Historical and Revision Notes
Source (U.S. Code)
Source (Statutes at Large)
June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title I, § 101(f), as added Pub. L. 99–500, § 101(m) [title VIII, § 832], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–345; Pub. L. 99–591, § 101(m) [title VIII, § 832], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–345.
40:754 (1st sentence).
40:754 (last sentence).
In subsection (b)(3), the words “Comptroller General” are substituted for “General Accounting Office” because of 31:702 and for consistency in the revised title.
In subsection (d)(3), the words “For the fiscal year ending
In subsection (e)(1)(C), the words “transfer the function from one component of the Administration to another” are substituted for “from time to time, to regroup, transfer, and distribute any such functions within the General Services Administration” (in 40:754 (1st sentence)) for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.
In subsection (e)(2), subparagraph (A) is substituted for 40:754 (last sentence) and subparagraph (B) is substituted for 40:486(f) to use more consistent terminology and to clarify the requirements and applicability of each provision. The words “Director of the Office of Management and Budget” are substituted for “Director of the Bureau of the Budget” in sections 106 (last sentence) and 205(f) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 because the office of Director of the Bureau of the Budget was redesignated the Director of the Office of Management and Budget by section 102(b) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970 (84 Stat. 2085). Section 102 of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1970, was repealed by section 5(b) of the Act of September 13, 1982 (Public Law 97–258, 96 Stat. 1085), the first section of which enacted Title 31, United States Code, but the successor provision, 31:502, continued the designation as Director of the Office of Management and Budget.
In subsection (f), the words “expenses under” are substituted for “subsistence, as authorized by” for consistency in the revised title. The words “section 5703 of title 5” are substituted for “section 5 of the Act of August 2, 1946 (5 U.S.C. 73b–2)” in section 205(g) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 because of section 7(b) of the Act of September 6, 1966 (Public Law 89–554, 80 Stat. 631), the first section of which enacted Title 5, United States Code.
Advisory committees established after
Ex. Ord. No. 12072,
By the authority vested in me as President of the United States of America by Section 205(a) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended (40 U.S.C. 486(a)) [now 40 U.S.C. 121(a)], and in order to prescribe appropriate policies and directives, not inconsistent with that Act [now chapters 1 to 11 of this title and division C (except sections 3302, 3307(e), 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of Title 41, Public Contracts] and other applicable provisions of law, for the planning, acquisition, utilization, and management of Federal space facilities, it is hereby ordered as follows:
1–101. Federal facilities and Federal use of space in urban areas shall serve to strengthen the Nation’s cities and to make them attractive places to live and work. Such Federal space shall conserve existing urban resources and encourage the development and redevelopment of cities.
1–102. Procedures for meeting space needs in urban areas shall give serious consideration to the impact a site selection will have on improving the social, economic, environmental, and cultural conditions of the communities in the urban area.
1–103. In the process for meeting Federal space needs, except where such selection is otherwise prohibited, and where cost and security considerations take precedence, preference is to be given to qualified opportunity zones (as defined in 26 U.S.C. 1400Z–1), other distressed areas, and centralized community business areas (including other specific areas which may be recommended by local officials).
1–104. The process of meeting Federal space needs in urban areas shall be consistent with the policies of this Order and shall include consideration of the following criteria:
(a) Compatability [sic] of the site with State, regional, or local development, redevelopment, or conservation objectives.
(b) Conformity with the activities and programs of other Federal agencies.
(c) Impact on economic development and employment opportunities in the urban area, including the utilization of human, natural, cultural, and community resources.
(d) Availability of adequate low and moderate income housing for Federal employees and their families on a nondiscriminatory basis.
(e) Availability of adequate public transportation and parking and accessibility to the public.
1–105. Procedures for meeting space needs in urban areas shall be consistent with the policies of this Order and shall include consideration of the following alternatives:
(a) Availability of existing Federally controlled facilities.
(b) Utilization of buildings of historic, architectural, or cultural significance within the meaning of section 105 of the Public Buildings Cooperative Use Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 2507, 40 U.S.C. 612a) [now 40 U.S.C. 3306].
