1
 So in original. Probably should be section “671”.
of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [
2
 So in original. No opening parenthesis was enacted.
shall provide that the screening and selection of families for those units shall be the function of the owner. In addition, the public housing agency may elect to screen applicants for the program in accordance with such requirements as the Secretary may establish. That an applicant or participant is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking is not an appropriate basis for denial of program assistance or for denial of admission if the applicant otherwise qualifies for assistance or admission.
3
 So in original.
4
 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.
5
 So in original. Probably should be “Cranston-Gonzalez”.
National Affordable Housing Act of 1990 [
6
 See References in Text note below.
of this title or
Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 117–328, div. AA, title VI, § 601(a)(2), (h), Dec. 29, 2022, 136 Stat. 5543, 5548, provided that, effective two years after Dec. 29, 2022, this section is amended as follows:

(1) by inserting after subsection (k) the following:

“(l) Qualifying smoke alarms

“(1) In general

“Each owner of a dwelling unit receiving project-based assistance under this section shall ensure that qualifying smoke alarms are installed in accordance with applicable codes and standards published by the International Code Council or the National Fire Protection Association and the requirements of the National Fire Protection Association Standard 72, or any successor standard, in each level and in or near each sleeping area in such dwelling unit, including in basements but excepting crawl spaces and unfinished attics, and in each common area in a project containing such a dwelling unit.

“(2) Definitions

“For purposes of this subsection, the following definitions shall apply:

“(A) Smoke alarm defined

“The term ‘smoke alarm’ has the meaning given the term ‘smoke detector’ in section 2225(d) of title 15.

“(B) Qualifying smoke alarm defined

“The term ‘qualifying smoke alarm’ means a smoke alarm that—

“(i) in the case of a dwelling unit built before the date of enactment of this subsection and not substantially rehabilitated after December 29, 2022

“(I)(aa) is hardwired; or

“(bb) uses 10-year non rechargeable, nonreplaceable primary batteries and—

“(AA) is sealed;

“(BB) is tamper resistant; and

“(CC) contains silencing means; and

“(II) provides notification for persons with hearing loss as required by the National Fire Protection Association Standard 72, or any successor standard; or

“(ii) in the case of a dwelling unit built or substantially rehabilitated after December 29, 2022, is hardwired.”; and

(2) in subsection (o), by adding at the end the following:

“(22) Qualifying smoke alarms

“(A) In general

“Each dwelling unit receiving tenant-based assistance or project-based assistance under this subsection shall have a qualifying smoke alarm installed in accordance with applicable codes and standards published by the International Code Council or the National Fire Protection Association and the requirements of the National Fire Protection Association Standard 72, or any successor standard, in each level and in or near each sleeping area in such dwelling unit, including in basements but excepting crawl spaces and unfinished attics, and in each common area in a project containing such a dwelling unit.

“(B) Definitions

“For purposes of this paragraph, the following definitions shall apply:

“(i) Smoke alarm defined

“The term ‘smoke alarm’ has the meaning given the term ‘smoke detector’ in section 2225(d) of title 15.

“(ii) Qualifying smoke alarm defined

“The term ‘qualifying smoke alarm’ means a smoke alarm that—

“(I) in the case of a dwelling unit built before December 29, 2022, and not substantially rehabilitated after December 29, 2022

“(aa)(AA) is hardwired; or

“(BB) uses 10-year non rechargeable, nonreplaceable primary batteries and is sealed, is tamper resistant, and contains silencing means; and

“(bb) provides notification for persons with hearing loss as required by the National Fire Protection Association Standard 72, or any successor standard; or

“(II) in the case of a dwelling unit built or substantially rehabilitated after December 29, 2022, is hardwired.”

See 2022 Amendment notes below.

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, § 101(a)(2), (3), (b), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 784, 786, provided that, effective upon the issuance of notice or regulations implementing subsection (a) of section 101 of Pub. L. 114–201, subsection (o)(8) of this section is amended as follows:

(1) by redesignating subparagraph (G) as subparagraph (H); and

(2) by inserting after subparagraph (F) the following new subparagraph:

“(G) Enforcement of housing quality standards

“(i) Determination of noncompliance

“A dwelling unit that is covered by a housing assistance payments contract under this subsection shall be considered, for purposes of subparagraphs (D) and (F), to be in noncompliance with the housing quality standards under subparagraph (B) if—

“(I) the public housing agency or an inspector authorized by the State or unit of local government determines upon inspection of the unit that the unit fails to comply with such standards;

“(II) the agency or inspector notifies the owner of the unit in writing of such failure to comply; and

“(III) the failure to comply is not corrected—

“(aa) in the case of any such failure that is a result of life-threatening conditions, within 24 hours after such notice has been provided; and

“(bb) in the case of any such failure that is a result of non-life-threatening conditions, within 30 days after such notice has been provided or such other reasonable longer period as the public housing agency may establish.

“(ii) Withholding of assistance amounts during correction

“The public housing agency may withhold assistance amounts under this subsection with respect to a dwelling unit for which a notice pursuant to clause (i)(II), of failure to comply with housing quality standards under subparagraph (B) as determined pursuant to an inspection conducted under subparagraph (D) or (F), has been provided. If the unit is brought into compliance with such housing quality standards during the periods referred to in clause (i)(III), the public housing agency shall recommence assistance payments and may use any amounts withheld during the correction period to make assistance payments relating to the period during which payments were withheld.

“(iii) Abatement of assistance amounts

“The public housing agency shall abate all of the assistance amounts under this subsection with respect to a dwelling unit that is determined, pursuant to clause (i) of this subparagraph, to be in noncompliance with housing quality standards under subparagraph (B). Upon completion of repairs by the public housing agency or the owner sufficient so that the dwelling unit complies with such housing quality standards, the agency shall recommence payments under the housing assistance payments contract to the owner of the dwelling unit.

“(iv) Notification

“If a public housing agency providing assistance under this subsection abates rental assistance payments pursuant to clause (iii) with respect to a dwelling unit, the agency shall, upon commencement of such abatement—

“(I) notify the tenant and the owner of the dwelling unit that—

“(aa) such abatement has commenced; and

“(bb) if the dwelling unit is not brought into compliance with housing quality standards within 60 days after the effective date of the determination of noncompliance under clause (i) or such reasonable longer period as the agency may establish, the tenant will have to move; and

“(II) issue the tenant the necessary forms to allow the tenant to move to another dwelling unit and transfer the rental assistance to that unit.

“(v) Protection of tenants

“An owner of a dwelling unit may not terminate the tenancy of any tenant because of the withholding or abatement of assistance pursuant to this subparagraph. During the period that assistance is abated pursuant to this subparagraph, the tenant may terminate the tenancy by notifying the owner.

“(vi) Termination of lease or assistance payments contract

“If assistance amounts under this section for a dwelling unit are abated pursuant to clause (iii) and the owner does not correct the noncompliance within 60 days after the effective date of the determination of noncompliance under clause (i), or such other reasonable longer period as the public housing agency may establish, the agency shall terminate the housing assistance payments contract for the dwelling unit.

“(vii) Relocation

“(I) Lease of new unit

“The agency shall provide the family residing in such a dwelling unit a period of 90 days or such longer period as the public housing agency determines is reasonably necessary to lease a new unit, beginning upon termination of the contract, to lease a new residence with tenant-based rental assistance under this section.

“(II) Availability of public housing units

“If the family is unable to lease such a new residence during such period, the public housing agency shall, at the option of the family, provide such family a preference for occupancy in a dwelling unit of public housing that is owned or operated by the agency that first becomes available for occupancy after the expiration of such period.

“(III) Assistance in finding unit

“The public housing agency may provide assistance to the family in finding a new residence, including use of up to two months of any assistance amounts withheld or abated pursuant to clause (ii) or (iii), respectively, for costs directly associated with relocation of the family to a new residence, which shall include security deposits as necessary and may include reimbursements for reasonable moving expenses incurred by the household, as established by the Secretary. The agency may require that a family receiving assistance for a security deposit shall remit, to the extent of such assistance, the amount of any security deposit refunds made by the owner of the dwelling unit for which the lease was terminated.

“(viii) Tenant-caused damages

“If a public housing agency determines that any damage to a dwelling unit that results in a failure of the dwelling unit to comply with housing quality standards under subparagraph (B), other than any damage resulting from ordinary use, was caused by the tenant, any member of the tenant’s household, or any guest or other person under the tenant’s control, the agency may waive the applicability of this subparagraph, except that this clause shall not exonerate a tenant from any liability otherwise existing under applicable law for damages to the premises caused by such tenant.

“(ix) Applicability

“This subparagraph shall apply to any dwelling unit for which a housing assistance payments contract is entered into or renewed after the date of the effectiveness of the regulations implementing this subparagraph.”

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, § 102(e), (f), (h), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 791, provided that, effective upon the issuance of notice or regulations implementing section 102 of Pub. L. 114–201, except that such section 102 may only take effect upon the commencement of a calendar year, this section is amended as follows:

(1) in subsection (c)(3), by striking the last sentence; and

(2) in subsection (t)(1)(D), by striking “income” each place such term appears and inserting “annual adjusted income”.

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, § 106(a)(4)–(9), (b), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 798–800, provided that, effective upon the issuance of notice or regulations implementing subsection (a) of section 106 of Pub. L. 114–201, subsection (o)(13) of this section is amended as follows:

(1) by striking subparagraph (F) and inserting the following new subparagraph:

“(F) Contract term

“(i) Term

“A housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph between a public housing agency and the owner of a project may have a term of up to 20 years, subject to—

“(I) the availability of sufficient appropriated funds for the purpose of renewing expiring contracts for assistance payments, as provided in appropriation Acts and in the agency’s annual contributions contract with the Secretary, provided that in the event of insufficient appropriated funds, payments due under contracts under this paragraph shall take priority if other cost-saving measures that do not require the termination of an existing contract are available to the agency; and

“(II) compliance with the inspection requirements under paragraph (8), except that the agency shall not be required to make biennial inspections of each assisted unit in the development.

“(ii) Addition of eligible units

“Subject to the limitations of subparagraphs (B) and (D), the agency and the owner may add eligible units within the same project to a housing assistance payments contract at any time during the term thereof without being subject to any additional competitive selection procedures.

“(iii) Housing under construction or recently constructed

“An agency may enter into a housing assistance payments contract with an owner for any unit that does not qualify as existing housing and is under construction or recently has been constructed whether or not the agency has executed an agreement to enter into a contract with the owner, provided that the owner demonstrates compliance with applicable requirements prior to execution of the housing assistance payments contract. This clause shall not subject a housing assistance payments contract for existing housing under this paragraph to such requirements or otherwise limit the extent to which a unit may be assisted as existing housing.

“(iv) Additional conditions

“The contract may specify additional conditions, including with respect to continuation, termination, or expiration, and shall specify that upon termination or expiration of the contract without extension, each assisted family may elect to use its assistance under this subsection to remain in the same project if its unit complies with the inspection requirements under paragraph (8), the rent for the unit is reasonable as required by paragraph (10)(A), and the family pays its required share of the rent and the amount, if any, by which the unit rent (including the amount allowed for tenant-based utilities) exceeds the applicable payment standard.”;

(2) in subparagraph (G), by striking “15 years” and inserting “20 years”;

(3) by striking subparagraph (I) and inserting the following new subparagraph:

“(I) Rent adjustments

“A housing assistance payments contract pursuant to this paragraph entered into after July 29, 2016, shall provide for annual rent adjustments upon the request of the owner, except that—

“(i) by agreement of the parties, a contract may allow a public housing agency to adjust the rent for covered units using an operating cost adjustment factor established by the Secretary pursuant to section 524(c) of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997 (which shall not result in a negative adjustment), in which case the contract may require an additional adjustment, if requested, up to the reasonable rent periodically during the term of the contract, and shall require such an adjustment, if requested, upon extension pursuant to subparagraph (G);

“(ii) the adjusted rent shall not exceed the maximum rent permitted under subparagraph (H);

“(iii) the contract may provide that the maximum rent permitted for a dwelling unit shall not be less than the initial rent for the dwelling unit under the initial housing assistance payments contract covering the units; and

“(iv) the provisions of subsection (c)(2)(C) shall not apply.”;

(4) in subparagraph (J)—

(A) in the first sentence, by striking “shall” and inserting “may” and by inserting before the period the following: “or may permit owners to select applicants from site-based waiting lists as specified in this subparagraph”;

(B) by striking the third sentence and inserting the following: “The agency or owner may establish preferences or criteria for selection for a unit assisted under this paragraph that are consistent with the public housing agency plan for the agency approved under section 1437c–1 of this title and that give preference to families who qualify for voluntary services, including disability-specific services, offered in conjunction with assisted units.”; and

(C) by striking the fifth and sixth sentences and inserting the following: “A public housing agency may establish and utilize procedures for owner-maintained site-based waiting lists, under which applicants may apply at, or otherwise designate to the public housing agency, the project or projects in which they seek to reside, except that all eligible applicants on the waiting list of an agency for assistance under this subsection shall be permitted to place their names on such separate list, subject to policies and procedures established by the Secretary. All such procedures shall comply with title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Fair Housing Act, section 794 of title 29, and other applicable civil rights laws. The owner or manager of a project assisted under this paragraph shall not admit any family to a dwelling unit assisted under a contract pursuant to this paragraph other than a family referred by the public housing agency from its waiting list, or a family on a site-based waiting list that complies with the requirements of this subparagraph. A public housing agency shall disclose to each applicant all other options in the selection of a project in which to reside that are provided by the public housing agency and are available to the applicant.”;

(5) in subparagraph (M)(ii), by inserting before the period at the end the following: “relating to funding other than housing assistance payments”; and

(6) by adding at the end the following new subparagraphs:

“(N) Structure owned by agency

“A public housing agency engaged in an initiative to improve, develop, or replace a public housing property or site may attach assistance to an existing, newly constructed, or rehabilitated structure in which the agency has an ownership interest or which the agency has control of without following a competitive process, provided that the agency has notified the public of its intent through its public housing agency plan and subject to the limitations and requirements of this paragraph.

“(O) Special purpose vouchers

“A public housing agency that administers vouchers authorized under subsection (o)(19) or (x) of this section may provide such assistance in accordance with the limitations and requirements of this paragraph, without additional requirements for approval by the Secretary.”

See 2016 Amendment notes below.

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, § 112, July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 803, provided that, effective upon the issuance of notice implementing subsection (a) of section 112 of Pub. L. 114–201, subsection (o)(12) of this section is amended as follows:

(1) in subparagraph (A), by striking the period at the end of the first sentence and all that follows through “of” in the second sentence and inserting “and rents”; and

(2) in subparagraph (B)—

(A) in clause (i), by striking “the rent” and all that follows and inserting the following: “rent shall mean the sum of the monthly payments made by a family assisted under this paragraph to amortize the cost of purchasing the manufactured home, including any required insurance and property taxes, the monthly amount allowed for tenant-paid utilities, and the monthly rent charged for the real property on which the manufactured home is located, including monthly management and maintenance charges.”;

(B) by striking clause (ii); and

(C) in clause (iii)—

(i) by inserting after the period at the end the following: “If the amount of the monthly assistance payment for a family exceeds the monthly rent charged for the real property on which the manufactured home is located, including monthly management and maintenance charges, a public housing agency may pay the remainder to the family, lender or utility company, or may choose to make a single payment to the family for the entire monthly assistance amount.”; and

(ii) by redesignating such clause as clause (ii).

See 2016 Amendment notes below.

Editorial Notes
References in Text

The Housing and Community Development Act of 1992, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(C), (D), is Pub. L. 102–550, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3672. Subtitle C of title VI of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§ 13601 et seq.) of chapter 135 of this title. Subtitle D of title VI of the Act is classified principally to subchapter II (§ 13611 et seq.) of chapter 135 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1992 Amendment note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

Sections 514 and 517 of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997, referred to in subsecs. (d)(5) and (bb)(2), are sections 514 and 517 of Pub. L. 105–65, and are set out as a note under this section.

The Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act, referred to in subsecs. (f)(4) and (o)(4)(D), (8)(E)(i), (10)(F), is Pub. L. 101–625, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4079. Title II of the Act, also known as the “HOME Investment Partnerships Act”, is classified principally to subchapter II (§ 12721 et seq.) of chapter 130 of this title. Subtitle A of title II of the Act is classified generally to part A (§ 12741 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 130 of this title. Title IV of the Act, also known as the “Homeownership and Opportunity Through HOPE Act”, enacted subchapter II–A (§ 1437aaa et seq.) of this chapter and subchapter IV (§ 12871 et seq.) of chapter 130 of this title, amended sections 1437c, 1437f, 1437l, 1437p, 1437r, and 1437s of this title and section 1709 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 1437c, 1437aa, and 1437aaa of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12701 of this title and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsecs. (k) and (x)(4)(E), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, which is classified generally to chapter 7 (§ 301 et seq.) of this title. Parts B and E of title IV of the Act are classified generally to parts B (§ 621 et seq.) and E (§ 670 et seq.), respectively, of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of this title and Tables.

The Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (k), is Pub. L. 88–525, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 703, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§ 2011 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under 2011 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Fair Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (o)(17), is title VIII of Pub. L. 90–284, Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 81, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§ 3601 et seq.) of chapter 45 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3601 of this title and Tables.

Section 503(a) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (q)(1)(B)(ii)(I), (2)(A), is section 503(a) of Pub. L. 105–276, which is set out as an Effective Date of 1998 Amendment note under section 1437 of this title.

The effective date of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 2001, referred to in subsec. (t)(2), means the effective date of H.R. 5482, as enacted by section 1(a)(1) of Pub. L. 106–377, which was approved Oct. 27, 2000.

Section 1437o of this title, referred to in subsec. (u), was repealed by Pub. L. 101–625, title II, § 289(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4128.

The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, referred to in subsec. (x)(4)(B), is Pub. L. 100–77, July 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 482. Subtitle C of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part C (§ 11381 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 119 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 11301 of this title and Tables.

Section 204 of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1996, referred to in subsec. (x)(5)(C), is section 204 of Pub. L. 104–134, title I, § 101(e) [title II], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–257, 1321–281, which is set out as a note under this section.

Subsection (o)(8)(A) of this section, referred to in subsec. (y)(3)(B), does not contain a cl. (ii) and does not relate to annual inspections. For provisions of subsec. (o)(8) which relate to annual inspections, see subpar. (D).

Subsection (c)(3)(B) of this section, referred to in subsec. (y)(5), was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 550(a)(3)(A)(ii), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2609.

The National Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (y)(6), is act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1246, which is classified principally to chapter 13 (§ 1701 et seq.) of Title 12, Banks and Banking. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1701 of Title 12 and Tables.

Section 1437u(d)(3) of this title, relating to reimbursement of escrow accounts, referred to in subsec. (y)(6)(A), was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 509(a)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2531.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

October 20, 1999, referred to in subsec. (t)(3)(B)(ii), was in the original “the enactment of this Act”, which was translated as meaning the enactment of Pub. L. 106–74, which enacted subsec. (t) of this section, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 100–242, title II, § 203(a), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1878, as amended, which was formerly set out in a note under section 1715l of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and which provided that on Nov. 28, 1990, the amendment made by section 262 of Pub. L. 100–242 is repealed and section is to read as it would without such amendment, was omitted in the general amendment of subtitle A of title II of Pub. L. 100–242 by Pub. L. 101–625.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 8 of act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, 50 Stat. 891, as amended, authorized promulgation of rules and regulations by the Authority and was classified to section 1408 of this title, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 93–383.

Amendments

2022—Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 117–328, § 601(a)(2)(A), added subsec. (l).

Subsec. (o)(22). Pub. L. 117–328, § 601(a)(2)(B), added par. (22).

2021—Subsec. (o)(19)(D). Pub. L. 116–283 added subpar. (D).

2020—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 116–260, § 101(b)(2)(A), added subsec. (j).

Subsec. (o)(13)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 116–260, § 103(c)(1), inserted “that house eligible youths receiving assistance pursuant to subsection (x)(2)(B),” before “or that”.

Subsec. (o)(13)(D)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 116–260, § 103(c)(2), inserted “, to eligible youths receiving assistance pursuant to subsection (x)(2)(B),” after “elderly families”.

Subsec. (o)(21). Pub. L. 116–260, § 101(b)(2)(B), added par. (21).

Subsec. (q)(5). Pub. L. 116–260, § 103(b)(3), added par. (5).

Subsec. (x)(2)(B). Pub. L. 116–260, § 103(b)(1)(A), inserted “subject to paragraph (5),” before “for a period”.

Subsec. (x)(3). Pub. L. 116–260, § 103(b)(1)(B), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted heading, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (x)(4)(A). Pub. L. 116–260, § 103(b)(2), inserted “and establishing a point of contact at public housing agencies to ensure that public housing agencies receive appropriate referrals regarding eligible recipients” before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (x)(5), (6). Pub. L. 116–260, § 103(b)(1)(C), (D), added par. (5) and redesignated former par. (5) as (6).

2018—Subsec. (o)(7)(C), (F). Pub. L. 115–174 repealed Pub. L. 111–22, § 704, and restored and revived amendment by Pub. L. 111–22, § 703, as in effect Dec. 30, 2014. See 2009 Amendment notes below.

2016—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 114–201, § 107(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), struck out “Proposed fair market rentals for an area shall be published in the Federal Register with reasonable time for public comment, and shall become effective upon the date of publication in final form in the Federal Register.” after “October 1, 1980.” and “The Secretary shall establish separate fair market rentals under this paragraph for Westchester County in the State of New York. The Secretary shall also establish separate fair market rentals under this paragraph for Monroe County in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. In establishing fair market rentals for the remaining portion of the market area in which Monroe County is located, the Secretary shall establish the fair market rentals as if such portion included Monroe County.” after “no practical alternative.”, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 114–201, § 102(f), struck out at end “Reviews of family income shall be made no less frequently than annually.”

Subsec. (o)(1)(B). Pub. L. 114–201, § 107(b), inserted before period at end “, except that no public housing agency shall be required as a result of a reduction in the fair market rental to reduce the payment standard applied to a family continuing to reside in a unit for which the family was receiving assistance under this section at the time the fair market rental was reduced. The Secretary shall allow public housing agencies to request exception payment standards within fair market rental areas subject to criteria and procedures established by the Secretary”.

Subsec. (o)(1)(D). Pub. L. 114–201, § 102(d)(1), inserted before period at end “, except that a public housing agency may establish a payment standard of not more than 120 percent of the fair market rent where necessary as a reasonable accommodation for a person with a disability, without approval of the Secretary. A public housing agency may use a payment standard that is greater than 120 percent of the fair market rent as a reasonable accommodation for a person with a disability, but only with the approval of the Secretary. In connection with the use of any increased payment standard established or approved pursuant to either of the preceding two sentences as a reasonable accommodation for a person with a disability, the Secretary may not establish additional requirements regarding the amount of adjusted income paid by such person for rent”.

Subsec. (o)(5). Pub. L. 114–201, § 102(d)(2)(A), substituted “Reviews” for “Annual review” in heading.

