, 93 Stat. 1373, 1376, effective July 1, 1979, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Office of Federal Inspector for the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System abolished and functions and authority vested in Inspector transferred to Secretary of Energy by section 3012(b) of Pub. L. 102–486, set out as an Abolition of Office of Federal Inspector note under section 719e of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. Functions and authority vested in Secretary of Energy subsequently transferred to Federal Coordinator for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects by section 720d(f) of Title 15.

Exports of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) Crude Oil

Memorandum of President of the United States, Apr. 28, 1996, 61 F.R. 19507, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of Commerce [and] the Secretary of Energy

Pursuant to section 28(s) of the Mineral Leasing Act, as amended, 30 U.S.C. 185, I hereby determine that exports of crude oil transported over right-of-way granted pursuant to section 203 of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act [43 U.S.C. 1652] are in the national interest. In making this determination, I have taken into account the conclusions of an interagency working group, which found that such oil exports:

—will not diminish the total quantity or quality of petroleum available to the United States; and

—are not likely to cause sustained material oil supply shortages or sustained oil price increases significantly above world market levels that would cause sustained material adverse employment effects in the United States or that would cause substantial harm to consumers, including those located in noncontiguous States and Pacific Territories.

I have also considered the interagency group’s conclusions regarding potential environmental impacts of lifting the ban. Based on their findings and recommendations, I have concluded that exports of such crude oil will not pose significant risks to the environment if certain terms and conditions are met.

Therefore, pursuant to section 28(s) of the Mineral Leasing Act I direct the Secretary of Commerce to promulgate immediately a general license, or a license exception, authorizing exports of such crude oil, subject to appropriate documentation requirements, and consistent with the following conditions:

—tankers exporting ANS exports must use the same route that they do for shipments to Hawaii until they reach a point 300 miles due south of Cape Hinchinbrook Light and then turn toward Asian destinations. After reaching that point, tankers in the ANS oil trade must remain outside of the 200 nautical-miles Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States as defined in the Fisheries Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1811) [probably means the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act]. This condition also applies to tankers returning from foreign ports to Valdez, Alaska. Exceptions can be made at the discretion of the vessel master only to ensure the safety of the vessel;

—that export tankers be equipped with satellite-based communications systems that will enable the Coast Guard independently to determine their location. The Coast Guard will conduct appropriate monitoring of the tankers, a measure that will ensure compliance with the 200-mile condition, and help the Coast Guard respond quickly to any emergencies;

—the owner or operator of an Alaskan North Slope crude oil export tankship shall maintain a Critical Area Inspection Plan for each tankship in the trade in accordance with the U.S. Coast Guard’s Navigation and Inspection Circular No. 15–91 as amended, which shall include an annual internal survey of the vessel’s cargo block tanks; and

—the owner or operator of an Alaskan North Slope crude oil export tankship shall adopt a mandatory program of deep water ballast exchange (i.e., in 2,000 meters water depth). Exceptions can be made at the discretion of the captain only in order to ensure the safety of the vessel. Recordkeeping subject to Coast Guard audit will be required as part of this regime.

The Secretary of Commerce is authorized and directed to inform the appropriate committees of the Congress of this determination and to publish it in the Federal Register.

William J. Clinton.