(c) Acquisition or utilization of existing privately owned facilities.
(d) Construction of new facilities.
(e) Opportunities for locating cultural, educational, recreational, or commercial activities within the proposed facility.
1–106. Site selection and space assignments shall take into account the management needs for consolidation of agencies or activities in common or adjacent space in order to improve administration and management and effect economies.
1–201. The Administrator of General Services shall develop programs to implement the policies of this Order through the efficient acquisition, utilization, and disposal of Federally owned and leased space. In particular, the Administrator shall:
(a) Select, acquire, manage, and dispose of Federal space in a manner that will foster the policies and programs of the Federal Government and improve the management and administration of government activities.
(b) Issue regulations, standards, and criteria for the selection, acquisition, and management of Federally owned and leased space.
(c) Periodically undertake surveys of space requirements and space utilization in the executive agencies.
(d) Ensure, in cooperation with the heads of Executive agencies, that their essential space requirements are met in a manner that is economically feasible and prudent.
(e) Make maximum use of existing Federally controlled facilities which, in the Administrator’s judgment, are adequate or economically adaptable to meeting the space needs of executive agencies.
1–202. The Administrator is authorized to request from any Executive agency such information and assistance deemed necessary to carry out the Administrator’s functions under this Order. Each agency shall, to the extent not prohibited by law, furnish such information and assistance to the Administrator.
1–203. In the process of meeting Federal space needs in urban areas and implementing the policies of this Order, the Administrator shall:
(a) Consider the efficient performance of the missions and programs of the agencies, the nature and function of the facilities involved, the convenience of the public served, and the maintenance and improvement of safe and healthful working conditions for employees.
(b) Coordinate proposed programs and plans for facilities and space with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.
(c) Consult with appropriate Federal, State, regional, and local government officials and consider their recommendations for and objections to a proposed selection site or space acquisition.
(d) Coordinate proposed programs and plans for facilities and space in a manner designed to implement the purposes of this Order.
(e) Prior to making a final determination concerning the location of Federal facilities, notify the concerned Executive agency of an intended course of action and take into account any additional information provided.
1–204. In ascertaining the social, economic, environmental and other impacts which site selection would have on a community, the Administrator shall, when appropriate, obtain the advice of interested agencies.
1–301. The heads of Executive agencies shall cooperate with the Administrator in implementing the policies of this Order and shall economize on their use of space. They shall ensure that the Administrator is given early notice of new or changing missions or organizational realignments which affect space requirements.
1–302. Executive agencies which acquire or utilize Federally owned or leased space under authority other than the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended [now chapters 1 to 11 of this title and division C (except sections 3302, 3307(e), 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of Title 41], shall conform to the provisions of this Order to the extent they have the authority to do so.
1–303. Executive Order No. 11512 of
Ex. Ord. No. 12512,
Ex. Ord. No. 12954,
Efficient economic performance and productivity are directly related to the existence of cooperative working relationships between employers and employees. When Federal contractors become involved in prolonged labor disputes with their employees, the Federal Government’s economy, efficiency, and cost of operations are adversely affected. In order to operate as effectively as possible, by receiving timely goods and quality services, the Federal Government must assist the entities with which it has contractual relations to develop stable relationships with their employees.
An important aspect of a stable collective bargaining relationship is the balance between allowing businesses to operate during a strike and preserving worker rights. This balance is disrupted when permanent replacement employees are hired. It has been found that strikes involving permanent replacement workers are longer in duration than other strikes. In addition, the use of permanent replacements can change a limited dispute into a broader, more contentious struggle, thereby exacerbating the problems that initially led to the strike. By permanently replacing its workers, an employer loses the accumulated knowledge, experience, skill, and expertise of its incumbent employees. These circumstances then adversely affect the businesses and entities, such as the Federal Government, which rely on that employer to provide high quality and reliable goods or services.