Subsec. (o)(5)(A). Pub. L. 114–201, § 102(d)(2)(B), substituted “paragraphs (1), (6), and (7) of section 1437a(a) of this title and to” for “the provisions of” and struck out “and shall be conducted upon the initial provision of housing assistance for the family and thereafter as required by section 1437a(a)(1) of this title” before period at end.

Subsec. (o)(5)(B). Pub. L. 114–201, § 102(d)(2)(C), struck out at end “Each public housing agency shall, not less frequently than annually, conduct a review of the family income of each family receiving assistance under this subsection.”

Subsec. (o)(8)(A). Pub. L. 114–201, § 101(a)(1), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Except as provided in paragraph (11), for each dwelling unit for which a housing assistance payment contract is established under this subsection, the public housing agency shall inspect the unit before any assistance payment is made to determine whether the dwelling unit meets the housing quality standards under subparagraph (B).”

Subsec. (o)(8)(G), (H). Pub. L. 114–201, § 101(a)(2), (3), added subpar. (G) and redesignated former subpar. (G) as (H).

Subsec. (o)(11). Pub. L. 114–201, § 105, designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted heading, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (o)(12)(A). Pub. L. 114–201, § 112(a)(1), substituted “residence and rents” for “residence. Such payments may be made only for the rental of”.

Subsec. (o)(12)(B)(i). Pub. L. 114–201, § 112(a)(2)(A), substituted “rent shall mean the sum of the monthly payments made by a family assisted under this paragraph to amortize the cost of purchasing the manufactured home, including any required insurance and property taxes, the monthly amount allowed for tenant-paid utilities, and the monthly rent charged for the real property on which the manufactured home is located, including monthly management and maintenance charges.” for “the rent for the space on which a manufactured home is located and with respect to which assistance payments are to be made shall include maintenance and management charges and tenant-paid utilities.”

Subsec. (o)(12)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 114–201, § 112(a)(2)(B), (C)(ii), redesignated cl. (iii) as (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which related to establishment of payment standard for the purpose of determining monthly assistance.

Subsec. (o)(12)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 114–201, § 112(a)(2)(C), inserted “If the amount of the monthly assistance payment for a family exceeds the monthly rent charged for the real property on which the manufactured home is located, including monthly management and maintenance charges, a public housing agency may pay the remainder to the family, lender or utility company, or may choose to make a single payment to the family for the entire monthly assistance amount.” after “paragraph (2).” and redesignated cl. (iii) as (ii).

Subsec. (o)(13)(A). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(1), substituted “project” for “structure” in two places.

Subsec. (o)(13)(B). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(2), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Not more than 20 percent of the funding available for tenant-based assistance under this section that is administered by the agency may be attached to structures pursuant to this paragraph.”

Subsec. (o)(13)(D). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(3), added subpar. (D) and struck out former subpar. (D). Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(i) In general.—Not more than 25 percent of the dwelling units in any project may be assisted under a housing assistance payment contract for project-based assistance pursuant to this paragraph. For purposes of this subparagraph, the term ‘project’ means a single building, multiple contiguous buildings, or multiple buildings on contiguous parcels of land.

“(ii) Exceptions.—The limitation under clause (i) shall not apply in the case of assistance under a contract for housing consisting of single family properties or for dwelling units that are specifically made available for households comprised of elderly families, disabled families, and families receiving supportive services.”

Subsec. (o)(13)(F). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(4), added subpar. (F) and struck out former subpar. (F). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “A housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph between a public housing agency and the owner of a structure may have a term of up to 15 years, subject to the availability of sufficient appropriated funds for the purpose of renewing expiring contracts for assistance payments, as provided in appropriations Acts and in the agency’s annual contributions contract with the Secretary, and to annual compliance with the inspection requirements under paragraph (8), except that the agency shall not be required to make annual inspections of each assisted unit in the development. The contract may specify additional conditions for its continuation. If the units covered by the contract are owned by the agency, the term of the contract shall be agreed upon by the agency and the unit of general local government or other entity approved by the Secretary in the manner provided under paragraph (11).”

Subsec. (o)(13)(G). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(1), (5), substituted “project” for “structure” in two places and “20 years” for “15 years”.

Subsec. (o)(13)(I). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(6), added subpar. (I) and struck out former subpar. (I). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “A housing assistance payments contract pursuant to this paragraph shall provide for rent adjustments, except that—

“(i) the adjusted rent for any unit assisted shall be reasonable in comparison with rents charged for comparable dwelling units in the private, unassisted, local market and may not exceed the maximum rent permitted under subparagraph (H), except that the contract may provide that the maximum rent permitted for a dwelling unit shall not be less than the initial rent for the dwelling unit under the initial housing assistance payments contract covering the unit; and

“(ii) the provisions of subsection (c)(2)(C) shall not apply.”

Subsec. (o)(13)(J). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(1), (7), substituted “may select families” for “shall select families”, inserted “or may permit owners to select applicants from site-based waiting lists as specified in this subparagraph” before period at end of first sentence, and substituted “The agency or owner may establish preferences or criteria for selection for a unit assisted under this paragraph that are consistent with the public housing agency plan for the agency approved under section 1437c–1 of this title and that give preference to families who qualify for voluntary services, including disability-specific services, offered in conjunction with assisted units.” for “The agency may establish preferences or criteria for selection for a unit assisted under this paragraph that are consistent with the public housing agency plan for the agency approved under section 1437c–1 of this title.”, “admission to a project by the owner or manager of a project” for “admission to a structure by the owner or manager of a structure”, and “A public housing agency may establish and utilize procedures for owner-maintained site-based waiting lists, under which applicants may apply at, or otherwise designate to the public housing agency, the project or projects in which they seek to reside, except that all eligible applicants on the waiting list of an agency for assistance under this subsection shall be permitted to place their names on such separate list, subject to policies and procedures established by the Secretary. All such procedures shall comply with title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Fair Housing Act, section 794 of title 29, and other applicable civil rights laws. The owner or manager of a project assisted under this paragraph shall not admit any family to a dwelling unit assisted under a contract pursuant to this paragraph other than a family referred by the public housing agency from its waiting list, or a family on a site-based waiting list that complies with the requirements of this subparagraph. A public housing agency shall disclose to each applicant all other options in the selection of a project in which to reside that are provided by the public housing agency and are available to the applicant.” for “The owner or manager of a structure assisted under this paragraph shall not admit any family to a dwelling unit assisted under a contract pursuant to this paragraph other than a family referred by the public housing agency from its waiting list. Subject to its waiting list policies and selection preferences, a public housing agency may place on its waiting list a family referred by the owner or manager of a structure and may maintain a separate waiting list for assistance under this paragraph, but only if all families on the agency’s waiting list for assistance under this subsection are permitted to place their names on the separate list.”

Subsec. (o)(13)(M). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(1), substituted “project” for “structure” in cls. (i) and (ii).

Subsec. (o)(13)(M)(ii). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(8), inserted before period at end “relating to funding other than housing assistance payments”.

Subsec. (o)(13)(N), (O). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(9), added subpars. (N) and (O).

Subsec. (o)(20). Pub. L. 114–201, § 108, added par. (20).

Subsec. (t)(1)(D). Pub. L. 114–201, § 102(e), substituted “annual adjusted income” for “income” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (x)(2)(B). Pub. L. 114–201, § 110(1), substituted “36 months” for “18 months” and “24 years of age” for “21 years of age” and inserted “, or will leave foster care within 90 days, in accordance with a transition plan described in section 475(5)(H) of the Social Security Act, and is homeless or is at risk of becoming homeless” after “have left foster care”.

Subsec. (x)(4), (5). Pub. L. 114–201, § 110(2), (3), added par. (4) and redesignated former par. (4) as (5).

2015—Subsec. (o)(5)(A). Pub. L. 114–94 substituted “as required by section 1437a(a)(1) of this title” for “not less than annually”.

2014—Subsec. (o)(2)(D). Pub. L. 113–76, § 242, added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (o)(8)(D) to (G). Pub. L. 113–76, § 220(a), added subpars. (D) to (F), redesignated former subpar. (E) as (G), and struck out former subpar. (D) which required every public housing agency providing assistance under this subsection to make an annual inspection of each assisted dwelling unit.

2013—Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(A), struck out par. (9) which related to prohibitions against the denial of program assistance or admission to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking and the termination of assistance, tenancy, or occupancy rights of such victims.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(B)(i), struck out “and that an applicant or participant is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking is not an appropriate basis for denial of program assistance or for denial of admission if the applicant otherwise qualifies for assistance or admission” before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(B)(ii)(I), struck out “, and that an incident or incidents of actual or threatened domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking will not be construed as a serious or repeated violation of the lease by the victim or threatened victim of that violence and will not be good cause for terminating the tenancy or occupancy rights of the victim of such violence” before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(B)(ii)(II), struck out before semicolon at end “, except that: (I) criminal activity directly relating to domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking, engaged in by a member of a tenant’s household or any guest or other person under the tenant’s control, shall not be cause for termination of the tenancy or occupancy rights or program assistance, if the tenant or immediate member of the tenant’s family is a victim of that domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking; (II) Notwithstanding subclause (I) or any Federal, State, or local law to the contrary, a public housing agency may terminate assistance to, or an owner or manager may bifurcate a lease under this section, or remove a household member from a lease under this section, without regard to whether a household member is a signatory to a lease, in order to evict, remove, terminate occupancy rights, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant. Such eviction, removal, termination of occupancy rights, or termination of assistance shall be effected in accordance with the procedures prescribed by Federal, State, and local law for the termination of leases or assistance under the relevant program of HUD-assisted housing. (III) nothing in subclause (I) may be construed to limit the authority of a public housing agency, owner, or manager, when notified, to honor court orders addressing rights of access to or control of the property, including civil protection orders issued to protect the victim and issued to address the distribution or possession of property among the household members in cases where a family breaks up; (IV) nothing in subclause (I) limits any otherwise available authority of an owner or manager to evict or the public housing agency to terminate assistance to a tenant for any violation of a lease not premised on the act or acts of violence in question against the tenant or a member of the tenant’s household, provided that the owner, manager, or public housing agency does not subject an individual who is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking to a more demanding standard than other tenants in determining whether to evict or terminate; (V) nothing in subclause (I) may be construed to limit the authority of an owner or manager to evict, or the public housing agency to terminate assistance, to any tenant if the owner, manager, or public housing agency can demonstrate an actual and imminent threat to other tenants or those employed at or providing service to the property if that tenant is not evicted or terminated from assistance; and (VI) nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this section for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking.”

Subsec. (f)(8) to (11). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(C), struck out pars. (8) to (11) which defined “domestic violence”, “dating violence”, “stalking”, and “immediate family member”, respectively.

Subsec. (o)(6)(B). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(D)(i), struck out at end “Nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this section for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking.”

Subsec. (o)(7)(C). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(D)(ii)(I), in introductory provisions, struck out “and that an incident or incidents of actual or threatened domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking shall not be construed as a serious or repeated violation of the lease by the victim or threatened victim of that violence and shall not be good cause for terminating the tenancy or occupancy rights of the victim of such violence” before “and in the case”.

Subsec. (o)(7)(D). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(D)(ii)(II), struck out before semicolon at end “; except that (i) criminal activity directly relating to domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking, engaged in by a member of a tenant’s household or any guest or other person under the tenant’s control shall not be cause for termination of the tenancy or occupancy rights, if the tenant or immediate member of the tenant’s family is a victim of that domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking; (ii) Limitation.—Notwithstanding clause (i) or any Federal, State, or local law to the contrary, a public housing agency may terminate assistance to, or an owner or manager may bifurcate a lease under this section, or remove a household member from a lease under this section, without regard to whether a household member is a signatory to a lease, in order to evict, remove, terminate occupancy rights, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant. Such eviction, removal, termination of occupancy rights, or termination of assistance shall be effected in accordance with the procedures prescribed by Federal, State, and local law for the termination of leases or assistance under the relevant program of HUD-assisted housing. (iii) nothing in clause (i) may be construed to limit the authority of a public housing agency, owner, or manager, when notified, to honor court orders addressing rights of access or control of the property, including civil protection orders issued to protect the victim and issued to address the distribution or possession of property among the household members in cases where a family breaks up; (iv) nothing in clause (i) limits any otherwise available authority of an owner or manager to evict or the public housing agency to terminate assistance to a tenant for any violation of a lease not premised on the act or acts of violence in question against the tenant or a member of the tenant’s household, provided that the owner, manager, or public housing agency does not subject an individual who is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking to a more demanding standard than other tenants in determining whether to evict or terminate; (v) nothing in clause (i) may be construed to limit the authority of an owner or manager to evict, or the public housing agency to terminate assistance to any tenant if the owner, manager, or public housing agency can demonstrate an actual and imminent threat to other tenants or those employed at or providing service to the property if that tenant is not evicted or terminated from assistance; and (vi) nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this section for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking.”

Subsec. (o)(20). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(D)(iii), struck out par. (20) which related to prohibited basis for termination of assistance.

Subsec. (ee). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(E), struck out subsec. (ee) which related to certification that an individual is a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking and confidentiality of information provided to any owner, manager, or public housing agency.

2011—Subsec. (o)(18)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 111–372 inserted before period at end “, except that a family may be required at the time the family initially receives such assistance to pay rent in an amount exceeding 40 percent of the monthly adjusted income of the family by such an amount or percentage that is reasonable given the services and amenities provided and as the Secretary deems appropriate.”

2009—Subsec. (o)(7)(C). Pub. L. 111–22, § 703(1), as amended by Pub. L. 115–174, § 304(a), (b), inserted before semicolon at end “and in the case of an owner who is an immediate successor in interest pursuant to foreclosure during the term of the lease vacating the property prior to sale shall not constitute other good cause, except that the owner may terminate the tenancy effective on the date of transfer of the unit to the owner if the owner—

“(i) will occupy the unit as a primary residence; and

“(ii) has provided the tenant a notice to vacate at least 90 days before the effective date of such notice.”

Subsec. (o)(7)(F). Pub. L. 111–22, § 703(2), as amended by Pub. L. 115–174, § 304(a), (b), inserted at end “In the case of any foreclosure on any federally-related mortgage loan (as that term is defined in section 2602 of title 12) or on any residential real property in which a recipient of assistance under this subsection resides, the immediate successor in interest in such property pursuant to the foreclosure shall assume such interest subject to the lease between the prior owner and the tenant and to the housing assistance payments contract between the prior owner and the public housing agency for the occupied unit, except that this provision and the provisions related to foreclosure in subparagraph (C) shall not shall not affect any State or local law that provides longer time periods or other additional protections for tenants.”

2008—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 110–246, § 4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(Y), substituted “Food and Nutrition Act of 2008” for “Food Stamp Act of 1977”.

Subsec. (o)(10)(F). Pub. L. 110–289, § 2835(a)(2), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (o)(13)(D)(i). Pub. L. 110–289, § 2835(a)(1)(A), substituted “any project” for “any building” and inserted at end “For purposes of this subparagraph, the term ‘project’ means a single building, multiple contiguous buildings, or multiple buildings on contiguous parcels of land.”

Subsec. (o)(13)(F). Pub. L. 110–289, § 2835(a)(1)(B), substituted “15 years” for “10 years”.

Subsec. (o)(13)(G). Pub. L. 110–289, § 2835(a)(1)(C), inserted after first sentence “Such contract may, at the election of the public housing agency and the owner of the structure, specify that such contract shall be extended for renewal terms of up to 15 years each, if the agency makes the determination required by this subparagraph and the owner is in compliance with the terms of the contract.” and inserted at end “A public housing agency may agree to enter into such a contract at the time it enters into the initial agreement for a housing assistance payment contract or at any time thereafter that is before the expiration of the housing assistance payment contract.”

Subsec. (o)(13)(H). Pub. L. 110–289, § 2835(a)(1)(D), inserted before period at end of first sentence “, except that in the case of a contract unit that has been allocated low-income housing tax credits and for which the rent limitation pursuant to such section 42 is less than the amount that would otherwise be permitted under this subparagraph, the rent for such unit may, in the sole discretion of a public housing agency, be established at the higher section 8 rent, subject only to paragraph (10)(A)”.

Subsec. (o)(13)(I)(i). Pub. L. 110–289, § 2835(a)(1)(E), inserted before semicolon “, except that the contract may provide that the maximum rent permitted for a dwelling unit shall not be less than the initial rent for the dwelling unit under the initial housing assistance payments contract covering the unit”.

Subsec. (o)(13)(L), (M). Pub. L. 110–289, § 2835(a)(1)(F), added subpars. (L) and (M).

2006—Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(1), added par. (9).

Subsec. (c)(9)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(1), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: “Notwithstanding clause (i), an owner or manager may bifurcate a lease under this section, in order to evict, remove, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant.”

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(d), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “the selection of tenants shall be the function of the owner, subject to the annual contributions contract between the Secretary and the agency, except that with respect to the certificate and moderate rehabilitation programs only, for the purpose of selecting families to be assisted, the public housing agency may establish local preferences, consistent with the public housing agency plan submitted under section 1437c–1 of this title by the public housing agency and that an applicant or participant is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking is not an appropriate basis for denial of program assistance or for denial of admission if the applicant otherwise qualifies for assistance or admission;”.

Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(2)(A), which directed insertion of “and that an applicant or participant is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking is not an appropriate basis for denial of program assistance or for denial of admission if the applicant otherwise qualifies for assistance or admission” after “public housing agency”, was executed by making the insertion after “public housing agency” the last place appearing to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(2)(B), inserted “, and that an incident or incidents of actual or threatened domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking will not be construed as a serious or repeated violation of the lease by the victim or threatened victim of that violence and will not be good cause for terminating the tenancy or occupancy rights of the victim of such violence” before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(2)(C), inserted before semicolon at end “, except that: (I) criminal activity directly relating to domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking, engaged in by a member of a tenant’s household or any guest or other person under the tenant’s control, shall not be cause for termination of the tenancy or occupancy rights or program assistance, if the tenant or immediate member of the tenant’s family is a victim of that domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking; (II) notwithstanding subclause (I), a public housing agency may terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, or an owner or manager under this section may bifurcate a lease, in order to evict, remove, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant; (III) nothing in subclause (I) may be construed to limit the authority of a public housing agency, owner, or manager, when notified, to honor court orders addressing rights of access to or control of the property, including civil protection orders issued to protect the victim and issued to address the distribution or possession of property among the household members in cases where a family breaks up; (IV) nothing in subclause (I) limits any otherwise available authority of an owner or manager to evict or the public housing agency to terminate assistance to a tenant for any violation of a lease not premised on the act or acts of violence in question against the tenant or a member of the tenant’s household, provided that the owner, manager, or public housing agency does not subject an individual who is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking to a more demanding standard than other tenants in determining whether to evict or terminate; (V) nothing in subclause (I) may be construed to limit the authority of an owner or manager to evict, or the public housing agency to terminate assistance, to any tenant if the owner, manager, or public housing agency can demonstrate an actual and imminent threat to other tenants or those employed at or providing service to the property if that tenant is not evicted or terminated from assistance; and (VI) nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this section for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking.”

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(iii)(II). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(2), added subcl. (II) and struck out former subcl. (II) which read as follows: “notwithstanding subclause (I), a public housing agency may terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, or an owner or manager under this section may bifurcate a lease, in order to evict, remove, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant;”.

Subsec. (f)(8). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(3), added par. (8).

Subsec. (f)(9). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(3)(A), struck out “and” after semicolon at end.

Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(3), added par. (9).

Subsec. (f)(10). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(3), added par. (10).

Subsec. (f)(10)(A)(i). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(3)(B), substituted “or” for “and” at end.

Subsec. (f)(11). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(3), added par. (11).

Subsec. (f)(11)(B). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(3)(C), substituted “blood or marriage” for “blood and marriage”.

Subsec. (o)(6)(B). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(4)(A)(iii), which directed the substitution of “admission. Nothing” for “admission, and that nothing” in second sentence, was executed by making the substitution in third sentence, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(4)(A)(ii), which directed the substitution of “for admission or” for “for admission for” in second sentence, was executed by substituting “for assistance or” for “for assistance for” in third sentence, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(4)(A)(i), which directed amendment of second sentence of subpar. (B) by striking “by” after “denial of program assistance”, was executed by striking that language in third sentence, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(4)(A), inserted “That an applicant or participant is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking is not an appropriate basis for denial of program assistance by or for denial of admission if the applicant otherwise qualifies for assistance for admission, and that nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this section for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking.” at end.

Subsec. (o)(7)(C). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(4)(B), inserted “, and that an incident or incidents of actual or threatened domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking shall not be construed as a serious or repeated violation of the lease by the victim or threatened victim of that violence and shall not be good cause for terminating the tenancy or occupancy rights of the victim of such violence” before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (o)(7)(D). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(4)(C), inserted at end “; except that (i) criminal activity directly relating to domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking, engaged in by a member of a tenant’s household or any guest or other person under the tenant’s control shall not be cause for termination of the tenancy or occupancy rights, if the tenant or immediate member of the tenant’s family is a victim of that domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking; (ii) notwithstanding clause (i), a public housing agency may terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, or an owner or manager may bifurcate a lease under this section, in order to evict, remove, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant; (iii) nothing in clause (i) may be construed to limit the authority of a public housing agency, owner, or manager, when notified, to honor court orders addressing rights of access to control of the property, including civil protection orders issued to protect the victim and issued to address the distribution or possession of property among the household members in cases where a family breaks up; (iv) nothing in clause (i) limits any otherwise available authority of an owner or manager to evict or the public housing agency to terminate assistance to a tenant for any violation of a lease not premised on the act or acts of violence in question against the tenant or a member of the tenant’s household, provided that the owner, manager, or public housing agency does not subject an individual who is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking to a more demanding standard than other tenants in determining whether to evict or terminate; (v) nothing in clause (i) may be construed to limit the authority of an owner or manager to evict, or the public housing agency to terminate, assistance to any tenant if the owner, manager, or public housing agency can demonstrate an actual and imminent threat to other tenants or those employed at or providing service to the property if that tenant is not evicted or terminated from assistance; and (vi) nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this section for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking.”

Subsec. (o)(7)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(4)(B)(i), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: “notwithstanding clause (i), a public housing agency may terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, or an owner or manager may bifurcate a lease under this section, in order to evict, remove, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant;”.

Subsec. (o)(7)(D)(iii). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(4)(B)(ii), substituted “access or control” for “access to control”.

Subsec. (o)(7)(D)(v). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(4)(B)(iii), substituted “terminate” for “terminate,”.

Subsec. (o)(19)(B). Pub. L. 109–461 reenacted heading without change and amended text generally, substituting cls. (i) to (v) relating to amounts necessary to provide vouchers for rental assistance for fiscal years 2007 to 2011 for former cls. (i) through (iv) relating to amounts necessary to provide vouchers for rental assistance for fiscal years 2003 to 2006.

Subsec. (o)(20). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(4)(D), added par. (20).

Subsec. (o)(20)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(4)(C), substituted “distribution or” for “distribution”.

