Historical and Revision Notes
Source (U.S. Code)
Source (Statutes at Large)
R.S. § 3678.
In subsection (a), the word “Appropriations” is substituted for “sums appropriated for the various branches of expenditure in the public service” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “they are respectively” and “and for no others” are omitted as surplus. The words “except as otherwise provided by law” are substituted for “All” in section 3678 of the Revised Statutes to inform the reader that there are exceptions to the source provisions restated in the subsection.
In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words “specific or indefinite” are omitted as surplus. The words “made subsequent to
In subsection (d), the words “passed after
Pub. L. 115–158, § 1,
Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, § 101(f) [title V, § 510],
Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:
Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, § 101(e) [title V, § 509],
Pub. L. 104–134, title I, § 101(d) [title V, § 509],
Ex. Ord. No. 13457,
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:
(i) agency decisions to commit, obligate, or expend funds for any earmark are based on the text of laws, and in particular, are not based on language in any report of a committee of Congress, joint explanatory statement of a committee of conference of the Congress, statement of managers concerning a bill in the Congress, or any other non-statutory statement or indication of views of the Congress, or a House, committee, Member, officer, or staff thereof;
(ii) agency decisions to commit, obligate, or expend funds for any earmark are based on authorized, transparent, statutory criteria and merit-based decision making, in the manner set forth in section II of OMB Memorandum M–07–10, dated
(iii) no oral or written communications concerning earmarks shall supersede statutory criteria, competitive awards, or merit-based decisionmaking.
(b) An agency shall not consider the views of a House, committee, Member, officer, or staff of the Congress with respect to commitments, obligations, or expenditures to carry out any earmark unless such views are in writing, to facilitate consideration in accordance with section 2(a)(ii) above. All written communications from the Congress, or a House, committee, Member, officer, or staff thereof, recommending that funds be committed, obligated, or expended on any earmark shall be made publicly available on the Internet by the receiving agency, not later than 30 days after receipt of such communication, unless otherwise specifically directed by the head of the agency, without delegation, after consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, to preserve appropriate confidentiality between the executive and legislative branches.
(c) Heads of agencies shall otherwise implement within their respective agencies the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, consistent with such instructions as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget may prescribe.
(d) The head of each agency shall upon request provide to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget information about earmarks and compliance with this order.
(a) The term “agency” means an executive agency as defined in section 105 of title 5, United States Code, and the United States Postal Service and the Postal Regulatory Commission, but shall exclude the Government Accountability Office; and
(b) the term “earmark” means funds provided by the Congress for projects, programs, or grants where the purported congressional direction (whether in statutory text, report language, or other communication) circumvents otherwise applicable merit-based or competitive allocation processes, or specifies the location or recipient, or otherwise curtails the ability of the executive branch to manage its statutory and constitutional responsibilities pertaining to the funds allocation process.
(i) authority granted by law to an agency or the head thereof; or
(ii) functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budget, administrative, or legislative proposals.
(b) This order shall be implemented in a manner consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.
(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity, by any party against the United States, its agencies, instrumentalities, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.