NOW, THEREFORE, to ensure the economical and efficient administration and completion of Federal Government contracts, and by the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including 40 U.S.C. 486(a) [now 40 U.S.C. 121(a)] and 3 U.S.C. 301, it is hereby ordered as follows:
(b) The Secretary shall receive and may investigate complaints by employees of any entity covered under section 2(a) of this order where such complaints allege lawfully striking employees have been permanently replaced.
(c) The Secretary may hold such hearings, public or private, as he or she deems advisable, to determine whether an entity covered under section 2(a) has permanently replaced lawfully striking employees.
(b) The head of the contracting department or agency may object to the termination for convenience of a contract or contracts of a contractor determined to have permanently replaced legally striking employees. If the head of the agency so objects, he or she shall set forth the reasons for not terminating the contract or contracts in a response in writing to the Secretary. In such case, the termination for convenience shall not be issued. The head of the contracting agency or department shall report to the Secretary those contracts that have been terminated for convenience under this section.
(b) The scope of the debarment normally will be limited to those organizational units of a Federal contractor that the Secretary finds to have permanently replaced lawfully striking workers.
(c) The period of the debarment may not extend beyond the date when the labor dispute precipitating the permanent replacement of lawfully striking workers has been resolved, as determined by the Secretary.
(b) This order is effective immediately.
Ex. Ord. No. 12977,
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to enhance the quality and effectiveness of security in and protection of buildings and facilities in the United States occupied by Federal employees for nonmilitary activities (“Federal facilities”), and to provide a permanent body to address continuing government-wide security for Federal facilities, it is hereby ordered as follows:
(b) representatives from the following agencies, appointed by the agency heads:
(1) Department of State;
(2) Department of the Treasury;
(3) Department of Defense;
(4) Department of Justice;
(5) Department of the Interior;
(6) Department of Agriculture;
(7) Department of Commerce;
(8) Department of Labor;
(9) Department of Health and Human Services;
(10) Department of Housing and Urban Development;
(11) Department of Transportation;
(12) Department of Energy;
(13) Department of Education;
(14) Department of Veterans Affairs;
(15) Environmental Protection Agency;
(16) Central Intelligence Agency;
(17) Office of Management and Budget; and
(18) General Services Administration;
(c) the following individuals or their designees:
(1) the Director, United States Marshals Service;
(2) the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs; and
(3) the Director, Security Policy Board; and
(d) such other Federal employees as the President shall appoint.
(2) develop and evaluate security standards for Federal facilities, develop a strategy for ensuring compliance with such standards, and oversee the implementation of appropriate security measures in Federal facilities; and
(3) take such actions as may be necessary to enhance the quality and effectiveness of security and protection of Federal facilities, including but not limited to:
(A) encouraging agencies with security responsibilities to share security-related intelligence in a timely and cooperative manner;
(B) assessing technology and information systems as a means of providing cost-effective improvements to security in Federal facilities;
(C) developing long-term construction standards for those locations with threat levels or missions that require blast resistant structures or other specialized security requirements;
(D) evaluating standards for the location of, and special security related to, day care centers in Federal facilities; and
(E) assisting the Secretary in developing and maintaining a centralized security data base of all Federal facilities.
(b) Cooperation. Each executive agency and department shall cooperate and comply with the policies and recommendations of the Committee issued pursuant to this order, except where the Director of Central Intelligence determines that compliance would jeopardize intelligence sources and methods. To the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of appropriations, executive agencies and departments shall provide such support as may be necessary to enable the Committee to perform its duties and responsibilities under this order.
(c) Compliance. The Secretary shall be responsible for monitoring Federal agency compliance with the policies and recommendations of the Committee.