Subsec. (r)(5). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(5), inserted “, except that a family may receive a voucher from a public housing agency and move to another jurisdiction under the tenant-based assistance program if the family has complied with all other obligations of the section 8 program and has moved out of the assisted dwelling unit in order to protect the health or safety of an individual who is or has been the victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking and who reasonably believed he or she was imminently threatened by harm from further violence if he or she remained in the assisted dwelling unit” before period at end.

Subsec. (ee). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(6), added subsec. (ee).

Subsec. (ee)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(5)(A), substituted “the individual receives a request for such certification from the owner, manager, or public housing agency” for “the owner, manager, or public housing agency requests such certification”.

Subsec. (ee)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(5)(B), substituted “the individual has received a request in writing for such certification for the owner, manager, or public housing agency” for “the owner, manager, public housing agency, or assisted housing provider has requested such certification in writing” and “The owner, manager or public housing” for “The owner, manager, public housing” and struck out “, or assisted housing provider” before “may extend the 14-day deadline”.

Subsec. (ee)(1)(C)(i). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(5)(C), struck out “sexual assault,” after “addressing domestic violence, dating violence,”.

Subsec. (ee)(1)(D). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(5)(D), struck out “sexual assault,” after “dating violence,”.

Subsec. (ee)(1)(E). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(5)(E)(ii), struck out “, or assisted housing provider” in two places after “public housing agency”.

Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(5)(E)(i), which directed the substitution of “manager or public housing” for “manager, public housing” wherever appearing, was executed by making the substitution for “manager, public housing” and “manger, public housing”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2002—Subsec. (t)(2). Pub. L. 107–116 inserted “(including any such mortgage prepayment during fiscal year 1996 or a fiscal year thereafter or any insurance contract voluntary termination during fiscal year 1996 or a fiscal year thereafter)” after “insurance contract for the mortgage for such housing project”.

2001—Subsec. (o)(19). Pub. L. 107–95 added par. (19).

2000—Subsec. (o)(13). Pub. L. 106–377, § 1(a)(1) [title II, § 232(a)], reenacted heading without change and amended text generally, substituting subpars. (A) to (K) providing for funding percentage limitation, consistency of contracts with public housing agency plan and goals, income mixing requirement, resident choice requirement, contract term and its extension, rent calculation and adjustments, tenant selection, and vacated units for former subpars. (A) to (D) providing for extension of contract term, rent calculation, and adjusted rents.

Subsec. (t)(1)(B). Pub. L. 106–569, § 903(a), inserted before semicolon at end “, except that a limit shall not be considered reasonable for purposes of this subparagraph if it adversely affects such assisted families”.

Pub. L. 106–377, § 1(a)(1) [title II, § 205], inserted “and any other reasonable limit prescribed by the Secretary” before semicolon at end.

Pub. L. 106–246, which directed the substitution of “the assisted family may elect to remain in the same project in which the family was residing on the date of the eligibility event for the project, and if, during any period the family makes such an election and continues to so reside,” for “during any period that the assisted family continues residing in the same project in which the family was residing on the date of the eligibility event for the project, if” in section 538 of Pub. L. 106–74, was executed by making the substitution in subsec. (t)(1)(B) of this section, which was enacted by section 538 of Pub. L. 106–74, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (t)(2). Pub. L. 106–569, § 902(a), substituted “fiscal year 1994” for “fiscal year 1996”.

Pub. L. 106–377, § 1(a)(1) [title II, § 228], inserted “(including any such termination or expiration during fiscal years after fiscal year 1996 prior to the effective date of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 2001)” after “contract for rental assistance under this section for such housing project”.

Subsec. (x)(2). Pub. L. 106–377, § 1(a)(1) [title II, § 234], substituted “(A) any family (i) who is otherwise eligible for such assistance, and (ii)” for “any family (A) who is otherwise eligible for such assistance, and (B)” and inserted before period at end “and (B) for a period not to exceed 18 months, otherwise eligible youths who have attained at least 18 years of age and not more than 21 years of age and who have left foster care at age 16 or older”.

Subsec. (y)(7), (8). Pub. L. 106–569, § 301(a), added par. (7) and redesignated former par. (7) as (8).

1999—Subsec. (c)(8)(A). Pub. L. 106–74, § 535(1), substituted “termination of” for “terminating” after “Not less than one year before” and “. The notice shall also include a statement that, if the Congress makes funds available, the owner and the Secretary may agree to a renewal of the contract, thus avoiding termination, and that in the event of termination the Department of Housing and Urban Development will provide tenant-based rental assistance to all eligible residents, enabling them to choose the place they wish to rent, which is likely to include the dwelling unit in which they currently reside. Any contract covered by this paragraph that is renewed may be renewed for a period of up to 1 year or any number or years, with payments subject to the availability of appropriations for any year.” for “, specifying the reasons for the termination with sufficient detail to enable the Secretary to evaluate whether the termination is lawful and whether there are additional actions that can be taken by the Secretary to avoid the termination. The owner’s notice shall include a statement that the owner and the Secretary may agree to a renewal of the contract, thus avoiding the termination.”

Subsec. (c)(8)(B). Pub. L. 106–74, § 535(2), (4), redesignated subpar. (C) as (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: “In the case of owner who has requested that the Secretary renew the contract, the owner’s notice under subparagraph (A) to the tenants shall include statements that—

“(i) the owner currently has a contract with the Department of Housing and Urban Development that pays the Government’s share of the tenant’s rent and the date on which the contract will expire;

“(ii) the owner intends to renew the contract for another year;

“(iii) renewal of the contract may depend upon the Congress making funds available for such renewal;

“(iv) the owner is required by law to notify tenants of the possibility that the contract may not be renewed if Congress does not provide funding for such renewals;

“(v) in the event of nonrenewal, the Department of Housing and Urban Development will provide tenant-based rental assistance to all eligible residents, enabling them to choose the place they wish to rent; and

“(vi) the notice itself does not indicate an intent to terminate the contract by either the owner or the Department of Housing and Urban Development, provided there is Congressional approval of funding availability.”

Subsec. (c)(8)(C). Pub. L. 106–74, § 535(4), redesignated subpar. (D) as (C). Former subpar. (C) redesignated (B).

Pub. L. 106–74, § 535(3), struck out “Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this paragraph, if the owner agrees to a 5-year contract renewal offered by the Secretary, payments under which shall be subject to the availability of appropriations for any year, the owner shall provide a written notice to the Secretary and the tenants not less than 180 days before the termination of such contract.” after “(C)” and “in the immediately preceding sentence” before “, the owner may not evict the tenants”, struck out “180-day” before “notice” in two places, and substituted “1 year has elapsed” for “such period has elapsed” and “1 year of advance notice” for “180 days of advance notice”.

Subsec. (c)(8)(D), (E). Pub. L. 106–74, § 535(4), redesignated subpars. (D) and (E) as (C) and (D), respectively.

Subsec. (o)(18). Pub. L. 106–74, § 523(a), added par. (18).

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 106–74, § 538(a), added subsec. (t).

Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 106–74, § 531(d)(1), designated sentence enacted by Pub. L. 104–99, § 405(c), as subsec. (v).

Subsec. (w). Pub. L. 106–74, § 531(d)(2), struck out heading and text of subsec. (w). Text read as follows: “Not later than 30 days after the beginning of each fiscal year, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a plan for reducing, to the extent feasible, year-to-year fluctuations in the levels of budget authority that will be required over the succeeding 5-year period to renew expiring rental assistance contracts entered into under this section since August 22, 1974. To the extent necessary to carry out such plan and to the extent approved in appropriations Acts, the Secretary is authorized to enter into annual contributions contracts with terms of less than 60 months.”

Subsec. (z)(1). Pub. L. 106–74, § 223(1), in introductory provisions, inserted “expiration or” after “on account of” and struck out “(other than a contract for tenant-based assistance)” after “payments contract”.

Subsec. (z)(3). Pub. L. 106–74, § 223(2), struck out heading and text of par. (3). Text read as follows: “This subsection shall be effective for actions initiated by the Secretary on or before September 30, 1995.”

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(1), struck out at end “A public housing agency may contract to make assistance payments to itself (or any agency or instrumentality thereof) as the owner of dwelling units if such agency is subject to the same program requirements as are applied to other owners. In such cases, the Secretary may establish initial rents within applicable limits.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(2), substituted “Other” for “Rental certificates and other” in subsec. heading, inserted par. (1) designation and heading, and struck out after first sentence “The Secretary shall enter into a separate annual contributions contract with each public housing agency to obligate the authority approved each year, beginning with the authority approved in appropriations Acts for fiscal year 1988 (other than amendment authority to increase assistance payments being made using authority approved prior to the appropriations Acts for fiscal year 1988), and such annual contributions contract (other than for annual contributions under subsection (o) of this section) shall bind the Secretary to make such authority, and any amendments increasing such authority, available to the public housing agency for a specified period.”

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(3)(A), struck out “(A)” after par. designation, and struck out subpar. (B), which authorized payment of higher percentage of income as rent than that specified under section 1437a(a) of this title if family receiving tenant-based rental assistance notified public housing agency of its interest in a unit renting for an excess rent and agency determined that the rent was reasonable, and set forth provisions which limited agency approval of such excess rentals to 10 percent of annual allocation, required report to Secretary where such rentals exceeded 5 percent of allocation, and required Secretary to report to Congress annually on agencies which had submitted such reports and include recommendations deemed appropriate to correct problems identified in reports.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(3)(B), struck out “or by a family that qualifies to receive assistance under subsection (b) of this section pursuant to section 223 or 226 of the Low-Income Housing Preservation and Resident Homeownership Act of 1990” after “such dwelling unit” in first sentence.

Subsec. (c)(5), (6). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(3)(C), (D), redesignated par. (6) as (5) and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: “Assistance payments may be made with respect to up to 100 per centum of the dwelling units in any structure upon the application of the owner or prospective owner. Within the category of projects containing more than fifty units and designed for use primarily by nonelderly and nonhandicapped persons which are not subject to mortgages purchased under section 305 of the National Housing Act, the Secretary may give preference to applications for assistance involving not more than 20 per centum of the dwelling units in a project. In according any such preference, the Secretary shall compare applications received during distinct time periods not exceeding sixty days in duration.”

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(3)(C), struck out par. (7) which read as follows: “To the extent authorized in contracts entered into by the Secretary with a public housing agency, such agency may purchase any structure containing one or more dwelling units assisted under this section for the purpose of reselling the structure to the tenant or tenants occupying units aggregating in value at least 80 per centum of the structure’s total value. Any such resale may be made on the terms and conditions prescribed under section 1437c(h) of this title and subject to the limitation contained in such section.”

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 105–276, § 549(b), redesignated par. (9) as (8)(A) and substituted subpars. (B) to (E) for “The Secretary shall review the owner’s notice, shall consider whether there are additional actions that can be taken by the Secretary to avoid the termination, and shall ensure a proper adjustment of the contract rents for the project in conformity with the requirements of paragraph (2). The Secretary shall issue a written finding of the legality of the termination and the reasons for the termination, including the actions considered or taken to avoid the termination. Within 30 days of the Secretary’s finding, the owner shall provide written notice to each tenant of the Secretary’s decision. For purposes of this paragraph, the term ‘termination’ means the expiration of the assistance contract or an owner’s refusal to renew the assistance contract, and such term shall include termination of the contract for business reasons.”

Pub. L. 105–276, § 549(a)(1)(A), struck out par. (8) which read as follows: “Each contract under this section shall provide that the owner will notify tenants at least 90 days prior to the expiration of the contract of any rent increase which may occur as a result of the expiration of such contract.”

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 105–276, § 549(b)(1), redesignated par. (9) as (8)(A).

Pub. L. 105–276, § 549(a)(1)(B), substituted “Not less than one year before terminating any contract under which assistance payments are received under this section, other than a contract for tenant-based assistance under this section, an owner shall provide written notice to the Secretary and the tenants involved of the proposed termination, specifying the reasons for the termination with sufficient detail to enable the Secretary to evaluate whether the termination is lawful and whether there are additional actions that can be taken by the Secretary to avoid the termination.” for “Not less than 180 days prior to terminating any contract under which assistance payments are received under this section (but not less than 90 days in the case of housing certificates or vouchers under subsection (b) or (o) of this section), an owner shall provide written notice to the Secretary and the tenants involved of the proposed termination, specifying the reasons for the termination with sufficient detail to enable the Secretary to evaluate whether the termination is lawful and whether there are additional actions that can be taken by the Secretary to avoid the termination.”

Subsec. (c)(10). Pub. L. 105–276, § 549(a)(1)(A), struck out par. (10) which read as follows: “If an owner provides notice of proposed termination under paragraph (9) and the contract rent is lower than the maximum monthly rent for units assisted under subsection (b)(1) of this section, the Secretary shall adjust the contract rent based on the maximum monthly rent for units assisted under subsection (b)(1) of this section and the value of the low-income housing after rehabilitation.”

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, § 514(b)(1), amended subpar. (A) generally. For former text of subpar. (A), see 1996 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 105–276, § 549(a)(2)(A), substituted “during the term of the lease, the owner” for “the owner”.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 105–276, § 549(a)(2)(B), substituted “during the term of the lease, any criminal activity” for “provide that any criminal activity”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(4)(A), struck out at end “Where the Secretary enters into an annual contributions contract with a public housing agency pursuant to which the agency will enter into a contract for assistance payments with respect to an existing structure, the contract for assistance payments may not be attached to the structure unless (i) the Secretary and the public housing agency approve such action, and (ii) the owner agrees to rehabilitate the structure other than with assistance under this chapter and otherwise complies with the requirements of this section, except that the Secretary shall permit the public housing agency to approve such attachment with respect to not more than 15 percent of the assistance provided by the public housing agency if the requirements of clause (ii) are met. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a public housing agency and an applicable State agency may, on a priority basis, attach to structures not more than an additional 15 percent of the assistance provided by the public housing agency or the applicable State agency only with respect to projects assisted under a State program that permits the owner of the projects to prepay a State assisted or subsidized mortgage on the structure, except that attachment of assistance under this sentence shall be for the purpose of (i) providing incentives to owners to preserve such projects for occupancy by lower and moderate income families (for the period that assistance under this sentence is available), and (ii) to assist lower income tenants to afford any increases in rent that may be required to induce the owner to maintain occupancy in the project by lower and moderate income tenants. Any assistance provided to lower income tenants under the preceding sentence shall not be considered for purposes of the limitation under paragraph (1)(A) regarding the percentage of families that may receive assistance under this section who do not qualify for preferences under such paragraph.”

Subsec. (d)(2)(B) to (G). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(4)(C), redesignated subpars. (F) to (H) as (B) to (D), respectively, and struck out former subpars. (B) to (E). Prior to repeal, former subpar. (B) required the Secretary to permit a public housing agency to approve attachment of assistance with respect to any newly constructed structure if certain conditions were met, former subpar. (C) required a public housing agency to enter into a contract with an owner of a structure to which a contract for assistance was attached under this par. to provide for renewal of expiring assistance payment contracts, former subpar. (D) required owners of structures to which a contract for assistance was attached to adopt certain tenant selection procedures, and former subpar. (E) required the Secretary to annually survey public housing agencies to determine which have reached certain limitations in providing assistance and to report the survey results to Congress.

Subsec. (d)(2)(H). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(4)(C), redesignated subpar. (H) as (D).

Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(4)(B), substituted “An owner” for “Notwithstanding subsection (d)(1)(A)(i) of this section, an owner”.

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 105–276, § 552, added par. (6).

Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 105–276, § 545(b), inserted “or (o)(13)” after “(d)(2)”.

Subsec. (f)(7). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(5), struck out “(b) or” after “under subsection” and inserted before period at end “and that provides for the eligible family to select suitable housing and to move to other suitable housing”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–276, § 565(c), which directed insertion of “(except as provided in section 1437d(j)(3) of this title)” after “section 1437d of this title”, was executed by making the insertion after “Sections 1437c(e) and 1437d of this title”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(6), struck out subsec. (j), which authorized contracts for making rental assistance payments on behalf of low-income families utilizing manufactured homes as principal places of residence, directed that contract establish maximum monthly rent permitted with respect to home and real property on which it was located and provided formula for calculating amount of monthly assistance, provided for adjustments, set forth minimum and maximum terms, in the case of substantially rehabilitated or newly constructed park, provided limit on principal amount of mortgage attributable to rental spaces within park, and authorized Secretary to prescribe other terms and conditions necessary for purpose of carrying out subsection.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(7), struck out subsec. (n) which read as follows: “In making assistance available under subsections (b)(1) and (e)(2) of this section, the Secretary may provide assistance with respect to residential properties in which some or all of the dwelling units do not contain bathroom or kitchen facilities, if—

“(1) the property is located in an area in which there is a significant demand for such units, as determined by the Secretary;

“(2) the unit of general local government in which the property is located and the local public housing agency approve of such units being utilized for such purpose; and

“(3) in the case of assistance under subsection (b)(1) of this section, the unit of general local government in which the property is located and the local public housing agency certify to the Secretary that the property complies with local health and safety standards.

The Secretary may waive, in appropriate cases, the limitation and preference described in the second and third sentences of section 1437a(b)(3) of this title with respect to the assistance made available under this subsection.”

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 105–276, § 545(a), amended subsec. (o) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (o) contained provisions relating to assistance using a payment standard based upon fair market rental, categories of families eligible for assistance and preferences, contracts with public housing agencies for annual contributions, annual adjustments of assistance payment amounts, assistance with respect to certain cooperative and mutual housing, contracts to provide rental vouchers, set asides of budget authority for an adjustment pool, reasonable rent requirements and disapproval of leases with unreasonable rents, and assistance on behalf of families utilizing manufactured homes as principal places of residence.

Subsec. (o)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, § 209(a), inserted at end “Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, for families being admitted to the voucher program who remain in the same unit or complex, where the rent (including the amount allowed for utilities) does not exceed the payment standard, the monthly assistance payment for any family shall be the amount by which such rent exceeds the greater of 30 percent of the family’s monthly adjusted income or 10 percent of the family’s monthly income.” Notwithstanding sections 209(b) and 503 of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as Effective Date of 1998 Amendment notes below and under section 1437 of this title, this amendment was executed before the amendment by section 545(a) of Pub. L. 105–276 to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the provisions of section 545(c) of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as an Effective Date of 1998 Amendment note below, and section 559 of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as a Regulations note below.

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 105–276, § 547, amended subsec. (q) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which authorized establishment of fee for costs incurred in administering certificate and housing voucher programs under subsecs. (b) and (o) of this section, costs of preliminary expenses in connection with new allocations of assistance, costs incurred in assisting families who experienced difficulty in obtaining appropriate housing under the programs, and extraordinary costs; provisions which set forth use of fees for employing one or more service coordinators to coordinate provision of supportive services for elderly or disabled families on whose behalf assistance was provided; and provision which limited establishment or increase of fees to amounts provided in appropriation Acts.

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 105–276, § 553(3), inserted heading, added par. (1), and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “Any family assisted under subsection (b) or (o) of this section may receive such assistance to rent an eligible dwelling unit if the dwelling unit to which the family moves is within the same State, or the same or a contiguous metropolitan statistical area as the metropolitan statistical area within which is located the area of jurisdiction of the public housing agency approving such assistance; except that any family not living within the jurisdiction of a public housing agency at the time that such family applies for assistance from such agency shall, during the 12-month period beginning upon the receipt of any tenant-based rental assistance made available on behalf of the family, use such assistance to rent an eligible dwelling unit located within the jurisdiction served by such public housing agency.”

Subsec. (r)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, § 553(1), struck out at end “If no public housing agency has authority with respect to the dwelling unit to which a family moves under this subsection, the public housing agency approving the assistance shall have such responsibility.”

Subsec. (r)(3). Pub. L. 105–276, § 553(2), struck out “(b) or” before “(o) for” and inserted at end “The Secretary shall establish procedures for the compensation of public housing agencies that issue vouchers to families that move into or out of the jurisdiction of the public housing agency under portability procedures. The Secretary may reserve amounts available for assistance under subsection (o) to compensate those public housing agencies.”

Subsec. (r)(5). Pub. L. 105–276, § 553(5), added par. (5).

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 105–276, § 554, struck out subsec. (t). For text, see 1996 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(8), in pars. (1) and (3), struck out “certificates or” before “vouchers” and, in par. (2), struck out “, certificates” before “or vouchers”.

Subsec. (x)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(9), substituted “tenant-based assistance” for “housing certificate assistance”.

Subsec. (y)(1). Pub. L. 105–276, § 555(a)(1)(A), in introductory provisions, substituted “A public housing agency providing tenant-based assistance on behalf of an eligible family under this section may provide assistance for an eligible family that purchases a dwelling unit (including a unit under a lease-purchase agreement) that will be owned by 1 or more members of the family, and will be occupied by the family, if the family” for “A family receiving tenant-based assistance under this section may receive assistance for occupancy of a dwelling owned by one or more members of the family if the family”.

Subsec. (y)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, § 555(a)(1)(B), inserted “, or owns or is acquiring shares in a cooperative” before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (y)(1)(B). Pub. L. 105–276, § 555(a)(1)(C), struck out cl. (i), redesignated cl. (ii) as entire subpar., and inserted “, except that the Secretary may provide for the consideration of public assistance in the case of an elderly family or a disabled family” after “public assistance”. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows: “participates in the family self-sufficiency program under section 1437u of this title of the public housing agency providing the assistance; or”.

Subsec. (y)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, § 555(a)(2), added par. (2) and struck out heading and text of former par. (2). Text read as follows:

“(A) In general.—Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section governing determination of the amount of assistance payments under this section on behalf of a family, the monthly assistance payment for any family assisted under this subsection shall be the amount by which the fair market rental for the area established under subsection (c)(1) of this section exceeds 30 percent of the family’s monthly adjusted income; except that the monthly assistance payment shall not exceed the amount by which the monthly homeownership expenses, as determined in accordance with requirements established by the Secretary, exceeds 10 percent of the family’s monthly income.

“(B) Exclusion of equity from income.—For purposes of determining the monthly assistance payment for a family, the Secretary shall not include in family income an amount imputed from the equity of the family in a dwelling occupied by the family with assistance under this subsection.”

Subsec. (y)(3), (4). Pub. L. 105–276, § 555(a)(3), added pars. (3) and (4) and struck out former pars. (3) and (4) which read as follows:

“(3) Recapture of certain amounts.—Upon sale of the dwelling by the family, the Secretary shall recapture from any net proceeds the amount of additional assistance (as determined in accordance with requirements established by the Secretary) paid to or on behalf of the eligible family as a result of paragraph (2)(B).

“(4) Downpayment requirement.—Each public housing agency providing assistance under this subsection shall ensure that each family assisted shall provide from its own resources not less than 80 percent of any downpayment in connection with a loan made for the purchase of a dwelling. Such resources may include amounts from any escrow account for the family established under section 1437u(d) of this title. Not more than 20 percent of the downpayment may be provided from other sources, such as from nonprofit entities and programs of States and units of general local government.”

Subsec. (y)(5). Pub. L. 105–276, § 555(a)(3), (4), redesignated par. (6) as (5) and struck out heading and text of former par. (5). Text read as follows: “A family may not receive assistance under this subsection during any period when assistance is being provided for the family under other Federal homeownership assistance programs, as determined by the Secretary, including assistance under the HOME Investment Partnerships Act, the Homeownership and Opportunity Through HOPE Act, title II of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1987, and section 1472 of this title.”