Ex. Ord. No. 13327,
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 121(a) of title 40, United States Code, and in order to promote the efficient and economical use of Federal real property resources in accordance with their value as national assets and in the best interests of the Nation, it is hereby ordered as follows:
(b) This order shall not be interpreted to supersede any existing authority under law or by executive order for real property asset management, with the exception of the revocation of Executive Order 12512 of
(b) The Senior Real Property Officer shall develop and implement an agency asset management planning process that meets the form, content, and other requirements established by the Federal Real Property Council established in section 4 of this order. The initial agency asset management plan will be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget on a date determined by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. In developing this plan, the Senior Real Property Officer shall:
(i) identify and categorize all real property owned, leased, or otherwise managed by the agency, including, where applicable, those properties outside the United States in which the lease agreements and arrangements reflect the host country currency or involve alternative lease plans or rental agreements;
(ii) prioritize actions to be taken to improve the operational and financial management of the agency’s real property inventory;
(iii) make life-cycle cost estimations associated with the prioritized actions;
(iv) identify legislative authorities that are required to address these priorities;
(v) identify and pursue goals, with appropriate deadlines, consistent with and supportive of the agency’s asset management plan and measure progress against such goals;
(vi) incorporate planning and management requirements for historic property under Executive Order 13287 of
(vii) identify any other information and pursue any other actions necessary to the appropriate development and implementation of the agency asset management plan.
(c) The Senior Real Property Officer shall be responsible, on an ongoing basis, for monitoring the real property assets of the agency so that agency assets are managed in a manner that is:
(i) consistent with, and supportive of, the goals and objectives set forth in the agency’s overall strategic plan under section 306 of title 5, United States Code;
(ii) consistent with the real property asset management principles developed by the Federal Real Property Council established in section 4 of this order; and
(iii) reflected in the agency asset management plan.
(d) The Senior Real Property Officer shall, on an annual basis, provide to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and the Administrator of General Services:
(i) information that lists and describes real property assets under the jurisdiction, custody, or control of that agency, except for classified information; and
(ii) any other relevant information the Director of the Office of Management and Budget or the Administrator of General Services may request for inclusion in the Government-wide listing of all Federal real property assets and leased property.
(e) The designation of the Senior Real Property Officer shall be made by agencies within 30 days after the date of this order.
(b) The Council shall provide a venue for assisting the Senior Real Property Officers in the development and implementation of the agency asset management plans. The Council shall work with the Administrator of General Services to establish appropriate performance measures to determine the effectiveness of Federal real property management. Such performance measures shall include, but are not limited to, evaluating the costs and benefits involved with acquiring, repairing, maintaining, operating, managing, and disposing of Federal real properties at particular agencies. Specifically, the Council shall consider, as appropriate, the following performance measures:
(i) life-cycle cost estimations associated with the agency’s prioritized actions;
(ii) the costs relating to the acquisition of real property assets by purchase, condemnation, exchange, lease, or otherwise;
(iii) the cost and time required to dispose of Federal real property assets and the financial recovery of the Federal investment resulting from the disposal;
(iv) the operating, maintenance, and security costs at Federal properties, including but not limited to the costs of utility services at unoccupied properties;
(v) the environmental costs associated with ownership of property, including the costs of environmental restoration and compliance activities;
(vi) changes in the amounts of vacant Federal space;
(vii) the realization of equity value in Federal real property assets;
(viii) opportunities for cooperative arrangements with the commercial real estate community; and
(ix) the enhancement of Federal agency productivity through an improved working environment. The performance measures shall be designed to enable the heads of executive branch agencies to track progress in the achievement of Government-wide property management objectives, as well as allow for comparing the performance of executive branch agencies against industry and other public sector agencies.
(c) The Council shall serve as a clearinghouse for executive agencies for best practices in evaluating actual progress in the implementation of real property enhancements. The Council shall also work in conjunction with the President’s Management Council to assist the efforts of the Senior Real Property Officials and the implementation of agency asset management plans.
(d) The Council shall be organized and hold its first meeting within 60 days of the date of this order. The Council shall hold meetings not less often than once a quarter each fiscal year.
(b) The Administrator of General Services shall publish common performance measures and standards adopted by the Council.
(c) The Administrator of General Services, in consultation with the Federal Real Property Council, shall establish and maintain a single, comprehensive, and descriptive database of all real property under the custody and control of all executive branch agencies, except when otherwise required for reasons of national security. The Administrator shall collect from each executive branch agency such descriptive information, except for classified information, as the Administrator considers will best describe the nature, use, and extent of the real property holdings of the Federal Government.