Subsec. (y)(6) to (8). Pub. L. 105–276, § 555(a)(4), redesignated pars. (7) and (8) as (6) and (7), respectively. Former par. (6) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (z). Pub. L. 105–276, § 548(1), made technical amendment relating to placement of subsection.

Subsec. (cc). Pub. L. 105–276, § 548(2), added subsec. (cc).

Subsec. (dd). Pub. L. 105–276, § 556(a), added subsec. (dd).

1997—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–65, §§ 201(c), 205, substituted “fiscal years 1997 and 1998” for “fiscal year 1997” in third and sixth sentences and inserted at end “In establishing annual adjustment factors for units in new construction and substantial rehabilitation projects, the Secretary shall take into account the fact that debt service is a fixed expense. The immediately foregoing sentence shall be effective only during fiscal year 1998.”

Pub. L. 105–33, §§ 2003, 2004, inserted “, and during fiscal year 1999 and thereafter” before period at end of third and sixth sentences.

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 105–18, which directed substitution of “Not less than 180 days prior to terminating any contract” for “Not less than one year prior to terminating any contract”, was executed by making the substitution for “Not less than 1 year prior to terminating any contract” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 105–65, § 523(a), added par. (5).

Subsec. (bb). Pub. L. 105–65, § 523(c), inserted heading, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and former subsec. heading as par. (1) heading, and added par. (2).

1996—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104–204 inserted “, fiscal year 1996 prior to April 26, 1996, and fiscal year 1997” after “fiscal year 1995” in two places, substituted “Except for assistance under the certificate program, for” for “For”, inserted after fourth sentence “In the case of assistance under the certificate program, 0.01 shall be subtracted from the amount of the annual adjustment factor (except that the factor shall not be reduced to less than 1.0), and the adjusted rent shall not exceed the rent for a comparable unassisted unit of similar quality, type, and age in the market area.”, and substituted “The immediately foregoing two sentences” for “The immediately foregoing sentence”.

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 104–134, § 101(e) [title II, § 203(b)(1), (d)], temporarily inserted “(other than a contract for assistance under the certificate or voucher program)” after “section”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below.

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 104–134, § 101(e) [title II, § 203(b)(2), (d)], temporarily substituted “, other than a contract under the certificate or voucher program” for “(but not less than 90 days in the case of housing certificates or vouchers under subsection (b) or (o) of this section)”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–99, § 402(d)(2), (f), temporarily amended subpar. (A) generally, substituting “the selection of tenants shall be the function of the owner, subject to the provisions of the annual contributions contract between the Secretary and the agency, except that for the certificate and moderate rehabilitation programs only, for the purpose of selecting families to be assisted, the public housing agency may establish, after public notice and an opportunity for public comment, a written system of preferences for selection that is not inconsistent with the comprehensive housing affordability strategy under title I of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act;” for “the selection of tenants for such units shall be the function of the owner, subject to the provisions of the annual contributions contract between the Secretary and the agency, except that the tenant selection criteria used by the owner shall—

“(i) for not less than (I) 70 percent of the families who initially receive assistance in any 1-year period in the case of assistance attached to a structure and (II) 90 percent of such families in the case of assistance not attached to a structure, give preference to families that occupy substandard housing (including families that are homeless or living in a shelter for homeless families), are paying more than 50 percent of family income for rent, or are involuntarily displaced (including displacement because of disposition of a multifamily housing project under section 1701z–11 of title 12) at the time they are seeking assistance under this section; except that any family otherwise eligible for assistance under this section may not be denied preference for assistance not attached to a structure (or delayed or otherwise adversely affected in the provision of such assistance) solely because the family resides in public housing;

“(ii) for any remaining assistance in any 1-year period, give preference to families who qualify under a system of local preferences established by the public housing agency in writing and after public hearing to respond to local housing needs and priorities, which may include (I) assisting very low-income families who either reside in transitional housing assisted under title IV of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, or participate in a program designed to provide public assistance recipients with greater access to employment and educational opportunities; (II) assisting families in accordance with subsection (u)(2) of this section; (III) assisting families identified by local public agencies involved in providing for the welfare of children as having a lack of adequate housing that is a primary factor in the imminent placement of a child in foster care, or in preventing the discharge of a child from foster care and reunification with his or her family; (IV) assisting youth, upon discharge from foster care, in cases in which return to the family or extended family or adoption is not available; (V) assisting veterans who are eligible and have applied for assistance, will use the assistance for a dwelling unit designed for the handicapped, and, upon discharge or eligibility for discharge from a hospital or nursing home, have physical disability which, because of the configuration of their homes, prevents them from access to or use of their homes; and (VI) achieving other objectives of national housing policy as affirmed by Congress; and

“(iii) prohibit any individual or family evicted from housing assisted under the chapter by reason of drug-related criminal activity from having a preference under any provision of this subparagraph for 3 years unless the evicted tenant successfully completes a rehabilitation program approved by the agency, except that the agency may waive the application of this clause under standards established by the Secretary (which shall include waiver for any member of a family of an individual prohibited from tenancy under this clause who the agency determines clearly did not participate in and had no knowledge of such criminal activity or when circumstances leading to eviction no longer exist);”.

See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 104–134, § 101(e) [title II, § 203(c), (d)], in cl. (ii) temporarily inserted “during the term of the lease,” after “(ii)” and in cl. (iii) temporarily substituted “during the term of the lease,” for “provide that”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(v). Pub. L. 104–193, § 903(a)(2), added cl. (v).

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104–99, § 402(d)(6)(A)(iii), (f), temporarily struck out at end “Any assistance provided to lower income tenants under the preceding sentence shall not be considered for purposes of the limitation under paragraph (1)(A) regarding the percentage of families that may receive assistance under this section who do not qualify for preferences under such paragraph.” See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below.

Subsec. (d)(2)(H). Pub. L. 104–99, § 402(d)(6)(A)(iv), (f), temporarily substituted “An owner” for “Notwithstanding subsection (d)(1)(A)(i) of this section, an owner”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below.

Subsec. (o)(3)(B). Pub. L. 104–99, § 402(d)(3), (f), temporarily amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “In selecting families to be assisted, preference shall be given to families which, at the time they are seeking assistance, occupy substandard housing (including families that are homeless or living in a shelter for homeless families), are involuntarily displaced (including displacement because of disposition of a multifamily housing project under section 1701z–11 of title 12), or are paying more than 50 per centum of family income for rent. A public housing agency may provide for circumstances in which families who do not qualify for any preference established in the preceding sentence are provided assistance under this subsection before families who do qualify for such preference, except that not more than 10 percent (or such higher percentage determined by the Secretary to be necessary to ensure that public housing agencies can assist families in accordance with subsection (u)(2) of this section or determined by the Secretary to be appropriate for other good cause) of the families who initially receive assistance in any 1-year period (or such shorter period selected by the public housing agency before the beginning of its first full year subject to this sentence) may be families who do not qualify for such preference. The public housing agency shall in implementing the preceding sentence establish a system of preferences in writing and after public hearing to respond to local housing needs and priorities which may include (i) assisting very low-income families who either reside in transitional housing assisted under title IV of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, or participate in a program designed to provide public assistance recipients with greater access to employment and educational opportunities, (ii) assisting families in accordance with subsection (u)(2) of this section; (iii) assisting families identified by local public agencies involved in providing for the welfare of children as having a lack of adequate housing that is a primary factor in the imminent placement of a child in foster care, or in preventing the discharge of a child from foster care and reunification and his or her family; (iv) assisting youth, upon discharge from foster care, in cases in which return to the family or extended family or adoption is not available; (v) assisting veterans who are eligible and have applied for assistance, will use the assistance for a dwelling unit designed for the handicapped, and, upon discharge or eligibility for discharge from a hospital or nursing home, have physical disability which, because of the configuration of their homes, prevents them from access to or use of their homes; and (vi) achieving other objectives of national housing policy as affirmed by Congress. Any individual or family evicted from housing assisted under the chapter by reason of drug-related criminal activity (as defined in subsection (f)(5) of this section) shall not be eligible for a preference under any provision of this subparagraph for 3 years unless the evicted tenant successfully completes a rehabilitation program approved by the Secretary (which shall include waiver for any member of a family of an individual prohibited from tenancy under this clause who the agency determines clearly did not participate in and had no knowledge of such criminal activity or when circumstances leading to eviction no longer exist).” See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below.

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 104–134, § 101(e) [title II, § 203(a), (d)], temporarily repealed subsec. (t) which read as follows:

“(1) No owner who has entered into a contract for housing assistance payments under this section on behalf of any tenant in a multifamily housing project shall refuse—

“(A) to lease any available dwelling unit in any multifamily housing project of such owner that rents for an amount not greater than the fair market rent for a comparable unit, as determined by the Secretary under this section, to a holder of a certificate of eligibility under this section a proximate cause of which is the status of such prospective tenant as a holder of such certificate, and to enter into a housing assistance payments contract respecting such unit; or

“(B) to lease any available dwelling unit in any multifamily housing project of such owner to a holder of a voucher under subsection (o) of this section, and to enter into a voucher contract respecting such unit, a proximate cause of which is the status of such prospective tenant as holder of such voucher.

“(2) For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘multifamily housing project’ means a residential building containing more than 4 dwelling units.” See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below.

Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 104–99, § 405(c), amended subsec. (v) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (v) read as follows:

“(1) The Secretary shall extend any expiring contract entered into under this section for loan management assistance or execute a new contract for project-based loan management assistance, if the owner agrees to continue providing housing for low-income families during the term of the contract.

“(2)(A) The eligiblity of a multifamily residential project for loan management assistance under this section shall be determined without regard to whether the project is subsidized or unsubsidized.

“(B) In allocating loan management assistance under this section, the Secretary may give a priority to any project only on the basis that the project has serious financial problems that are likely to result in a claim on the insurance fund in the near future or the project is eligible to receive incentives under subtitle B of the Low-Income Housing Preservation and Resident Homeownership Act of 1990.”

Subsec. (bb). Pub. L. 104–134, § 101[(e)] [title II, § 208], added subsec. (bb).

1995—Subsec. (z). Pub. L. 104–19 added subsec. (z).

1994—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–327 inserted at end: “However, where the maximum monthly rent, for a unit in a new construction, substantial rehabilitation, or moderate rehabilitation project, to be adjusted using an annual adjustment factor exceeds the fair market rental for an existing dwelling unit in the market area, the Secretary shall adjust the rent only to the extent that the owner demonstrates that the adjusted rent would not exceed the rent for an unassisted unit of similar quality, type, and age in the same market area, as determined by the Secretary. The immediately foregoing sentence shall be effective only during fiscal year 1995. For any unit occupied by the same family at the time of the last annual rental adjustment, where the assistance contract provides for the adjustment of the maximum monthly rent by applying an annual adjustment factor and where the rent for a unit is otherwise eligible for an adjustment based on the full amount of the factor, 0.01 shall be subtracted from the amount of the factor, except that the factor shall not be reduced to less than 1.0. The immediately foregoing sentence shall be effective only during fiscal year 1995.”

Subsec. (d)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 103–233, § 101(c)(2), inserted “(including displacement because of disposition of a multifamily housing project under section 1701z–11 of title 12)” after “displaced”.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 103–327 which directed the amendment of cl. (ii) by striking “and (V)” and inserting in lieu thereof “(V) assisting families that include one or more adult members who are employed; and (VI)”, and inserting after the final semicolon “subclause (V) shall be effective only during fiscal year 1995;”, was not executed because the words “and (V)” did not appear and cl. (ii) already contains subcls. (V) and (VI). See 1992 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 103–233, § 101(d), inserted “an agency of the Federal Government,” after “cooperative,”.

Subsec. (o)(3)(B). Pub. L. 103–233, § 101(c)(3), inserted “(including displacement because of disposition of a multifamily housing project under section 1701z–11 of title 12)” after “displaced”.

Subsec. (aa). Pub. L. 103–327 temporarily added subsec. (aa), “Refinancing incentive”, which read as follows:

“(1) In general.—The Secretary may pay all or a part of the up front costs of refinancing for each project that—

“(A) is constructed, substantially rehabilitated, or moderately rehabilitated under this section;

“(B) is subject to an assistance contract under this section; and

“(C) was subject to a mortgage that has been refinanced under section 223(a)(7) or section 223(f) of the National Housing Act to lower the periodic debt service payments of the owner.

“(2) Share from reduced assistance payments.—The Secretary may pay the up front cost of refinancing only—

“(A) to the extent that funds accrue to the Secretary from the reduced assistance payments that results from the refinancing; and

“(B) after the application of amounts in accordance with section 1012 of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Amendments Act of 1988.”

See Effective and Termination Dates of 1994 Amendment note below.

1992—Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–550, § 1012(g), inserted at end “The Secretary may (at the discretion of the Secretary and subject to the availability of appropriations for contract amendments), on a project by project basis for projects receiving project-based assistance, provide adjustments to the maximum monthly rents to cover the costs of evaluating and reducing lead-based paint hazards, as defined in section 4851b of this title.”

Pub. L. 102–550, § 142, inserted after first sentence “The Secretary shall make additional adjustments in the maximum monthly rent for units under contract (subject to the availability of appropriations for contract amendments) to the extent the Secretary determines such adjustments are necessary to reflect increases in the actual and necessary expenses of owning and maintaining the units that have resulted from the expiration of a real property tax exemption.”

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 102–550, § 141(a), inserted “or by a family that qualifies to receive assistance under subsection (b) of this section pursuant to section 223 or 226 of the Low-Income Housing Preservation and Resident Homeownership Act of 1990” after first comma in first sentence.

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 102–550, § 143, inserted before period at end “, and such term shall include termination of the contract for business reasons”.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A)(ii)(V), (VI). Pub. L. 102–550, § 144(a), added subcl. (V) and redesignated former subcl. (V) as (VI).

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 102–550, § 145, inserted “, any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of their residences by persons residing in the immediate vicinity of the premises,” before “or any drug-related” and substituted “tenant of any unit” for “public housing tenant”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(F). Pub. L. 102–550, § 674, added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (d)(2)(G), (H). Pub. L. 102–550, § 682(b), added subpars. (G) and (H).

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 102–550, § 660, added par. (4).

Subsec. (f)(6), (7). Pub. L. 102–550, § 146, added pars. (6) and (7).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 102–550, § 623(b), added subsec. (i).

Subsec. (o)(3)(A). Pub. L. 102–550, § 141(b), struck out “or” before “(iv)” and inserted before period at end “, or” and cl. (v).

Subsec. (o)(3)(B)(v), (vi). Pub. L. 102–550, § 144(b), in third sentence, added cl. (v) and redesignated former cl. (v) as (vi).

Subsec. (q)(3), (4). Pub. L. 102–550, § 675, added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

Subsec. (r)(1). Pub. L. 102–550, § 147, inserted before period at end “; except that any family not living within the jurisdiction of a public housing agency at the time that such family applies for assistance from such agency shall, during the 12-month period beginning upon the receipt of any tenant-based rental assistance made available on behalf of the family, use such assistance to rent an eligible dwelling unit located within the jurisdiction served by such public housing agency”.

Subsec. (x)(1). Pub. L. 102–550, § 148, amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “The budget authority available under section 1437c(c) of this title for assistance under subsection (b) of this section is authorized to be increased by $35,000,000 on or after October 1, 1990, by $35,000,000 on or after October 1, 1991.”

Subsec. (y). Pub. L. 102–550, § 185(a), added subsec. (y).

1991—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 102–139 inserted provisions relating to separate fair market rentals for Monroe County, Pennsylvania.

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–625, § 572(1), which directed the substitution of “low-income families” for “lower income families”, was executed by making the substitution for “lower-income families” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 101–625, § 548(b), inserted at end “A public housing agency may contract to make assistance payments to itself (or any agency or instrumentality thereof) as the owner of dwelling units if such agency is subject to the same program requirements as are applied to other owners. In such cases, the Secretary may establish initial rents within applicable limits.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–625, § 541(a), inserted heading and struck out par. (1) designation preceding text.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–625, § 413(b)(1), added par. (2).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–625, § 543(b), inserted “(A)” after second reference to “fair market rental” and substituted “a housing strategy as defined in section 12705 of this title, or (B) by such higher amount as may be requested by a tenant and approved by the public housing agency in accordance with paragraph (3)(B).” for “a local housing assistance plan as defined in section 1439(a)(5) of this title.”

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 101–625, § 542, inserted at end “Where the Secretary determines that a project assisted under this section is located in a community where drug-related criminal activity is generally prevalent and the project’s operating, maintenance, and capital repair expenses have been substantially increased primarily as a result of the prevalence of such drug-related activity, the Secretary may (at the discretion of the Secretary and subject to the availability of appropriations for contract amendments for this purpose), on a project by project basis, provide adjustments to the maximum monthly rents, to a level no greater than 120 percent of the project rents, to cover the costs of maintenance, security, capital repairs, and reserves required for the owner to carry out a strategy acceptable to the Secretary for addressing the problem of drug-related criminal activity. Any rent comparability standard required under this paragraph may be waived by the Secretary to so implement the preceding sentence.”

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 101–625, § 543(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 101–625, § 544, inserted after first sentence “The owner’s notice shall include a statement that the owner and the Secretary may agree to a renewal of the contract, thus avoiding the termination.” and inserted at end “Within 30 days of the Secretary’s finding, the owner shall provide written notice to each tenant of the Secretary’s decision.”

Subsec. (c)(10). Pub. L. 101–625, § 572(2), substituted “low-income housing” for “lower income housing”.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 101–625, § 545(a), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “the selection of tenants for such unit shall be the function of the owner, subject to the provisions of the annual contributions contract between the Secretary and the agency, except that (i) the tenant selection criteria used by the owner shall give preference to families which occupy substandard housing, are paying more than 50 per centum of family income for rent, or are involuntarily displaced at the time they are seeking assistance under this section; and (ii) the public housing agency may provide for circumstances in which families who do not qualify for any preference established in clause (i) are provided assistance before families who do qualify for such preference, except that not more than 10 percent (or such higher percentage determined by the Secretary to be necessary to ensure that public housing agencies can assist families in accordance with subsection (u)(2) of this section or determined by the Secretary to be appropriate for other good cause) of the families who initially receive assistance in any 1-year period (or such shorter period selected by the public housing agency before the beginning of its first full year subject to this clause) may be families who do not qualify for such preference;”.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(iii), (iv). Pub. L. 101–625, § 546, added cls. (iii) and (iv).

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–625, § 552(b), inserted after first sentence “The Secretary shall permit public housing agencies to enter into contracts for assistance payments of less than 12 months duration in order to avoid disruption in assistance to eligible families if the annual contributions contract is within 1 year of its expiration date.”

Pub. L. 101–625, § 613(a)(1), inserted at end “Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a public housing agency and an applicable State agency may, on a priority basis, attach to structures not more than an additional 15 percent of the assistance provided by the public housing agency or the applicable State agency only with respect to projects assisted under a State program that permits the owner of the projects to prepay a State assisted or subsidized mortgage on the structure, except that attachment of assistance under this sentence shall be for the purpose of (i) providing incentives to owners to preserve such projects for occupancy by lower and moderate income families (for the period that assistance under this sentence is available), and (ii) to assist lower income tenants to afford any increases in rent that may be required to induce the owner to maintain occupancy in the project by lower and moderate income tenants. Any assistance provided to lower income tenants under the preceding sentence shall not be considered for purposes of the limitation under paragraph (1)(A) regarding the percentage of families that may receive assistance under this section who do not qualify for preferences under such paragraph.”

Subsec. (d)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–625, § 613(a)(2), inserted at end “To the extent assistance is used as provided in the penultimate sentence of subparagraph (A), the contract for assistance may, at the option of the public housing agency, have an initial term not exceeding 15 years.”

Pub. L. 101–625, § 547(c), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: “Any contract for assistance payments that is attached to a structure under this paragraph shall (at the option of the public housing agency but subject to available funds) be renewable for 2 additional 5-year terms, except that the aggregate term of the initial contract and renewals shall not exceed 15 years.”

Subsec. (d)(2)(D), (E). Pub. L. 101–625, § 547(a), (b), added subpars. (D) and (E).

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 101–625, § 289(b), struck out par. (2) which read as follows: “For the purpose of upgrading and thereby preserving the Nation’s housing stock, the Secretary is authorized to make assistance payments under this section directly or through public housing agencies pursuant to contracts with owners or prospective owners who agree to upgrade housing so as to make and keep such housing decent, safe, and sanitary through upgrading which involves less than substantial rehabilitation, as such upgrading and rehabilitation are defined by the Secretary, and which shall involve a minimum expenditure of $3,000 for a unit, including its prorated share of work to be accomplished on common areas or systems. The Secretary is authorized to prescribe such terms and conditions for contracts entered into under this section pursuant to this paragraph as the Secretary determines to be necessary and appropriate, except that such terms and conditions, to the maximum extent feasible, shall be consistent with terms and conditions otherwise applicable with respect to other dwelling units assisted under this section. Notwithstanding subsection (c)(1) of this section, the Secretary may, in carrying out the preceding sentence, establish a maximum monthly rent (for units upgraded pursuant to this paragraph) which exceeds the fair market rental by not more than 20 per centum if such units are located in an area where the Secretary finds cost levels so require, except that the Secretary may approve maximum monthly rents which exceed the fair market rentals by more than 20 but not more than 30 per centum where the Secretary determines that special circumstances warrant such higher rent or where necessary to the implementation of a local housing assistance plan. The Secretary is also authorized to make assistance available under this section pursuant to this paragraph to any unit in a housing project which, on an overall basis, reflects the need for such upgrading. The Secretary shall increase the amount of assistance provided under this paragraph above the amount of assistance otherwise permitted by this paragraph and subsection (c)(1) of this section, if the Secretary determines such increase necessary to assist in the sale of multifamily housing projects owned by the Department of Housing and Urban Development. In order to maximize the availability of low-income housing, in providing assistance under this paragraph, the Secretary shall include in any calculation or determination regarding the amount of the assistance to be made available the extent to which any proceeds are available from any tax credits provided under section 42 of title 26 (or from any syndication of such credits) with respect to the housing. For each fiscal year, the Secretary may not provide assistance pursuant to this paragraph to any project for rehabilitation of more than 100 units. Assistance pursuant to this paragraph shall be allocated according to the formula established pursuant to section 1439(d) of this title, and awarded pursuant to a competition under such section. The Secretary shall maintain a single listing of any assistance provided pursuant to this paragraph, which shall include a statement identifying the owner and location of the project to which assistance was made, the amount of the assistance, and the number of units assisted.”

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 101–625, § 548(a), substituted “dwelling units” for “newly constructed or substantially rehabilitated dwelling units as described in this section”.

Subsec. (f)(4), (5). Pub. L. 101–625, § 549, added pars. (4) and (5).

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 101–625, § 572(1), substituted “low-income families” for “lower income families” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 101–625, § 541(b), inserted heading.

Subsec. (o)(3). Pub. L. 101–625, § 545(2)[(b)], inserted “(A)” after “(3)”, redesignated former cls. (A) to (D) as cls. (i) to (iv), respectively, inserted “(B)” before “In selecting families”, “(including families that are homeless or living in a shelter for homeless families)” after “substandard housing”, and inserted at end “The public housing agency shall in implementing the preceding sentence establish a system of preferences in writing and after public hearing to respond to local housing needs and priorities which may include (i) assisting very low-income families who either reside in transitional housing assisted under title IV of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, or participate in a program designed to provide public assistance recipients with greater access to employment and educational opportunities, (ii) assisting families in accordance with subsection (u)(2) of this section; (iii) assisting families identified by local public agencies involved in providing for the welfare of children as having a lack of adequate housing that is a primary factor in the imminent placement of a child in foster care, or in preventing the discharge of a child from foster care and reunification and his or her family; (iv) assisting youth, upon discharge from foster care, in cases in which return to the family or extended family or adoption is not available; and (v) achieving other objectives of national housing policy as affirmed by Congress. Any individual or family evicted from housing assisted under the chapter by reason of drug-related criminal activity (as defined in subsection (f)(5) of this section) shall not be eligible for a preference under any provision of this subparagraph for 3 years unless the evicted tenant successfully completes a rehabilitation program approved by the Secretary (which shall include waiver for any member of a family of an individual prohibited from tenancy under this clause who the agency determines clearly did not participate in and had no knowledge of such criminal activity or when circumstances leading to eviction no longer exist).”

Pub. L. 101–625, § 413(a), added cl. (D).

Subsec. (o)(7). Pub. L. 101–625, § 572(1), substituted “low-income families” for “lower income families”.

Subsec. (o)(9). Pub. L. 101–625, § 413(b)(2), added par. (9).

Subsec. (o)(10), (11). Pub. L. 101–625, § 550(a), (c), added pars. (10) and (11).

Subsec. (r)(1). Pub. L. 101–625, § 551, substituted “the same State, or the same or a contiguous” for “the same, or a contiguous,”.

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 101–625, § 572(1), substituted “low-income families” for “lower income families” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (v)(1). Pub. L. 101–625, § 572(1), substituted “low-income families” for “lower income families”.

Subsec. (v)(2)(B). Pub. L. 101–625, § 603, which directed the substitution of “Low-Income Housing Preservation and Resident Homeownership Act of 1990” for “Emergency Low Income Housing Preservation Act of 1987” in section “89(v)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937”, was executed to subsec. (v)(2)(B) of this section (section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsecs. (w), (x). Pub. L. 101–625, §§ 552(a), 553, added subsecs. (w) and (x).

1989—Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–235, § 702(g), substituted “quality, type, and age” for “quality and age”.

Pub. L. 101–235, § 702(c), inserted after first sentence “In implementing the limitation established under the preceding sentence, the Secretary shall establish regulations for conducting comparability studies for projects where the Secretary has reason to believe that the application of the formula adjustments under subparagraph (A) would result in such material differences. The Secretary shall conduct such studies upon the request of any owner of any project, or as the Secretary determines to be appropriate by establishing, to the extent practicable, a modified annual adjustment factor for such market area, as the Secretary shall designate, that is geographically smaller than the applicable housing area used for the establishment of the annual adjustment factor under subparagraph (A). The Secretary shall establish such modified annual adjustment factor on the basis of the results of a study conducted by the Secretary of the rents charged, and any change in such rents over the previous year, for assisted units and unassisted units of similar quality, type, and age in the smaller market area. Where the Secretary determines that such modified annual adjustment factor cannot be established or that such factor when applied to a particular project would result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted units and unassisted units of similar quality, type, and age in the same market area, the Secretary may apply an alternative methodology for conducting comparability studies in order to establish rents that are not materially different from rents charged for comparable unassisted units.”

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 101–235, § 127(1), inserted before period at end of first sentence “, and which shall involve a minimum expenditure of $3,000 for a unit, including its prorated share of work to be accomplished on common areas or systems”.

Pub. L. 101–235, § 127(2), (3), inserted at end “In order to maximize the availability of low-income housing, in providing assistance under this paragraph, the Secretary shall include in any calculation or determination regarding the amount of the assistance to be made available the extent to which any proceeds are available from any tax credits provided under section 42 of title 26 (or from any syndication of such credits) with respect to the housing. For each fiscal year, the Secretary may not provide assistance pursuant to this paragraph to any project for rehabilitation of more than 100 units. Assistance pursuant to this paragraph shall be allocated according to the formula established pursuant to section 1439(d) of this title, and awarded pursuant to a competition under such section. The Secretary shall maintain a single listing of any assistance provided pursuant to this paragraph, which shall include a statement identifying the owner and location of the project to which assistance was made, the amount of the assistance, and the number of units assisted.”

1988—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–242, § 141, inserted provisions at end authorizing Secretary to enter into separate contributions contracts with each public housing agency to obligate authority approved each year, beginning with fiscal year 1988.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–242, § 142(a), inserted before last sentence “Each fair market rental in effect under this subsection shall be adjusted to be effective on October 1 of each year to reflect changes, based on the most recent available data trended so the rentals will be current for the year to which they apply, of rents for existing or newly constructed rental dwelling units, as the case may be, of various sizes and types in the market area suitable for occupancy by persons assisted under this section.”

Pub. L. 100–242, § 142(b), inserted at end “The Secretary shall establish separate fair market rentals under this paragraph for Westchester County in the State of New York.”

Pub. L. 100–242, § 142(c)(1), inserted at end “If units assisted under this section are exempt from local rent control while they are so assisted or otherwise, the maximum monthly rent for such units shall be reasonable in comparison with other units in the market area that are exempt from local rent control.”

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 100–628, § 1004(a)(1), substituted “under subparagraphs (A) and (B)” for “as hereinbefore provided”.

Pub. L. 100–628, § 1004(a)(2), inserted at end “Any maximum monthly rent that has been reduced by the Secretary after April 14, 1987, and prior to November 7, 1988, shall be restored to the maximum monthly rent in effect on April 15, 1987. For any project which has had its maximum monthly rents reduced after April 14, 1987, the Secretary shall make assistance payments (from amounts reserved for the original contract) to the owner of such project in an amount equal to the difference between the maximum monthly rents in effect on April 15, 1987, and the reduced maximum monthly rents, multiplied by the number of months that the reduced maximum monthly rents were in effect.”

Pub. L. 100–242, § 142(c)(2), substituted “assisted units and unassisted units of similar quality and age in the same market area” for “assisted and comparable unassisted units” and inserted at end “If the Secretary or appropriate State agency does not complete and submit to the project owner a comparability study not later than 60 days before the anniversary date of the assistance contract under this section, the automatic annual adjustment factor shall be applied.”

Pub. L. 100–242, § 142(d), inserted at end “The Secretary may not reduce the contract rents in effect on or after April 15, 1987, for newly constructed, substantially rehabilitated, or moderately rehabilitated projects assisted under this section (including projects assisted under this section as in effect prior to November 30, 1983), unless the project has been refinanced in a manner that reduces the periodic payments of the owner.”

Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 100–242, § 142(e), struck out subpar. (D) which read as follows: “Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Secretary shall limit increases in contract rents for newly constructed or substantially rehabilitated projects assisted under this section to the amount of operating cost increases incurred with respect to comparable rental dwelling units of various sizes and types in the same market area which are suitable for occupancy by families assisted under this section. Where no comparable dwelling units exist in the same market area, the Secretary shall have authority to approve such increases in accordance with the best available data regarding operating cost increases in rental dwelling units.”

Subsec. (c)(9), (10). Pub. L. 100–242, § 262(a), (b), added pars. (9) and (10).

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–628, § 1014(b), inserted cl. (i) designation after “except that” and added cl. (ii) before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 100–628, § 1005(b)(1), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted “(i)” and “(ii)” for “(A)” and “(B)” wherever appearing, and added subpar. (B).

Pub. L. 100–628, § 1005(c), added subpar. (C).

Pub. L. 100–242, § 148, inserted exception authorizing Secretary to permit public housing authority to approve attachment with respect to not more than 15 percent of assistance provided by public housing agency if requirements of cl. (B) are met.

Subsec. (o)(1). Pub. L. 100–242, § 143(a)(1), substituted “The Secretary may provide assistance” for “In connection with the rental rehabilitation and development program under section 1437o of this title or the rural housing preservation grant program under section 1490m of this title, or for other purposes, the Secretary is authorized to conduct a demonstration program”.

Subsec. (o)(3). Pub. L. 100–628, § 1014(c), inserted sentence at end authorizing public housing agencies to provide for circumstances in which families who do not qualify for any preference are provided assistance under this subsection before families who do qualify for such preference.

Subsec. (o)(4). Pub. L. 100–242, § 143(a)(2), (3), redesignated par. (5) as (4) and struck out former par. (4) which read as follows: “The Secretary shall use substantially all of the authority to enter into contracts under this subsection to make assistance payments for families residing in dwellings to be rehabilitated with assistance under section 1437o of this title and for families displaced as a result of rental housing development assisted under such section or as a result of activities assisted under section 1490m of this title.”

Subsec. (o)(5). Pub. L. 100–242, § 143(a)(3), redesignated par. (6) as (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (o)(6). Pub. L. 100–242, § 143(a)(3), (b), redesignated par. (7) as (6), substituted “annually” for “as frequently as twice during any five-year period” in subpar. (A), and struck out subpar. (D) which directed that public housing agency consult with public and units of local government regarding impact of adjustments made under this section on the number of families that can be assisted. Former par. (6) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (o)(7). Pub. L. 100–242, § 143(a)(3), (c), redesignated par. (8) as (7), and struck out “not to exceed 5 per centum of the amount of” after “utilize”. Former par. (7) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (o)(8). Pub. L. 100–242, § 143(a)(3), (d), added par. (8). Former par. (8) redesignated (7).

Subsecs. (q) to (u). Pub. L. 100–242, §§ 144–149, added subsecs. (q) to (u).

Subsec. (u)(3). Pub. L. 100–628, § 1006, added par. (3).

Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 100–628, § 1029, redesignated par. (2) as (1) and inserted “for project-based loan management assistance”, added par. (2), and struck out former par. (1) which required that each contract entered into by Secretary for loan management assistance be for a term of 180 months.

Pub. L. 100–242, § 262(c), added subsec. (v).

1984—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 98–479, § 102(b)(6), substituted “Where the Secretary enters into an annual contributions contract with a public housing agency pursuant to which the agency will enter into a contract for assistance payments with respect to an existing structure, the contract for assistance payments may not be attached to the structure unless (A) the Secretary and the public housing agency approve such action, and (B) the owner agrees to rehabilitate the structure other than with assistance under this chapter and otherwise complies with the requirements of this section.” for “A contract under this section may not be attached to the structure except where the Secretary specifically waives the foregoing limitation and the public housing agency approves such action, and the owner agrees to rehabilitate the structure other than with assistance under this chapter and otherwise complies with the requirements of this section. The aggregate term of such contract and any contract extension may not be more than 180 months.”

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 98–479, § 102(b)(7), inserted at end “The Secretary shall increase the amount of assistance provided under this paragraph above the amount of assistance otherwise permitted by this paragraph and subsection (c)(1) of this section, if the Secretary determines such increase necessary to assist in the sale of multifamily housing projects owned by the Department of Housing and Urban Development.”

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 98–479, § 102(b)(8), substituted “subsections (b)(1) and (e)(2) of this section” for “subsection (b)(1), subsection (e)(2) of this section”.

Subsec. (o)(3)(C). Pub. L. 98–479, § 102(b)(9), added cl. (C).

Subsec. (o)(7)(D). Pub. L. 98–479, § 102(b)(10), inserted “unit of” before “general”.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–181, § 209(a)(1), substituted “existing housing” for “existing, newly constructed, and substantially rehabilitated housing”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–181, § 209(a)(2), repealed par. (2) which related to authorization of assistance payments by the Secretary and contractually obligated public housing agencies for construction or substantial rehabilitation of housing, modest in design, with units for occupancy by low-income families and requirement that contracts providing housing assistance and entered into after Aug. 13, 1981, specify the number of units available for occupancy by eligible families.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 98–181, § 203(b)(1), inserted “, are paying more than 50 per centum of family income for rent,”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 98–181, § 208, inserted second and third sentences respecting waiver of limitation and limitation of contract and any extension to prescribed period.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 98–181, § 209(a)(3), redesignated par. (4) as (1) and struck out former par. (1) which prescribed terms of 20 to 30 years for newly constructed or substantially rehabilitated dwelling units.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 98–181, § 209(a)(3), redesignated par. (5) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which required owners to assume ownership, management, and maintenance responsibilities, including selection of tenants and termination of tenancy for newly constructed or substantially rehabilitated dwelling units.

Pub. L. 98–181, § 203(b)(2), inserted “, are paying more than 50 per centum of family income for rent,” after “substandard housing”.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 98–181, § 209(a)(3), struck out par. (3) which required that construction or substantial rehabilitation of dwelling units be eligible for mortgages insured under the National Housing Act and that assistance not be withheld by reason of availability of mortgage insurance under section 1715z–9 of title 12 or tax-exempt status obligations used to finance the construction or rehabilitation.

Subsec. (e)(4), (5). Pub. L. 98–181, § 209(a)(3), redesignated pars. (4) and (5) as (1) and (2), respectively.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 98–181, § 209(a)(4), repealed subsec. (i) which related to contracts with respect to substantially rehabilitated dwelling units.

Subsecs. (l), (m). Pub. L. 98–181, § 209(a)(5), repealed subsec. (l) relating to limitation of cost and rent increases, and subsec. (m) relating to preference for projects on suitable State and local government tracts.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 98–181, § 209(a)(6), substituted “subsection (e)(2) of this section” for “subsection (e)(5) and subsection (i) of this section”.

Pub. L. 98–181, § 210(1), (2), inserted “subsection (b)(1) of this section,” before “subsection (e)(5)” and a comma after “subsection (e)(5) of this section”.

Subsec. (n)(3). Pub. L. 98–181, § 210(3)–(5), added par. (3).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 98–181, § 207, added subsec. (o).

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 98–181, § 211, added subsec. (p).

1981—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–35, §§ 324(1), 325(1), inserted provisions relating to increasing housing opportunities for very low-income families and provisions relating to availability for occupancy the number of units for which assistance is committed.

Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 97–35, § 324(2), added par. (D).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 97–35, § 322(e)(1), revised formula for computation of amount of monthly assistance and struck out authority to make reviews at least every two years in cases of elderly families.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 97–35, § 325(2), inserted reference to mortgages under section 1720 of title 12.

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 97–35, § 322(e)(2), struck out par. (7) relating to percentage requirement for families with very low income and redesignated former par. (8) as (7).

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 97–35, § 326(a), added par. (8). Former par. (8) redesignated (7).

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 97–35, § 326(e)(1), substituted provisions relating to terms and conditions, and termination of the lease by the owner for provisions relating to right of the agency to give notice to terminate and owner the right to make representation to agency for termination of the tenancy.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–35, § 322(e)(3), struck out pars. (1) to (3) which defined “lower income families”, “very low-income families” and “income”, respectively, and redesignated pars. (4) to (6) as (1) to (3), respectively.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–35, § 322(e)(4), (5), struck out reference to section 1437a(1) of this title.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 97–35, § 329H(a), generally revised and reorganized provisions and, as so revised and reorganized, substituted provisions relating to contracts to make assistance payments to assist lower income families by making rental assistance payments on behalf of such family, for provisions relating to annual contributions contracts to assist lower income families by making rental assistance payments.

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 97–35, § 322(e)(6), substituted in par. (3) “the rent the family is required to pay under section 1437a(a) of this title” for “25 per centum of one-twelfth of the annual income of such family”.

Subsecs. (l) to (n). Pub. L. 97–35, § 324(3), added subsecs. (l) to (n).

1980—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 96–399, § 203(a), inserted provision that in the case of newly constructed and substantially rehabilitated units, the exception in the preceding sentence shall not apply to more than 20 per centum of the total amount of authority to enter into annual contributions contracts for such units which is allocated to an area and obligated with respect to any fiscal year beginning on or after Oct. 1, 1980.

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 96–399, § 203(b), inserted provision relating to the authority of the Secretary, notwithstanding subsec. (c)(1) of this section, to establish monthly rent exceeding fair market rental where cost levels so require or where necessary to the implementation of a local housing assistance plan.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 96–399, § 308(c)(3), substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing.

1979—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 96–153, § 202(b), substituted new provisions for computation of the amount of monthly assistance payments with respect to dwelling units and laid down criteria to be followed by the Secretary in regard to payments to families with different income levels.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 96–153, § 206(b)(1), substituted “Secretary and the agency, except that the tenant selection criteria used by the owner shall give preference to families which occupy substandard housing or are involuntarily displaced at the time they are seeking assistance under this section.” for “Secretary and the agency;”.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 96–153, § 211(b), substituted “term of less than two hundred and forty months” for “term of less than one month”.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 96–153, § 206(b)(2), substituted “performance of such responsibilities), except that the tenant selection criteria shall give preference to families which occupy substandard housing or are involuntarily displaced at the time they are seeking housing assistance under this section” for “performance of such responsibilities)”.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 96–153, § 210, added subsec. (k).

1978—Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 95–557, § 206(e), added par. (5).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 95–557, § 206(d)(1), added subsec. (i).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 95–557, § 206(f), added subsec. (j).

1977—Subsec. (c), Pub. L. 95–128, § 201(c), (d), inserted in par. (1) prohibition against high-rise elevator projects for families with children after Oct. 12, 1977, and struck out from par. (4) provision which prohibited payment after the sixty-day period if the unoccupied unit was in a project insured under the National Housing Act, except pursuant to section 1715z–9 of title 12.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 95–128, § 201(e)(1), added par. (3).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 95–24 substituted “three hundred and sixty months, except that such term may not exceed two hundred and forty months in the case of a project financed with assistance of a loan made by, or insured, guaranteed or intended for purchase by, the Federal Government, other than pursuant to section 1715z–9 of title 12” for “two hundred and forty months” and “Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, in the case of” for “In the case of”.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 95–128, § 201(e)(2), inserted provision respecting the Secretary’s approval of any public housing agency for assumption of management and maintenance responsibilities of dwelling units under the preceding sentence.

1976—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 94–375, § 2(d), inserted provision extending payments to newly constructed or substantially rehabilitated unoccupied units in an amount equal to the debt service of such unit for a period not to exceed one year, provided that a good faith effort is being made to fill the unit, the unit provides decent and safe housing, the unit is not insured under the National Housing Act, except pursuant to section 1715z–9 of title 12, and the revenues from the project do not exceed the cost.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 94–375, § 2(g), inserted “or the Farmers’ Home Administration” after “State or local agency”.

Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 94–375, § 2(e), added par. (6).

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Effective Date of 2022 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 117–328 effective 2 years after Dec. 29, 2022, see section 601(h) of div. AA of Pub. L. 117–328, set out as a note under section 1701q of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 2020 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(b)(2) of div. Q of Pub. L. 116–260 effective 2 years after Dec. 27, 2020, see section 101(h) of div. Q of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1701q of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Amendment by section 103(b), (c) of div. Q of Pub. L. 116–260 not applicable to housing choice voucher assistance made available pursuant to subsec. (x) of this section in use on behalf of an assisted family as of Dec. 27, 2020, see section 103(d) of div. Q of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1437a of this title.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–174, title III, § 304(c), May 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 1339, provided that: “Subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section, enacting provisions set out as a note under this section, amending provisions set out as notes under sections 5201 and 5220 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and repealing provisions set out as a note under this section] shall take effect on the date that is 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act [May 24, 2018].”

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, § 101(b), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 786, provided that: “The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue notice or regulations to implement subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] and such subsection shall take effect upon such issuance.”[Amendment by section 101(a)(1) effective Apr. 18, 2017, based on notice issued Jan. 18, 2017, see 82 F.R. 5458, as corrected July 14, 2017, 82 F.R. 32461.]

Amendment by section 102(d)–(f) of Pub. L. 114–201 effective upon the issuance of notice or regulations by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development implementing section 102 of Pub. L. 114–201, except that such section 102 may only take effect upon the commencement of a calendar year, see section 102(h) of Pub. L. 114–201, set out as a note under section 1437a of this title. [Amendment by section 102(d) effective Jan. 1, 2017, based on notice issued Oct. 24, 2016, see 81 F.R. 73030. Amendment by section 102(e), (f) effective Jan. 1, 2024, based on notice issued Feb. 14, 2023, see 88 F.R. 9600, as corrected Feb. 28, 2023, 88 F.R. 12559.]

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, § 106(b), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 800, provided that: “The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue notice or regulations to implement subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] and such subsection shall take effect upon such issuance.”[Amendment by section 106 effective in part Apr. 18, 2017, based on notice issued Jan. 18, 2017, see 82 F.R. 5458, as corrected July 14, 2017, 82 F.R. 32461.]

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, § 107(c), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 801, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect upon the date of the enactment of this Act [July 29, 2016].”

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, § 112(b), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 804, provided that: “The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue notice to implement the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] and such amendments shall take effect upon such issuance.”[Amendment by section 112 effective in part Apr. 18, 2017, based on notice issued Jan. 18, 2017, see 82 F.R. 5458, as corrected July 14, 2017, 82 F.R. 32461.]

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–76, div. L, title II, § 220(b), Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 631, provided that: “The amendments in subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect upon such date as the Secretary determines, in the Secretary’s sole discretion, through the Secretary’s publication of such date in the Federal Register, as part of regulations promulgated, or a notice issued, by the Secretary to implement such amendments.”

[Notice implementing certain provisions of section 220 of Pub. L. 113–76 in a limited fashion was published June 25, 2014, effective July 1, 2014, see 79 F.R. 35940.]

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the date on which final regulations implementing that amendment take effect, or on the date that is 18 months after the designated transfer date if such regulations have not been issued by that date, see section 1400(c) of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 1601 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Termination Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–22, div. A, title VII, § 704, May 20, 2009, 123 Stat. 1662, as amended by Pub. L. 111–203, title XIV, § 1484(2), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2204, which provided that title VII of div. A of Pub. L. 111–22 (amending this section and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 5201 and 5220 of Title 12, Banks and Banking), and any amendments made by such title are repealed, and the requirements under such title shall terminate, on Dec. 31, 2014, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–174, title III, § 304(a), (c), May 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 1339, effective 30 days after May 24, 2018.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Amendment by section 4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(Y) of Pub. L. 110–246 effective Oct. 1, 2008, see section 4407 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–116 effective Sept. 30, 2001, see section 603 of Pub. L. 107–116, set out as a note under section 1715n of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–569, title III, § 301(b), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2952, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect immediately after the amendments made by section 555(c) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998 [Pub. L. 105–276, set out as an Effective Date of 1998 Amendment note below] take effect pursuant to such section.”

Pub. L. 106–569, title IX, § 902(b), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3026, provided that: “The amendment under subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be made and shall apply—

“(1)
upon the enactment of this Act, if the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 2001 [H.R. 5482, as enacted by section 1(a)(1) of Pub. L. 106–377], is enacted before the enactment of this Act; and
“(2)
immediately after the enactment of such appropriations Act, if such appropriations Act is enacted after the enactment of this Act.”