(d) The Administrator of General Services, in consultation with the Federal Real Property Council, may establish data and other information technology (IT) standards for use by Federal agencies in developing or upgrading Federal agency real property information systems in order to facilitate reporting on a uniform basis. Those agencies with particular IT standards and systems in place and in use shall be allowed to continue with such use to the extent that they are compatible with the standards issued by the Administrator.
(b) The Office of Management and Budget and the General Services Administration shall, in consultation with the landholding agencies, develop legislative initiatives that seek to improve Federal real property management through the adoption of appropriate industry management techniques and the establishment of managerial accountability for implementing effective and efficient real property management practices.
(c) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect the authority of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget with respect to budget, administrative, or legislative proposals.
(d) Nothing in this order shall be construed to affect real property for the use of the President, Vice President, or, for protective purposes, the United States Secret Service.
[Section 3(b)(vi) of Ex. Ord. No. 13327 was amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13423 by substituting “other executive orders” for “Executive Order 13148 of
Memorandum of President of the United States,
Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies
My Administration is committed to eliminating all forms of Government waste and to leading by example as our Nation transitions to a clean energy economy. For decades, the Federal Government, the largest property owner and energy user in the United States, has managed more real estate than necessary to effectively support its programs and missions. Both taxpayer dollars and energy resources are being wasted to maintain these excess assets. In addition, many of the properties necessary for the Government’s work are not operated efficiently, resulting in wasted funds and excessive greenhouse gas pollution. For example, over the past decade, the private sector reduced its data center footprint by capitalizing on innovative technologies to increase efficiencies. However, during that same period, the Federal Government experienced a substantial increase in the number of data centers, leading to increased energy consumption, real property expenditures, and operations and maintenance costs. Past attempts at reducing the Federal Government’s civilian real property assets produced small savings and had a minor impact on the condition and performance of mission-critical properties. These efforts were not sufficiently comprehensive in disposing of excess real estate and did not emphasize making more efficient use of existing assets.
To eliminate wasteful spending of taxpayer dollars, save energy and water, and further reduce greenhouse gas pollution, I hereby direct executive departments and agencies (agencies) to accelerate efforts to identify and eliminate excess properties. Agencies shall also take immediate steps to make better use of remaining real property assets as measured by utilization and occupancy rates, annual operating cost, energy efficiency, and sustainability. To the extent permitted by law, agency actions shall include accelerating cycle times for identifying excess assets and disposing of surplus assets; eliminating lease arrangements that are not cost effective; pursuing consolidation opportunities within and across agencies in common asset types (such as data centers, office space, warehouses, and laboratories); increasing occupancy rates in current facilities through innovative approaches to space management and alternative workplace arrangements, such as telework; and identifying offsetting reductions in inventory when new space is acquired. Agency actions taken under this memorandum shall align with and support the actions to measure and reduce resource use and greenhouse gas emissions in Federal facilities pursuant to [former] Executive Order 13514 of
In total, agency efforts required by this memorandum should produce no less than $3 billion in cost savings by the end of fiscal year 2012, yielded from increased proceeds from the sale of assets and reduced operating, maintenance, and energy expenses from disposals or other space consolidation efforts, including leases that are ended. This is in addition to the Department of Defense’s Base Realignment and Closure efforts that are expected to achieve $9.8 billion in savings from fiscal year 2010 to fiscal year 2012, of which $5 billion is a direct result of reduced operating and maintenance from disposals or other consolidation efforts. In addition, in order to address the growth of data centers across the Federal Government, agencies shall immediately adopt a policy against expanding data centers beyond current levels, and shall develop plans to consolidate and significantly reduce data centers within 5 years. Agencies shall submit their plans to OMB for review by
To achieve these goals, the Director of the OMB shall develop, in consultation with the Administrator of General Services and the Federal Real Property Council established pursuant to Executive Order 13327 of
This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.
The Director of the OMB is hereby authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.