Pub. L. 106–569, title IX, § 903(b), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3026, provided that: “The amendment under subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be made and shall apply—

“(1)
upon the enactment of this Act, if the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 2001 [H.R. 5482, as enacted by section 1(a)(1) of Pub. L. 106–377], is enacted before the enactment of this Act; and
“(2)
immediately after the enactment of such appropriations Act, if such appropriations Act is enacted after the enactment of this Act.”

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–276, title II, § 209(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2485, provided that: “This section [amending this section] shall take effect 60 days after the later of October 1, 1998 or the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998].”

Amendment by title V of Pub. L. 105–276 effective and applicable beginning upon Oct. 1, 1999, except as otherwise provided, with provision that Secretary may implement amendment before such date, except to extent that such amendment provides otherwise, and with savings provision, see section 503 of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as a note under section 1437 of this title.

Amendment by section 514(b)(1) of Pub. L. 105–276 effective and applicable beginning upon Oct. 21, 1998, see section 514(g) of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as a note under section 1701s of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 545(c), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2604, provided that: “Notwithstanding the amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section], any amendments to section 8(o) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f(o)) that are contained in title II of this Act [see Tables for classification] shall apply with respect to the provision of assistance under such section during the period before implementation (pursuant to section 559 of this title [set out as a Regulations and Transition Provisions note below]) of such section 8(o) as amended by subsection (a) of this section.”

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 549(a)(3), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2607, provided that: “The amendments under this subsection [amending this section] are made on, and shall apply beginning upon, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998], and shall apply thereafter, notwithstanding section 203 of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1996 [section 101(e) [title II, § 203] of Pub. L. 104–134, amending this section and enacting provisions set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below] (42 U.S.C. 1437f note) or any other provision of law (including the expiration of the applicability of such section 203 or any repeal of such section 203).”

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 554, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2611, provided that: “Notwithstanding section 203(d) of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1996 (as contained in section 101(e) of the Omnibus Consolidated Rescissions and Appropriations Act of 1996 (Public Law 104–134; 42 U.S.C. 1437f note) [see Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below]), section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f) is amended by striking subsection (t). This section shall apply beginning upon, and the amendment made by this section is made on, and shall apply beginning upon, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998].”

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 555(c), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2613, provided that: “This section [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as a note below] shall take effect on, and the amendments made by this section are made on, and shall apply beginning upon, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998].”

Amendment by section 565(c) of Pub. L. 105–276 effective and applicable beginning upon Oct. 21, 1998, see section 565(e) of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as a note under section 1437d of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, § 101(e) [title II, § 203(d)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–257, 1321–281, as amended by Pub. L. 104–204, title II, § 201(e), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2893; Pub. L. 105–65, title II, § 201(b), Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1364, provided that: “The provisions of this section [amending this section] shall be effective for fiscal years 1996, 1997, and 1998 only.”

Amendment by section 402(d)(2), (3), (6)(A)(iii), (iv) of Pub. L. 104–99 effective Jan. 26, 1996, only for fiscal years 1996, 1997, and 1998, and to cease to be effective Oct. 21, 1998, see section 402(f) of Pub. L. 104–99, as amended, and section 514(f) of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as notes under section 1437a of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–327 enacting subsec. (aa), effective only during fiscal year 1995, see title II in part of Pub. L. 103–327, set out as a note under section 1715n of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by subtitles B through F of title VI [§§ 621–685] of Pub. L. 102–550 applicable upon expiration of 6-month period beginning Oct. 28, 1992, except as otherwise provided, see section 13642 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by section 289(b)(1) of Pub. L. 101–625, repealing subsec. (e)(2) of this section, effective Oct. 1, 1991; however, provisions of subsec. (e)(2) to remain in effect with respect to single room occupancy dwellings as authorized by subchapter IV (§ 11361 et seq.) of chapter 119 of this title, see section 12839(a)(4), (b) of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment; Savings Provision

Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, § 209(b)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1183, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1983, except that the provisions repealed shall remain in effect—

“(1)
with respect to any funds obligated for a viable project under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [this section] prior to January 1, 1984; and
“(2)
with respect to any project financed under section 202 of the Housing Act of 1959 [12 U.S.C. 1701q].”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendments by sections 322(e) and 329H(a) of Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, and amendments by sections 324, 325, and 326(a) of Pub. L. 97–35 applicable with respect to contracts entered into on or after Oct. 1, 1981, see section 371 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3701 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Pub. L. 97–35, title III, § 326(e)(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 407, provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to leases entered into on or after October 1, 1981.”

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by section 202(b) of Pub. L. 96–153 effective Jan. 1, 1980, except with respect to amount of tenant contribution required of families whose occupancy commenced prior to such date, see section 202(c) of Pub. L. 96–153, set out as a note under section 1437a of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–557, title II, § 206(d)(2), Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2092, provided that: “The amendment made by this subsection [amending this section] shall become effective with respect to contracts entered into on or after 270 days following the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 31, 1978].”

Amendment by section 206(e), (f) of Pub. L. 95–557 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 206(h) of Pub. L. 95–557, set out as a note under section 1437c of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective not later than Jan. 1, 1975, see section 201(b) of Pub. L. 93–383, set out as a note under section 1437 of this title.

Applicability of 1994 Amendments

Pub. L. 103–327, title II, Sept. 28, 1994, 108 Stat. 2315, third par., provided that: “The immediately foregoing amendment [amending subsec. (c)(2)(A) of this section by authorizing modification of rent adjustment where adjusted rent exceeds fair market rental] shall apply to all contracts for new construction, substantial rehabilitation, and moderate rehabilitation projects under which rents are adjusted under section 8(c)(2)(A) of such Act [subsec. (c)(2)(A) of this section] by applying an annual adjustment factor.”

Pub. L. 103–327, title II, Sept. 28, 1994, 108 Stat. 2315, fifth par., provided that: “The immediately foregoing [amending subsec. (c)(2)(A) of this section by inserting two sentences at end authorizing reduction of annual adjustment factor in certain circumstances] shall hereafter apply to all contracts that are subject to section 8(c)(2)(A) of such Act [subsec. (c)(2)(A) of this section] and that provide for rent adjustments using an annual adjustment factor.”

Regulations and Transition Provisions

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 559, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2615, provided that:

“(a)
Interim Regulations.—
The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue such interim regulations as may be necessary to implement the amendments made by this subtitle [subtitle C (§§ 545–559) of title V of Pub. L. 105–276, see Tables for classification] and other provisions in this title [see Tables for classification] which relate to section 8(o) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(o)].
“(b)
Final Regulations.—
The Secretary shall issue final regulations necessary to implement the amendments made by this subtitle and other provisions in this title which relate to section 8(o) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(o)] not later then 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998].
“(c)
Factors For Consideration.—
Before the publication of the final regulations under subsection (b), in addition to public comments invited in connection with the publication of the interim rule, the Secretary shall—
“(1)
seek recommendations on the implementation of sections 8(o)(6)(B), 8(o)(7)(B), and 8(o)(10)(D) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(o)(6)(B), (7)(B), (10)(D)] and of renewals of expiring tenant-based assistance from organizations representing—
“(A)
State or local public housing agencies;
“(B)
owners and managers of tenant-based housing assisted under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937;
“(C)
families receiving tenant-based assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937; and
“(D)
legal service organizations; and
“(2)
convene not less than 2 public forums at which the persons or organizations making recommendations under paragraph (1) may express views concerning the proposed disposition of the recommendations.
“(d)
Conversion Assistance.—
“(1)
In general.—
The Secretary may provide for the conversion of assistance under the certificate and voucher programs under subsections (b) and (o) of section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(b), (o)], as in effect before the applicability of the amendments made by this subtitle, to the voucher program established by the amendments made by this subtitle.
“(2)
Continued applicability.—
The Secretary may apply the provisions of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], or any other provision of law amended by this subtitle, as those provisions were in effect immediately before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998] (except that such provisions shall be subject to any amendments to such provisions that may be contained in title II of this Act [see Tables for classification]), to assistance obligated by the Secretary before October 1, 1999, for the certificate or voucher program under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f], if the Secretary determines that such action is necessary for simplification of program administration, avoidance of hardship, or other good cause.
“(e)
Effective Date.—
This section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998].”

Regulations

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 556(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2613, directed the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to implement the amendment made by subsec. (a), adding 42 U.S.C. 1437f(dd), through notice, not later than Dec. 31, 1998, and to issue final regulations, not later than one year after Oct. 21, 1998. HUD Notice 98–65 was issued Dec. 30, 1998, and final regulations were published in the Federal Register Oct. 21, 1999, effective Nov. 22, 1999. See 64 F.R. 56882.

For provisions requiring Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to issue regulations necessary to implement amendment to this section by Pub. L. 103–233, see section 101(f) of Pub. L. 103–233, set out as a note under section 1701z–11 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

For provision requiring that not later than expiration of the 180-day period beginning Oct. 28, 1992, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue regulations implementing amendments to this section by section 545 of Pub. L. 101–625, see section 104 of Pub. L. 102–550, set out as a note under section 1437d of this title.

Pub. L. 102–550, title I, § 149, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3715, provided that: “The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue any final regulations necessary to carry out the amendments made by section 547 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [Pub. L. 101–625, amending this section] not later than the expiration of the 180-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992]. The regulations shall be issued after notice and opportunity for public comment pursuant to the provisions of section 553 of title 5, United States Code (notwithstanding subsections (a)(2), (b)(B), and (d)(3) of such section) and shall take effect upon the expiration of the 30-day period beginning upon issuance.”

Pub. L. 102–550, title I, § 151, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3716, provided that: “The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue any final regulations necessary to carry out the provisions of section 555 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [Pub. L. 101–625] (42 U.S.C. 1437f note) not later than the expiration of the 180-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992]. The regulations shall be issued after notice and opportunity for public comment pursuant to the provisions of section 553 of title 5, United States Code (notwithstanding subsections (a)(2), (b)(B), and (d)(3) of such section) and shall take effect upon the expiration of the 30-day period beginning upon issuance.”

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 106–377, § 1(a)(1) [title II, § 232(b)], Oct. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 1441, 1441A–34, as amended by Pub. L. 110–28, title VI, § 6904, May 25, 2007, 121 Stat. 185, provided that: “In the case of any dwelling unit that, upon the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 27, 2000], is assisted under a housing assistance payment contract under section 8(o)(13) [of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f(o)(13))] as in effect before such enactment, or under section 8(d)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f(d)(2)) as in effect before the enactment of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998 (title V of Public Law 105–276) [approved Oct. 21, 1998], assistance may be renewed or extended under such section 8(o)(13), as amended by subsection (a), provided that the initial contract term and rent of such renewed or extended assistance shall be determined pursuant to subparagraphs (F) and (H), and subparagraphs (C) and (D) of such section shall not apply to such extensions or renewals.”

Construction of 2022 Amendment

Nothing in amendment made by Pub. L. 117–328 to be construed to preempt or limit applicability of certain State or local laws relating to smoke alarms, see section 601(i) of div. AA of Pub. L. 117–328, set out as a note under section 1701q of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Construction of 2020 Amendment

Nothing in amendment made by section 101(b)(2) of Pub. L. 116–260 to be construed to preempt or limit applicability of certain State or local laws relating to carbon monoxide devices, see section 101(j) of div. Q of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 1437a of this title.

Restoration of Terminated Provisions

Pub. L. 115–174, title III, § 304(b), May 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 1339, provided that: “Sections 701 through 703 of the Protecting Tenants at Foreclosure Act of 2009 [title VII of div. A of Pub. L. 111–22, amending this section and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 5201 and 5220 of Title 12, Banks and Banking], the provisions of law amended by such sections, and any regulations promulgated pursuant to such sections, as were in effect on December 30, 2014, are restored and revived.”

Emergency Housing Vouchers

Pub. L. 117–2, title III, § 3202, Mar. 11, 2021, 135 Stat. 58, provided that:

“(a)
Appropriation.—
In addition to amounts otherwise available, there is appropriated to the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (in this section referred to as the ‘Secretary’) for fiscal year 2021, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, $5,000,000,000, to remain available until September 30, 2030, for—
“(1)
incremental emergency vouchers under subsection (b);
“(2)
renewals of the vouchers under subsection (b);
“(3)
fees for the costs of administering vouchers under subsection (b) and other eligible expenses defined by notice to prevent, prepare, and respond to coronavirus to facilitate the leasing of the emergency vouchers, such as security deposit assistance and other costs related to retention and support of participating owners; and
“(4)
adjustments in the calendar year 2021 section 8 renewal funding allocation, including mainstream vouchers, for public housing agencies that experience a significant increase in voucher per-unit costs due to extraordinary circumstances or that, despite taking reasonable cost savings measures, would otherwise be required to terminate rental assistance for families as a result of insufficient funding.
“(b)
Emergency Vouchers.—
“(1)
In general.—
The Secretary shall provide emergency rental assistance vouchers under subsection (a), which shall be tenant-based rental assistance under section 8(o) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f(o)).
“(2)
Qualifying individuals or families defined.—
For the purposes of this section, qualifying individuals or families are those who are—
“(A)
homeless (as such term is defined in section 103(a) of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11302(a));
“(B)
at risk of homelessness (as such term is defined in section 401(1) of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11360(1)));
“(C)
fleeing, or attempting to flee, domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or human trafficking, as defined by the Secretary; or
“(D)
recently homeless, as determined by the Secretary, and for whom providing rental assistance will prevent the family’s homelessness or having high risk of housing instability.
“(3)
Allocation.—
The Secretary shall notify public housing agencies of the number of emergency vouchers provided under this section to be allocated to the agency not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 11, 2021], in accordance with a formula that includes public housing agency capacity and ensures geographic diversity, including with respect to rural areas, among public housing agencies administering the Housing Choice Voucher program.
“(4)
Terms and conditions.—
“(A)
Election to administer.—
The Secretary shall establish a procedure for public housing agencies to accept or decline the emergency vouchers allocated to the agency in accordance with the formula under subparagraph (3).
“(B)
Failure to use vouchers promptly.—
If a public housing agency fails to lease its authorized vouchers under subsection (b) on behalf of eligible families within a reasonable period of time, the Secretary may revoke and redistribute any unleased vouchers and associated funds, including administrative fees and costs referred to in subsection (a)(3), to other public housing agencies according to the formula under paragraph (3).
“(5)
Waivers and alternative requirements.—
The Secretary may waive or specify alternative requirements for any provision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.) or regulation applicable to such statute other than requirements related to fair housing, nondiscrimination, labor standards, and the environment, upon a finding that the waiver or alternative requirement is necessary to expedite or facilitate the use of amounts made available in this section.
“(6)
Termination of vouchers upon turnover.—
After September 30, 2023, a public housing agency may not reissue any vouchers made available under this section when assistance for the family assisted ends.
“(c)
Technical Assistance and Other Costs.—
The Secretary may use not more $20,000,000 of the amounts made available under this section for the costs to the Secretary of administering and overseeing the implementation of this section and the Housing Choice Voucher program generally, including information technology, financial reporting, and other costs. Of the amounts set aside under this subsection, the Secretary may use not more than $10,000,000, without competition, to make new awards or increase prior awards to existing technical assistance providers to provide an immediate increase in capacity building and technical assistance to public housing agencies.
“(d)
Implementation.—
The Secretary may implement the provisions of this section by notice.”

Mobility Demonstration Program

Pub. L. 116–6, div. G, title II, § 235, Feb. 15, 2019, 133 Stat. 465, provided that:

“(a)
Authority.—
The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (in this section referred to as the ‘Secretary’) may carry out a mobility demonstration program to enable public housing agencies to administer housing choice voucher assistance under section 8(o) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f(o)) in a manner designed to encourage families receiving such voucher assistance to move to lower-poverty areas and expand access to opportunity areas.
“(b)
Selection of PHAs.—
“(1)
Requirements.—
The Secretary shall establish requirements for public housing agencies to participate in the demonstration program under this section, which shall provide that the following public housing agencies may participate:
“(A)
Public housing agencies that together—
“(i)
serve areas with high concentrations of holders of rental assistance vouchers under section 8(o) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f(o)) in poor, low-opportunity neighborhoods; and
“(ii)
have an adequate number of moderately priced rental units in higher-opportunity areas.
“(B)
Planned consortia or partial consortia of public housing agencies that—
“(i)
include at least one agency with a high-performing Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) program; and
“(ii)
will enable participating families to continue in such program if they relocate to the jurisdiction served by any other agency of the consortium.
“(C)
Planned consortia or partial consortia of public housing agencies that—
“(i)
serve jurisdictions within a single region;
“(ii)
include one or more small agencies; and
“(iii)
will consolidate mobility focused operations.
“(D)
Such other public housing agencies as the Secretary considers appropriate.
“(2)
Selection criteria.—
The Secretary shall establish competitive selection criteria for public housing agencies eligible under paragraph (1) to participate in the demonstration program under this section.
“(3)
Random selection of families.—
The Secretary may require participating agencies to use a randomized selection process to select among the families eligible to receive mobility assistance under the demonstration program.
“(c)
Regional Housing Mobility Plan.—
The Secretary shall require each public housing agency applying to participate in the demonstration program under this section to submit a Regional Housing Mobility Plan (in this section referred to as a ‘Plan’), which shall—
“(1)
identify the public housing agencies that will participate under the Plan and the number of vouchers each participating agency will make available out of their existing programs in connection with the demonstration;
“(2)
identify any community-based organizations, nonprofit organizations, businesses, and other entities that will participate under the Plan and describe the commitments for such participation made by each such entity;
“(3)
identify any waivers or alternative requirements under subparagraph (e) requested for the execution of the Plan;
“(4)
identify any specific actions that the public housing agencies and other entities will undertake to accomplish the goals of the demonstration, which shall include a comprehensive approach to enable a successful transition to opportunity areas and may include counseling and continued support for families;
“(5)
specify the criteria that the public housing agencies would use to identify opportunity areas under the plan;
“(6)
provide for establishment of priority and preferences for participating families, including a preference for families with young children, as such term is defined by the Secretary, based on regional housing needs and priorities; and
“(7)
comply with any other requirements established by the Secretary.
“(d)
Funding for Mobility-Related Services.—
“(1)
Use of administrative fees.—
Public housing agencies participating in the demonstration program under this section may use administrative fees under section 8(q) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f(q)), their administrative fee reserves, and funding from private entities to provide mobility-related services in connection with the demonstration program, including services such as counseling, portability coordination, landlord outreach, security deposits, and administrative activities associated with establishing and operating regional mobility programs.
“(2)
Use of housing assistance funds.—
Public housing agencies participating in the demonstration under this section may use housing assistance payments funds under section 8(o) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f(o)) for security deposits if necessary to enable families to lease units with vouchers in designated opportunity areas.
“(e)
Waivers; Alternative Requirements.—
“(1)
Waivers.—
To allow for public housing agencies to implement and administer their Regional Housing Mobility Plans, the Secretary may waive or specify alternative requirements for the following provisions of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.]:
“(A)
Sections 8(o)(7)(A) [42 U.S.C. 1437f (o)(7)(A)] and 8(o)(13)(E)(i)[42 U.S.C. 1437f (o)(13)(E)(i)] (relating to the term of a lease and mobility requirements).
“(B)
Section 8(o)(13)(C)(i) [42 U.S.C. 1437f (o)(13)(C)(i)](relating to the public housing plan for an agency).
“(C)
Section 8(r)(2) [42 U.S.C. 1437f(r)(2)] (relating to the responsibility of a public housing agency to administer ported assistance).
“(2)
Alternative requirements for consortia.—
The Secretary shall provide alternative administrative requirements for public housing agencies in a selected region to—
“(A)
form a consortium that has a single housing choice voucher funding contract; or
“(B)
enter into a partial consortium to operate all or portions of the Regional Housing Mobility Plan, which may include agencies participating in the Moving To Work Demonstration program.
“(3)
Effective date.—
Any waiver or alternative requirements pursuant to this subsection shall not take effect before the expiration of the 10-day period beginning upon publication of notice of such waiver or alternative requirement in the Federal Register.
“(f)
Implementation.—
The Secretary may implement the demonstration, including its terms, procedures, requirements, and conditions, by notice.
“(g)
Evaluation.—
Not later than five years after implementation of the regional housing mobility programs under the demonstration program under this section, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress and publish in the Federal Register a report evaluating the effectiveness of the strategies pursued under the demonstration, subject to the availability of funding to conduct the evaluation. Through official websites and other methods, the Secretary shall disseminate interim findings as they become available, and shall, if promising strategies are identified, notify the Congress of the amount of funds that would be required to expand the testing of these strategies in additional types of public housing agencies and housing markets.
“(h)
Termination.—
The demonstration program under this section shall terminate on October 1, 2028.”

Rental Assistance Demonstration

Pub. L. 112–55, div. C, title II, Nov. 18, 2011, 125 Stat. 673, as amended by Pub. L. 113–76, div. L, title II, § 239, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 635; Pub. L. 113–235, div. K, title II, § 234, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2757; Pub. L. 114–113, div. L, title II, § 237, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2897; Pub. L. 115–31, div. K, title II, § 239, May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 789; Pub. L. 115–141, div. L, title II, § 237, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1038; Pub. L. 117–103, div. L, title II, § 236, Mar. 15, 2022, 136 Stat. 763, provided that: “To conduct a demonstration designed to preserve and improve public housing and certain other multifamily housing through the voluntary conversion of properties with assistance under section 9 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437g], (hereinafter, ‘the Act’), or the moderate rehabilitation program under section 8(e)(2) of the Act [42 U.S.C. 1437f(e)(2)], to properties with assistance under a project-based subsidy contract under section 8 of the Act [42 U.S.C. 1437f], which shall be eligible for renewal under section 524 of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997 [Pub. L. 105–65, set out below], or assistance under section 8(o)(13) of the Act [42 U.S.C. 1437f(o)(13)], the Secretary may transfer amounts provided through contracts under section 8(e)(2) of the Act or under the headings ‘Public Housing Capital Fund’ and ‘Public Housing Operating Fund’ to the headings ‘Tenant-Based Rental Assistance’ or ‘Project-Based Rental Assistance’ (herein the ‘First Component’): Provided, That the initial long-term contract under which converted assistance is made available may allow for rental adjustments only by an operating cost factor established by the Secretary, and shall be subject to the availability of appropriations for each year of such term: Provided further, That project applications may be received under this demonstration until September 30, 2024: Provided further, That any increase in cost for ‘Tenant-Based Rental Assistance’ or ‘Project-Based Rental Assistance’ associated with such conversion in excess of amounts made available under this heading shall be equal to amounts transferred from ‘Public Housing Capital Fund’ and ‘Public Housing Operating Fund’ or other account from which it was transferred: Provided further, That not more than 455,000 units currently receiving assistance under section 9 or section 8(e)(2) of the Act shall be converted under the authority provided under this heading: Provided further, That tenants of such properties with assistance converted from assistance under section 9 shall, at a minimum, maintain the same rights under such conversion as those provided under sections 6 [42 U.S.C. 1437d] and 9 of the Act: Provided further, That the Secretary shall select properties from applications for conversion as part of this demonstration through a competitive process: Provided further, That in establishing criteria for such competition, the Secretary shall seek to demonstrate the feasibility of this conversion model to recapitalize and operate public housing properties (1) in different markets and geographic areas, (2) within portfolios managed by public housing agencies of varying sizes, and (3) by leveraging other sources of funding to recapitalize properties: Provided further, That the Secretary shall provide an opportunity for public comment on draft eligibility and selection criteria and procedures that will apply to the selection of properties that will participate in the demonstration: Provided further, That the Secretary shall provide an opportunity for comment from residents of properties to be proposed for participation in the demonstration to the owners or public housing agencies responsible for such properties: Provided further, That the Secretary may waive or specify alternative requirements for (except for requirements related to fair housing, nondiscrimination, labor standards, and the environment) any provision of section 8(o)(13) or any provision that governs the use of assistance from which a property is converted under the demonstration or funds made available under the headings of ‘Public Housing Capital Fund’, ‘Public Housing Operating Fund’, and ‘Project-Based Rental Assistance’, under this Act or any prior Act or any Act enacted during the period of conversion of assistance under the demonstration for properties with assistance converted under the demonstration, upon a finding by the Secretary that any such waivers or alternative requirements are necessary for the effective conversion of assistance under the demonstration: Provided further, That the Secretary shall publish by notice in the Federal Register any waivers or alternative requirements pursuant to the previous proviso no later than 10 days before the effective date of such notice: Provided further, That the demonstration may proceed after the Secretary publishes notice of its terms in the Federal Register: Provided further, That notwithstanding sections 3 [42 U.S.C. 1437a] and 16 [42 U.S.C. 1437n] of the Act, the conversion of assistance under the demonstration shall not be the basis for re-screening or termination of assistance or eviction of any tenant family in a property participating in the demonstration, and such a family shall not be considered a new admission for any purpose, including compliance with income targeting requirements: Provided further, That in the case of a property with assistance converted under the demonstration from assistance under section 9 of the Act, section 18 of the Act [42 U.S.C. 1437p] shall not apply to a property converting assistance under the demonstration for all or substantially all of its units, the Secretary shall require ownership or control of assisted units by a public or nonprofit entity except as determined by the Secretary to be necessary pursuant to foreclosure, bankruptcy, or termination and transfer of assistance for material violations or substantial default, in which case the priority for ownership or control shall be provided to a capable public or nonprofit entity, then a capable entity, as determined by the Secretary, shall require long-term renewable use and affordability restrictions for assisted units, and may allow ownership to be transferred to a for-profit entity to facilitate the use of tax credits only if the public housing agency or a nonprofit entity preserves an interest in the property in a manner approved by the Secretary, and upon expiration of the initial contract and each renewal contract, the Secretary shall offer and the owner of the property shall accept renewal of the contract subject to the terms and conditions applicable at the time of renewal and the availability of appropriations each year of such renewal: Provided further, That the Secretary may permit transfer of assistance at or after conversion under the demonstration to replacement units subject to the requirements in the previous proviso: Provided further, That the Secretary may establish the requirements for converted assistance under the demonstration through contracts, use agreements, regulations, or other means: Provided further, That the Secretary shall assess and publish findings regarding the impact of the conversion of assistance under the demonstration on the preservation and improvement of public housing, the amount of private sector leveraging as a result of such conversion, and the effect of such conversion on tenants: Provided further, That conversions of assistance under the following provisos herein shall be considered as the ‘Second Component’ and shall be authorized for fiscal year 2012 and thereafter: Provided further, That owners of properties assisted under section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 [12 U.S.C. 1701s], section 236(f)(2) of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1715z–1(f)(2)], or section 8(e)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(e)(2)], for which an event after October 1, 2006 has caused or results in the termination of rental assistance or affordability restrictions and the issuance of tenant protection vouchers under section 8(o) of the Act [42 U.S.C. 1437f(o)] shall be eligible, subject to requirements established by the Secretary, for conversion of assistance available for such vouchers or assistance contracts to assistance under a long term project-based subsidy contract under section 8 of the Act: Provided further, That owners of properties with a project rental assistance contract under section 202(c)(2) of the Housing Act of 1959 [12 U.S.C. 1701q(c)(2)] shall be eligible, subject to requirements established by the Secretary, including but not limited to the subordination, restructuring, or both, of any capital advance documentation, including any note, mortgage, use agreement or other agreements, evidencing or securing a capital advance previously provided by the Secretary under section 202(c)(1) of the Housing Act of 1959 [12 U.S.C. 1701q(c)(1)] as necessary to facilitate the conversion of assistance while maintaining the affordability period and the designation of the property as serving elderly persons, and tenant consultation procedures, for conversion of assistance available for such assistance contracts to assistance under a long term project-based subsidy contract under section 8 of the Act: Provided further, That owners of properties with a project rental assistance contract under section 811(d)(2) of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 8013(d)(2)], shall be eligible, subject to requirements established by the Secretary, including but not limited to the subordination, restructuring, or both, of any capital advance documentation, including any note, mortgage, use agreement or other agreements, evidencing or securing a capital advance previously provided by the Secretary under section 811(d)(2) of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act as necessary to facilitate the conversion of assistance while maintaining the affordability period and the designation of the property as serving persons with disabilities, and tenant consultation procedures, for conversion of assistance contracts to assistance under a long term project-based subsidy contract under section 8 of the Act: Provided further, That long term project-based subsidy contracts under section 8 of the Act which are established under this Second Component shall have a term of no less than 20 years, with rent adjustments only by an operating cost factor established by the Secretary, which shall be eligible for renewal under section 524 of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997 [title V of Pub. L. 105–65] (42 U.S.C. 1437f note), or, subject to agreement of the administering public housing agency, to assistance under section 8(o)(13) of the Act, to which the limitation under subsection (B) of section 8(o)(13) of the Act shall not apply and for which the Secretary may waive or alter the provisions of subparagraphs (C) and (D) of section 8(o)(13) of the Act: Provided further, That contracts provided to properties converting assistance from section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 [12 U.S.C. 1701s] or section 236(f)(2) of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1715z–1(f)(2)] located in high-cost areas shall have initial rents set at comparable market rents for the market area: Provided further, That the Secretary may waive or alter the requirements of section 8(c)(1)(A) of the Act for contracts provided to properties converting assistance from section 202(c)(2) of the Housing Act of 1959 or section 811(d)(2) of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act as necessary to ensure the ongoing provision and coordination of services or to avoid a reduction in project subsidy: Provided further, That conversions of assistance under the Second Component may not be the basis for re-screening or termination of assistance or eviction of any tenant family in a property participating in the demonstration and such a family shall not be considered a new admission for any purpose, including compliance with income targeting: Provided further, That amounts made available under the heading ‘Rental Housing Assistance’ during the period of conversion under the Second Component, except for conversion of section 202 project rental assistance contracts, shall be available for project-based subsidy contracts entered into pursuant to the Second Component: Provided further, That amounts, including contract authority, recaptured from contracts following a conversion under the Second Component, except for conversion of section 202 project rental assistance contracts, are hereby rescinded and an amount of additional new budget authority, equivalent to the amount rescinded is hereby appropriated, to remain available until expended for such conversions: Provided further, That the Secretary may transfer amounts made available under the heading ‘Rental Housing Assistance’, amounts made available for tenant protection vouchers under the heading ‘Tenant-Based Rental Assistance’ and specifically associated with any such conversions, and amounts made available under the previous proviso as needed to the account under the ‘Project-Based Rental Assistance’ heading to facilitate conversion under the Second Component, except for conversion of section 202 project rental assistance contracts, and any increase in cost for ‘Project-Based Rental Assistance’ associated with such conversion shall be equal to amounts so transferred: Provided further, That the Secretary may transfer amounts made available under the headings ‘Housing for the Elderly’ and ‘Housing for Persons with Disabilities’ to the accounts under the headings ‘Project-Based Rental Assistance’ or ‘Tenant-Based Rental Assistance’ to facilitate any section 202 project rental assistance contract or section 811 project rental assistance contract conversions under the Second Component, and any increase in cost for ‘Project-Based Rental Assistance’ or ‘Tenant-Based Rental Assistance’ associated with such conversion shall be equal to amounts so transferred: Provided further, That with respect to the previous four provisos, the Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study of the long-term impact of the fiscal year 2012 and 2013 conversion of tenant protection vouchers to assistance under section 8(o)(13) of the Act on the ratio of tenant-based vouchers to project-based vouchers.”

Conversion of HUD Contracts

Pub. L. 110–289, div. A, title VI, § 1603, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2825, provided that:

“(a)
In General.—
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may, at the request of an owner of a multifamily housing project that exceeds 5,000 units to which a contract for project-based rental assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (‘Act’) (42 U.S.C. 1437f) and a Rental Assistance Payment contract is subject, convert such contracts to a contract for project-based rental assistance under section 8 of the Act.
“(b)
Initial Renewal.—
“(1)
At the request of an owner under subsection (a) made no later than 90 days prior to a conversion, the Secretary may, to the extent sufficient amounts are made available in appropriation Acts and notwithstanding any other law, treat the contemplated resulting contract as if such contract were eligible for initial renewal under section 524(a) of the MultiFamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997 [Pub. L. 105–65] (42 U.S.C. 1437f note) (‘MAHRA’) (42 U.S.C. 1437f note).
“(2)
A request by an owner pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be upon such terms and conditions as the Secretary may require.
“(c)
Resulting Contract.—
The resulting contract shall—
“(1)
be subject to section 524(a) of MAHRA [Pub. L. 105–65] (42 U.S.C. 1437f note);
“(2)
be considered for all purposes a contract that has been renewed under section 524(a) of MAHRA (42 U.S.C. 1437f note) for a term not to exceed 20 years;
“(3)
be subsequently renewable at the request of an owner, under any renewal option for which the project is eligible under MAHRA (42 U.S.C. 1437f note);
“(4)
contain provisions limiting distributions, as the Secretary determines appropriate, not to exceed 10 percent of the initial investment of the owner;
“(5)
be subject to the availability of sufficient amounts in appropriation Acts; and
“(6)
be subject to such other terms and conditions as the Secretary considers appropriate.
“(d)
Income Targeting.—
To the extent that assisted dwelling units, subject to the resulting contract under subsection (a), serve low-income families, as defined in section 3(b)(2) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 1437a(b)(2)) the units shall be considered to be in compliance with all income targeting requirements under the Act (42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq[.]).
“(e)
Tenant Eligibility.—
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, each family residing in an assisted dwelling unit on the date of conversion of a contract under this section, subject to the resulting contract under subsection (a), shall be considered to meet the applicable requirements for income eligibility and occupancy.
“(f)
Definitions.—
As used in this section—
“(1)
the term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development;
“(2)
the term ‘conversion’ means the action under which a contract for project-based rental assistance under section 8 of the Act [42 U.S.C. 1437f] and a Rental Assistance Payment contract become a contract for project-based rental assistance under section 8 of the Act (42 U.S.C. 1437f) pursuant to subsection (a);
“(3)
the term ‘resulting contract’ means the new contract after a conversion pursuant to subsection (a); and
“(4)
the term ‘assisted dwelling unit’ means a dwelling unit in a multifamily housing project that exceeds 5,000 units that, on the date of conversion of a contract under this section, is subject to a contract for project-based rental assistance under section 8 of the Act (42 U.S.C. 1437f) or a Rental Assistance Payment contract.”

Purposes of Mark-to-Market Extension Act of 2001

Pub. L. 107–116, title VI, § 602, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2221, provided that: “The purposes of this title [see Short Title of 2002 Amendment note set out under section 1437 of this title] are—

“(1)
to continue the progress of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997 [title V of Pub. L. 105–65, see Short Title of 1997 Amendment note set out under section 1701 of Title 12, Banks and Banking] (referred to in this section as ‘that Act’);
“(2)
to ensure that properties that undergo mortgage restructurings pursuant to that Act are rehabilitated to a standard that allows the properties to meet their long-term affordability requirements;
“(3)
to ensure that, for properties that undergo mortgage restructurings pursuant to that Act, reserves are set at adequate levels to allow the properties to meet their long-term affordability requirements;
“(4)
to ensure that properties that undergo mortgage restructurings pursuant to that Act are operated efficiently, and that operating expenses are sufficient to ensure the long-term financial and physical integrity of the properties;
“(5)
to ensure that properties that undergo rent restructurings have adequate resources to maintain the properties in good condition;
“(6)
to ensure that the Office of Multifamily Housing Assistance Restructuring of the Department of Housing and Urban Development continues to focus on the portfolio of properties eligible for restructuring under that Act;
“(7)
to ensure that the Department of Housing and Urban Development carefully tracks the condition of those properties on an ongoing basis;
“(8)
to ensure that tenant groups, nonprofit organizations, and public entities continue to have the resources for building the capacity of tenant organizations in furtherance of the purposes of subtitle A of that Act [subtitle A of title V of Pub. L. 105–65, set out in a note below]; and
“(9)
to encourage the Office of Multifamily Housing Assistance Restructuring to continue to provide participating administrative entities, including public participating administrative entities, with the flexibility to respond to specific problems that individual cases may present, while ensuring consistent outcomes around the country.”

Pilot Program for Homeownership Assistance for Disabled Families

Pub. L. 106–569, title III, § 302, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2953, authorized a public housing agency providing tenant-based assistance to provide homeownership assistance to a disabled family that purchases a dwelling unit (including a dwelling unit under a lease-purchase agreement) that will be owned by one or more members of the disabled family and will be occupied by the disabled family and required the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to issue implementing regulations not later than 90 days after Dec. 27, 2000.

Determination of Administrative Fees

Pub. L. 108–7, div. K, title II, [(5)], Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 485, which provided that the fee otherwise authorized under subsec. (q) of this section was to be determined in accordance with subsec. (q) as in effect immediately before Oct. 21, 1998, was from the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 2003 and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 107–73, title II, Nov. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 660.

Pub. L. 106–377, § 1(a)(1) [title II], Oct. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 1441, 1441A–12.

Pub. L. 106–74, title II, Oct. 20, 1999, 113 Stat. 1056.

Homeownership Opportunities Demonstration Program

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 555(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2613, provided that:

“(1)
In general.—
With the consent of the affected public housing agencies, the Secretary may carry out (or contract with 1 or more entities to carry out) a demonstration program under section 8(y) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f(y)) to expand homeownership opportunities for low-income families.
“(2)
Report.—
The Secretary shall report annually to Congress on activities conducted under this subsection.”

Multifamily Housing Assistance

Pub. L. 105–65, title V, subtitle A (§§ 511–524), subtitle D (§§ 571–579), Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1385–1408, 1420–1423, as amended by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §§ 549(c), 597(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2608, 2659; Pub. L. 106–74, title II, §§ 213(b), 219, title V, §§ 531(a)–(c), 534, 538(b), Oct. 20, 1999, 113 Stat. 1074, 1075, 1109–1116, 1120, 1123; Pub. L. 106–400, § 2, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1675; Pub. L. 107–116, title VI, §§ 611–614, 616(a)(1), (b), 621, 622(a), 623(a), 624, 625, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2222–2227; Pub. L. 109–289, div. B, title II, § 21043(a), as added by Pub. L. 110–5, § 2, Feb. 15, 2007, 121 Stat. 53; Pub. L. 110–289, div. A, title II, § 1216(d), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2792; Pub. L. 112–55, div. C, title II, § 237, Nov. 18, 2011, 125 Stat. 702; Pub. L. 113–235, div. K, title II, § 232, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2757; Pub. L. 115–141, div. L, title II, § 236, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1037; Pub. L. 117–328, div. L, title II, § 236, Dec. 29, 2022, 136 Stat. 5179, provided that:

“subtitle a—
fha-insured multifamily housing mortgage and housing assistance restructuring
“SEC. 511.
FINDINGS AND PURPOSES.
“(a)
Findings.—
Congress finds that—
“(1)
there exists throughout the Nation a need for decent, safe, and affordable housing;
“(2)
as of the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 27, 1997], it is estimated that—
“(A)
the insured multifamily housing portfolio of the Federal Housing Administration consists of 14,000 rental properties, with an aggregate unpaid principal mortgage balance of $38,000,000,000; and
“(B)
approximately 10,000 of these properties contain housing units that are assisted with project-based rental assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f];
“(3)
FHA-insured multifamily rental properties are a major Federal investment, providing affordable rental housing to an estimated 2,000,000 low- and very low-income families;
“(4)
approximately 1,600,000 of these families live in dwelling units that are assisted with project-based rental assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937;
“(5)
a substantial number of housing units receiving project-based assistance have rents that are higher than the rents of comparable, unassisted rental units in the same housing rental market;
“(6)
many of the contracts for project-based assistance will expire during the several years following the date of enactment of this Act;
“(7)
it is estimated that—
“(A)
if no changes in the terms and conditions of the contracts for project-based assistance are made before fiscal year 2000, the cost of renewing all expiring rental assistance contracts under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 for both project-based and tenant-based rental assistance will increase from approximately $3,600,000,000 in fiscal year 1997 to over $14,300,000,000 by fiscal year 2000 and some $22,400,000,000 in fiscal year 2006;
“(B)
of those renewal amounts, the cost of renewing project-based assistance will increase from $1,200,000,000 in fiscal year 1997 to almost $7,400,000,000 by fiscal year 2006; and
“(C)
without changes in the manner in which project-based rental assistance is provided, renewals of expiring contracts for project-based rental assistance will require an increasingly larger portion of the discretionary budget authority of the Department of Housing and Urban Development in each subsequent fiscal year for the foreseeable future;
“(8)
absent new budget authority for the renewal of expiring rental contracts for project-based assistance, many of the FHA-insured multifamily housing projects that are assisted with project-based assistance are likely to default on their FHA-insured mortgage payments, resulting in substantial claims to the FHA General Insurance Fund and Special Risk Insurance Fund;
“(9)
more than 15 percent of federally assisted multifamily housing projects are physically or financially distressed, including a number which suffer from mismanagement;
“(10)
due to Federal budget constraints, the downsizing of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and diminished administrative capacity, the Department lacks the ability to ensure the continued economic and physical well-being of the stock of federally insured and assisted multifamily housing projects;
“(11)
the economic, physical, and management problems facing the stock of federally insured and assisted multifamily housing projects will be best served by reforms that—
“(A)
reduce the cost of Federal rental assistance, including project-based assistance, to these projects by reducing the debt service and operating costs of these projects while retaining the low-income affordability and availability of this housing;
“(B)
address physical and economic distress of this housing and the failure of some project managers and owners of projects to comply with management and ownership rules and requirements; and
“(C)
transfer and share many of the loan and contract administration functions and responsibilities of the Secretary to and with capable State, local, and other entities; and
“(12)
the authority and duties of the Secretary, not including the control by the Secretary of applicable accounts in the Treasury of the United States, may be delegated to State, local or other entities at the discretion of the Secretary, to the extent the Secretary determines, and for the purpose of carrying out this title [see Short Title of 1997 Amendment note set out under section 1701 of Title 12, Banks and Banking], so that the Secretary has the discretion to be relieved of processing and approving any document or action required by these reforms.
“(b)
Purposes.—
Consistent with the purposes and requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 [Pub. L. 103–62, see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of Title 31, Money and Finance], the purposes of this subtitle are—
“(1)
to preserve low-income rental housing affordability and availability while reducing the long-term costs of project-based assistance;
“(2)
to reform the design and operation of Federal rental housing assistance programs, administered by the Secretary, to promote greater multifamily housing project operating and cost efficiencies;
“(3)
to encourage owners of eligible multifamily housing projects to restructure their FHA-insured mortgages and project-based assistance contracts in a manner that is consistent with this subtitle before the year in which the contract expires;
“(4)
to reduce the cost of insurance claims under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.] related to mortgages insured by the Secretary and used to finance eligible multifamily housing projects;
“(5)
to streamline and improve federally insured and assisted multifamily housing project oversight and administration;
“(6)
to resolve the problems affecting financially and physically troubled federally insured and assisted multifamily housing projects through cooperation with residents, owners, State and local governments, and other interested entities and individuals;
“(7)
to protect the interest of project owners and managers, because they are partners of the Federal Government in meeting the affordable housing needs of the Nation through the section 8 rental housing assistance program;
“(8)
to protect the interest of tenants residing in the multifamily housing projects at the time of the restructuring for the housing; and
“(9)
to grant additional enforcement tools to use against those who violate agreements and program requirements, in order to ensure that the public interest is safeguarded and that Federal multifamily housing programs serve their intended purposes.
“SEC. 512.
DEFINITIONS.
“In this subtitle:
“(1)
Comparable properties.—
The term ‘comparable properties’ means properties in the same market areas, where practicable, that—
“(A)
are similar to the eligible multifamily housing project as to neighborhood (including risk of crime), type of location, access, street appeal, age, property size, apartment mix, physical configuration, property and unit amenities, utilities, and other relevant characteristics; and
“(B)
are not receiving project-based assistance.
“(2)
Eligible multifamily housing project.—
The term ‘eligible multifamily housing project’ means a property consisting of more than 4 dwelling units—
“(A)
with rents that, on an average per unit or per room basis, exceed the rent of comparable properties in the same market area, determined in accordance with guidelines established by the Secretary;
“(B)
that is covered in whole or in part by a contract for project-based assistance under—
“(i)
the new construction or substantial rehabilitation program under section 8(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(b)(2)] (as in effect before October 1, 1983);
“(ii)
the property disposition program under section 8(b) of the United States Housing Act of 1937;
“(iii)
the moderate rehabilitation program under section 8(e)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937;
“(iv)
the loan management assistance program under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937;
“(v)
section 23 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437u] (as in effect before January 1, 1975);
“(vi)
the rent supplement program under section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 [12 U.S.C. 1701s]; or
“(vii)
section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937, following conversion from assistance under section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965; and
“(C)
financed by a mortgage insured or held by the Secretary under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.].
Such term does not include any project with an expiring contract described in paragraph (1) or (2) of section 524(e), but does include a project described in section 524(e)(3). Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, the Secretary may treat a project as an eligible multifamily housing project for purposes of this title if (I) the project is assisted pursuant to a contract for project-based assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 renewed under section 524 of this Act, (II) the owner consents to such treatment, and (III) the project met the requirements of the first sentence of this paragraph for eligibility as an eligible multifamily housing project before the initial renewal of the contract under section 524.
“(3)
Expiring contract.—
The term ‘expiring contract’ means a project-based assistance contract attached to an eligible multifamily housing project which, under the terms of the contract, will expire.
“(4)
Expiration date.—
The term ‘expiration date’ means the date on which an expiring contract expires.
“(5)
Fair market rent.—
The term ‘fair market rent’ means the fair market rental established under section 8(c) of the United States Housing Act of 1937.
“(6)
Low-income families.—
The term ‘low-income families’ has the same meaning as provided under section 3(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437a(b)(2)].
“(7)
Mortgage restructuring and rental assistance sufficiency plan.—
The term ‘mortgage restructuring and rental assistance sufficiency plan’ means the plan as provided under section 514.
“(8)
Nonprofit organization.—
The term ‘nonprofit organization’ means any private nonprofit organization that—
“(A)
is organized under State or local laws;
“(B)
has no part of its net earnings inuring to the benefit of any member, founder, contributor, or individual; and
“(C)
has a long-term record of service in providing or financing quality affordable housing for low-income families through relationships with public entities.
“(9)
Portfolio restructuring agreement.—
The term ‘portfolio restructuring agreement’ means the agreement entered into between the Secretary and a participating administrative entity, as provided under section 513.
“(10)
Participating administrative entity.—
The term ‘participating administrative entity’ means a public agency (including a State housing finance agency or a local housing agency), a nonprofit organization, or any other entity (including a law firm or an accounting firm) or a combination of such entities, that meets the requirements under section 513(b).
“(11)
Project-based assistance.—
The term ‘project-based assistance’ means rental assistance described in paragraph (2)(B) of this section that is attached to a multifamily housing project.
“(12)
Renewal.—
The term ‘renewal’ means the replacement of an expiring Federal rental contract with a new contract under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937, consistent with the requirements of this subtitle.
“(13)
Secretary.—
The term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
“(14)
State.—
The term ‘State’ has the same meaning as in section 104 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12704].
“(15)
Tenant-based assistance.—
The term ‘tenant-based assistance’ has the same meaning as in section 8(f) of the United States Housing Act of 1937.
“(16)
Unit of general local government.—
The term ‘unit of general local government’ has the same meaning as in section 104 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act.
“(17)
Very low-income family.—
The term ‘very low-income family’ has the same meaning as in section 3(b) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437a(b)].
“(18)
Qualified mortgagee.—
The term ‘qualified mortgagee’ means an entity approved by the Secretary that is capable of servicing, as well as originating, FHA-insured mortgages, and that—
“(A)
is not suspended or debarred by the Secretary;
“(B)
is not suspended or on probation imposed by the Mortgagee Review Board; and
“(C)
is not in default under any Government National Mortgage Association obligation.
“(19)
Office.—
The term ‘Office’ means the Office of Multifamily Housing Assistance Restructuring established under section 571.
“SEC. 513.
AUTHORITY OF PARTICIPATING ADMINISTRATIVE ENTITIES.
“(a)
Participating Administrative Entities.—
“(1)
In general.—
Subject to subsection (b)(3), the Secretary shall enter into portfolio restructuring agreements with participating administrative entities for the implementation of mortgage restructuring and rental assistance sufficiency plans to restructure multifamily housing mortgages insured or held by the Secretary under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], in order to—
“(A)
reduce the costs of expiring contracts for assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f];
“(B)
address financially and physically troubled projects; and
“(C)
correct management and ownership deficiencies.
“(2)
Portfolio restructuring agreements.—
Each portfolio restructuring agreement entered into under this subsection shall—
“(A)
be a cooperative agreement to establish the obligations and requirements between the Secretary and the participating administrative entity;
“(B)
identify the eligible multifamily housing projects or groups of projects for which the participating administrative entity is responsible for assisting in developing and implementing approved mortgage restructuring and rental assistance sufficiency plans under section 514;
“(C)
require the participating administrative entity to review and certify to the accuracy and completeness of the evaluation of rehabilitation needs required under section 514(e)(3) for each eligible multifamily housing project included in the portfolio restructuring agreement, in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary;
“(D)
identify the responsibilities of both the participating administrative entity and the Secretary in implementing a mortgage restructuring and rental assistance sufficiency plan, including any actions proposed to be taken under section 516 or 517;
“(E)
require each mortgage restructuring and rental assistance sufficiency plan to be prepared in accordance with the requirements of section 514 for each eligible multifamily housing project;
“(F)
include other requirements established by the Secretary, including a right of the Secretary to terminate the contract immediately for failure of the participating administrative entity to comply with any applicable requirement;
“(G)
if the participating administrative entity is a State housing finance agency or a local housing agency, indemnify the participating administrative entity against lawsuits and penalties for actions taken pursuant to the agreement, excluding actions involving willful misconduct or negligence;
“(H)
include compensation for all reasonable expenses incurred by the participating administrative entity necessary to perform its duties under this subtitle; and
“(I)
include, where appropriate, incentive agreements with the participating administrative entity to reward superior performance in meeting the purposes of this title.
“(b)
Selection of Participating Administrative Entity.—
“(1)
Selection criteria.—

GAO Report on Section 8 Rental Assistance for Multifamily Housing Projects

Pub. L. 105–65, title V, § 532, Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1411, directed the Comptroller General of the United States to report to the Congress on section 8 (42 U.S.C. 1437f) rental assistance for multifamily housing projects, including an analysis of how State and local housing finance agencies had benefited from rental assistance and the effectiveness of project oversight, not later than the expiration of the 18-month period beginning on Oct. 27, 1997.

Administrative Fees for Certificate and Housing Voucher Programs

Pub. L. 104–204, title II, § 202, Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2893, provided that: “Notwithstanding section 8(q) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(q)], as amended—

“(a)
The Secretary shall establish fees for the cost of administering the certificate, voucher and moderate rehabilitation programs.
“(1)
(A)
For fiscal year 1997, the fee for each month for which a dwelling unit is covered by an assistance contract shall be 7.5 percent of the base amount, adjusted as provided herein, in the case of an agency that, on an annual basis, is administering a program of no more than 600 units, and 7 percent of the base amount, adjusted as provided herein, for each additional unit above 600.
“(B)
The base amount shall be the higher of—
“(i)
the fair market rental for fiscal year 1993 for a 2-bedroom existing rental dwelling unit in the market area of the agency; and
“(ii)
such fair market rental for fiscal year 1994, but not more than 103.5 percent of the amount determined under clause (i).
“(C)
The base amount shall be adjusted to reflect changes in the wage data or other objectively measurable data that reflect the costs of administering the program during fiscal year 1996; except that the Secretary may require that the base amount be not less than a minimum amount and not more than a maximum amount.
“(2)
For subsequent fiscal years, the Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal Register, for each geographic area, establishing the amount of the fee that would apply for the agencies administering the program, based on changes in wage data or other objectively measurable data that reflect the cost of administering the program, as determined by the Secretary.
“(3)
The Secretary may increase the fee if necessary to reflect higher costs of administering small programs and programs operating over large geographic areas.
“(4)
The Secretary may decrease the fee for PHA-owned units.
“(b)
Beginning in fiscal year 1997 and thereafter, the Secretary shall also establish reasonable fees (as determined by the Secretary) for—
“(1)
the costs of preliminary expenses, in the amount of $500, for a public housing agency, but only in the first year it administers a tenant-based assistance program under the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.] and only if, immediately before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 26, 1996], it was not administering a tenant-based assistance program under the 1937 Act (as in effect immediately before the effective date of this Act), in connection with its initial increment of assistance received;
“(2)
the costs incurred in assisting families who experience difficulty (as determined by the Secretary) in obtaining appropriate housing under the program; and
“(3)
extraordinary costs approved by the Secretary.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriations Acts:

Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, § 403(b), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 43.

Pub. L. 103–120, § 11(a), Oct. 27, 1993, 107 Stat. 1151.

Contract Renewals

Pub. L. 104–204, title II, § 211, Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2895, as amended by Pub. L. 105–18, title II, § 10006, June 12, 1997, 111 Stat. 201; Pub. L. 105–65, title V, § 523(e), Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1407; Pub. L. 106–400, § 2, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1675, provided that:

“(a)
Definitions.—
For purposes of this section—
“(1)
the term ‘expiring contract’ means a contract for project-based assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] that expires during fiscal year 1997;
“(2)
the term ‘family’ has the same meaning as in section 3(b) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437a(b)];
“(3)
the term ‘multifamily housing project’ means a property consisting of more than 4 dwelling units that is covered in whole or in part by a contract for project-based assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937;
“(4)
the term ‘owner’ has the same meaning as in section 8(f) of the United States Housing Act of 1937;
“(5)
the term ‘project-based assistance’ means rental assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 that is attached to a multifamily housing project;
“(6)
the term ‘public agency’ means a State housing finance agency, a local housing agency, or other agency with a public purpose and status;
“(7)
the term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; and
“(8)
the term ‘tenant-based assistance’ has the same meaning as in section 8(f) of the United States Housing Act of 1937.
“(b)
Section 8 Contract Renewal Authority.—
“(1)
In general.—
Notwithstanding section 405(a) of the Balanced Budget Downpayment Act, I [Pub. L. 104–99, set out below], upon the request of the owner of a multifamily housing project that is covered by an expiring contract, the Secretary shall use amounts made available for the renewal of assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] to renew the expiring contract as project-based assistance for a period of not more than one year, at rent levels that are equal to those under the expiring contract as of the date on which the contract expires: Provided, That those rent levels do not exceed 120 percent of the fair market rent for the market area in which the project is located. For an FHA-insured multifamily housing project with an expiring contract at rent levels that exceed 120 percent of the fair market rent for the market area, the Secretary shall provide, at the request of the owner, section 8 project-based assistance, for a period of not more than one year, at rent levels that do not exceed 120 percent of the fair market rent.
“(2)
Exemption for state and local housing agency projects.—
Notwithstanding paragraph (1), upon the expiration of a contract with rent levels that exceed the percentage described in that paragraph, if the Secretary determines that the primary financing or mortgage insurance for the multifamily housing project that is covered by that expiring contract was provided by a public agency, the Secretary shall, at the request of the owner and the public agency, renew the expiring contract—
“(A)
for a period of not more than one year; and
“(B)
at rent levels that are equal to those under the expiring contract as of the date on which the contract expires.
“(3)
Exemption of certain other projects.—
Notwithstanding paragraph (1), for section 202 projects, section 515 projects, projects with contracts entered into pursuant to [former] section 441 of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act [42 U.S.C. 11401], and projects with rents that exceed 100 percent of fair market rent for the market area, but that are less than rents for comparable projects, upon the expiration of a section 8 contract, the Secretary shall, at the request of the owner, renew the expiring contract—
“(A)
for a period of not more than one year; and
“(B)
at rent levels that are equal to those under the expiring contract as of the date on which the contract expires.
“(4)
Other contracts.—
“(A)
Participation in demonstration.—
For a contract covering an FHA-insured multifamily housing project that expires during fiscal year 1997 with rent levels that exceed the percentage described in paragraph (1) and after notice to the tenants, the Secretary shall, at the request of the owner of the project and after notice to the tenants, include that multifamily housing project in the demonstration program under section 212 of this Act [set out below]. The Secretary shall ensure that a multifamily housing project with an expiring contract in fiscal year 1997 shall be allowed to be included in the demonstration.
“(B)
Effect of material adverse actions and omissions.—
Notwithstanding paragraph (1) or any other provision of law, the Secretary shall not renew an expiring contract if the Secretary determines that the owner of the multifamily housing project has engaged in material adverse financial or managerial actions or omissions with regard to the project (or with regard to other similar projects if the Secretary determines that such actions or omissions constitute a pattern of mismanagement that would warrant suspension or debarment by the Secretary). The term ‘owner’, as used in this subparagraph, in addition to it having the same meaning as in section 8(f) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(f)], also means an affiliate of the owner. The term ‘affiliate of the owner’ means any person or entity (including, but not limited to, a general partner or managing member, or an officer of either) that controls an owner, is controlled by an owner, or is under common control with the owner. The term ‘control’ means the direct or indirect power (under contract, equity ownership, the right to vote or determine a vote, or otherwise) to direct the financial, legal, beneficial, or other interests of the owner.
“(C)
Transfer of property.—
For properties disqualified from the demonstration program because of actions by an owner or purchaser in accordance with subparagraph (B), the Secretary shall establish procedures to facilitate the voluntary sale or transfer of the property, with a preference for tenant organizations and tenant-endorsed community-based nonprofit and public agency purchasers meeting such reasonable qualifications as may be established by the Secretary. The Secretary may include the transfer of section 8 project-based assistance.
“(5)
Tenant protections.—
Any family residing in an assisted unit in a multifamily housing project that is covered by an expiring contract that is not renewed, shall be offered tenant-based assistance before the date on which the contract expires or is not renewed.”

Pub. L. 104–120, § 2(a), Mar. 28, 1996, 110 Stat. 834, provided that: “Notwithstanding section 405(b) of the Balanced Budget Downpayment Act, I (Public Law 104–99; 110 Stat. 44) [set out below], at the request of the owner of any project assisted under section 8(e)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(e)(2)] (as such section existed immediately before October 1, 1991), the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may renew, for a period of 1 year, the contract for assistance under such section for such project that expires or terminates during fiscal year 1996 at current rent levels.”

Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, § 405(a), (b), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 44, as amended by Pub. L. 105–65, title V, § 523(d), Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1407, provided that:

“(a)
Notwithstanding part 24 of title 24 of the Code of Federal Regulations, for fiscal year 1996 and henceforth, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may use amounts available for the renewal of assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f], upon termination or expiration of a contract for assistance under section 8 of such Act of 1937 (other than a contract for tenant-based assistance and notwithstanding section 8(v) of such Act for loan management assistance), to provide assistance under section 8 of such Act, subject to the Section 8 Existing Fair Market Rents, for the eligible families assisted under the contracts at expiration or termination, which assistance shall be in accordance with terms and conditions prescribed by the Secretary.
“(b)
Notwithstanding subsection (a) and except for projects assisted under section 8(e)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (as it existed immediately prior to October 1, 1991), at the request of the owner, the Secretary shall renew for a period of one year contracts for assistance under section 8 that expire or terminate during fiscal year 1996 at the current rent levels.”

FHA Multifamily Demonstration Authority

Pub. L. 104–204, title II, § 212, Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2897, as amended by Pub. L. 105–65, title V, § 523(f), Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1407, provided that:

“(a)
In General.—
“(1)
Repeal.—
“(A)
In general.—
Section 210 of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1996 (110 Stat. 1321) [section 101(e) [title II, § 210] of Pub. L. 104–134, formerly set out as a note below] is repealed.
“(B)
Exception.—
Notwithstanding the repeal under subparagraph (A), amounts made available under section 210(f) [of] the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1996 shall remain available for the demonstration program under this section through the end of fiscal year 1997.
“(2)
Savings provisions.—
Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect any commitment entered into before the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 26, 1996] under the demonstration program under section 210 of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1996.
“(3)
Definitions.—
For purposes of this section—
“(A)
the term ‘demonstration program’ means the program established under subsection (b);
“(B)
the term ‘expiring contract’ means a contract for project-based assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] that expires during fiscal year 1997;
“(C)
the term ‘family’ has the same meaning as in section 3(b) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437a(b)];
“(D)
the term ‘multifamily housing project’ means a property consisting of more than 4 dwelling units that is covered in whole or in part by a contract for project-based assistance;
“(E)
the term ‘owner’ has the same meaning as in section 8(f) of the United States Housing Act of 1937;
“(F)
the term ‘project-based assistance’ means rental assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 that is attached to a multifamily housing project;
“(G)
the term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; and
“(H)
the term ‘tenant-based assistance’ has the same meaning as in section 8(f) of the United States Housing Act of 1937.
“(b)
Demonstration Authority.—
“(1)
In general.—
Subject to the funding limitation in subsection (l), the Secretary shall administer a demonstration program with respect to multifamily projects—
“(A)
whose owners agree to participate;
“(B)
with rents on units assisted under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] that are, in the aggregate, in excess of 120 percent of the fair market rent of the market area in which the project is located; and
“(C)
the mortgages of which are insured under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.].
“(2)
Purpose.—
The demonstration program shall be designed to obtain as much information as is feasible on the economic viability and rehabilitation needs of the multifamily housing projects in the demonstration, to test various approaches for restructuring mortgages to reduce the financial risk to the FHA Insurance Fund while reducing the cost of section 8 subsidies, and to test the feasibility and desirability of—
“(A)
ensuring, to the maximum extent practicable, that the debt service and operating expenses, including adequate reserves, attributable to such multifamily projects can be supported at the comparable market rent with or without mortgage insurance under the National Housing Act and with or without additional section 8 rental subsidies;
“(B)
utilizing section 8 rental assistance, while taking into account the capital needs of the projects and the need for adequate rental assistance to support the low- and very low-income families residing in such projects; and
“(C)
preserving low-income rental housing affordability and availability while reducing the long-term cost of section 8 rental assistance.
“(c)
Goals.—
“(1)
In general.—
The Secretary shall carry out the demonstration program in a manner that will protect the financial interests of the Federal Government through debt restructuring and subsidy reduction and, in the least costly fashion, address the goals of—
“(A)
maintaining existing affordable housing stock in a decent, safe, and sanitary condition;
“(B)
minimizing the involuntary displacement of tenants;
“(C)
taking into account housing market conditions;
“(D)
encouraging responsible ownership and management of property;
“(E)
minimizing any adverse income tax impact on property owners; and
“(F)
minimizing any adverse impacts on residential neighborhoods and local communities.
“(2)
Balance of competing goals.—
In determining the manner in which a mortgage is to be restructured or a subsidy reduced under this subsection, the Secretary may balance competing goals relating to individual projects in a manner that will further the purposes of this section.
“(d)
Participation Arrangements.—
“(1)
In general.—
In carrying out the demonstration program, the Secretary may enter into participation arrangements with designees, under which the Secretary may provide for the assumption by designees (by delegation, by contract, or otherwise) of some or all of the functions, obligations, responsibilities and benefits of the Secretary.
“(2)
Designees.—
In entering into any arrangement under this subsection, the Secretary shall select state housing finance agencies, housing agencies or nonprofits (separately or in conjunction with each other) to act as designees to the extent such agencies are determined to be qualified by the Secretary. In locations where there is no qualified State housing finance agency, housing agency or nonprofit to act as a designee, the Secretary may act as a designee. Each participation arrangement entered into under this subsection shall include a designee as the primary partner. Any organization selected by the Secretary under this section shall have a long-term record of service in providing low-income housing and meet standards of fiscal responsibility, as determined by the Secretary.
“(3)
Designee partnerships.—
For purposes of any participation arrangement under this subsection, designees are encouraged to develop partnerships with each other, and to contract or subcontract with other entities, including—
“(A)
public housing agencies;
“(B)
financial institutions;
“(C)
mortgage servicers;
“(D)
nonprofit and for-profit housing organizations;
“(E)
the Federal National Mortgage Association;
“(F)
the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation;
“(G)
Federal Home Loan Banks; and
“(H)
other State or local mortgage insurance companies or bank lending consortia.
“(e)
Long-Term Affordability.—
“(1)
In general.—
After the renewal of a section 8 contract pursuant to a restructuring under this section, the owner shall accept each offer to renew the section 8 contract, for a period of 20 years from the date of the renewal under the demonstration, if the offer to renew is on terms and conditions, as agreed to by the Secretary or designee and the owner under a restructuring.
“(2)
Affordability requirements.—
Except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, in exchange for any mortgage restructuring under this section, a project shall remain affordable for a period of not less than 20 years. Affordability requirements shall be determined in accordance with guidelines established by the Secretary or designee. The Secretary or designee may waive these requirements for good cause.
“(f)
Procedures.—
“(1)
Notice of participation in demonstration.—
Not later than 45 days before the date of expiration of an expiring contract (or such later date, as determined by the Secretary, for good cause), the owner of the multifamily housing project covered by that expiring contract shall notify the Secretary or designee and the residents of the owner’s intent to participate in the demonstration program.
“(2)
Demonstration contract.—
Upon receipt of a notice under paragraph (1), the owner and the Secretary or designee shall enter into a demonstration contract, which shall provide for initial section 8 project-based rents at the same rent levels as those under the expiring contract or, if practical, the budget-based rent to cover debt service, reasonable operating expenses (including reasonable and appropriate services), and a reasonable return to the owner, as determined solely by the Secretary. The demonstration contract shall be for the minimum term necessary for the rents and mortgages of the multifamily housing project to be restructured under the demonstration program, but shall not be for a period of time to exceed 180 days, unless extended for good cause by the Secretary.
“(g)
(1)
Project-Based Section 8.—
The Secretary shall renew all expiring contracts under the demonstration as section 8 project-based contracts, for a period of time not to exceed one year, unless otherwise provided under subsection (h) or in paragraph (2).
“(2)
The Secretary may renew a demonstration contract for an additional period of not to exceed 120 days, if—
“(A)
the contract was originally executed before February 1, 1997, and the Secretary determines, in the sole discretion of the Secretary, that the renewal period for the contract needs to exceed 1 year, due to delay of publication of the Secretary’s demonstration program guidelines until January 23, 1997 (not to exceed 21 projects); or
“(B)
the contract was originally executed before October 1, 1997, in connection with a project that has been identified for restructuring under the joint venture approach described in section VII.B.2. of the Secretary’s demonstration program guidelines, and the Secretary determines, in the sole discretion of the Secretary, that the renewal period for the contract needs to exceed 1 year, due to delay in implementation of the joint venture agreement required by the guidelines (not to exceed 25 projects).
“(h)
Demonstration Actions.—
“(1)
Demonstration actions.—
For purposes of carrying out the demonstration program, and in order to ensure that contract rights are not abrogated, subject to such third party consents as are necessary (if any), including consent by the Government National Mortgage Association if it owns a mortgage insured by the Secretary, consent by an issuer under the mortgage-backed securities program of the Association, subject to the responsibilities of the issuer to its security holders and the Association under such program, and consent by parties to any contractual agreement which the Secretary proposes to modify or discontinue, the Secretary or, except with respect to subparagraph (B), designee, subject to the funding limitation in subsection (l), shall take not less than one of the actions specified in subparagraphs (G), (H), and (I) and may take any of the following actions:
“(A)
Removal of restrictions.—
“(i)
In general.—
Consistent with the purposes of this section, subject to the agreement of the owner of the project and after consultation with the tenants of the project, the Secretary or designee may remove, relinquish, extinguish, modify, or agree to the removal of any mortgage, regulatory agreement, project-based assistance contract, use agreement, or restriction that had been imposed or required by the Secretary, including restrictions on distributions of income which the Secretary or designee determines would interfere with the ability of the project to operate without above-market rents.
“(ii)
Accumulated residual receipts.—
The Secretary or designee may require an owner of a property assisted under the section 8 new construction/substantial rehabilitation program under the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.] to apply any accumulated residual receipts toward effecting the purposes of this section.
“(B)
Reinsurance.—
With respect to not more than 5,000 units within the demonstration during fiscal year 1997, the Secretary may enter into contracts to purchase reinsurance, or enter into participations or otherwise transfer economic interest in contracts of insurance or in the premiums paid, or due to be paid, on such insurance, on such terms and conditions as the Secretary may determine. Any contract entered into under this paragraph shall require that any associated units be maintained as low-income units for the life of the mortgage, unless waived by the Secretary for good cause.
“(C)
Participation by third parties.—
The Secretary or designee may enter into such agreements, provide such concessions, incur such costs, make such grants (including grants to cover all or a portion of the rehabilitation costs for a project) and other payments, and provide other valuable consideration as may reasonably be necessary for owners, lenders, servicers, third parties, and other entities to participate in the demonstration program. The Secretary may establish performance incentives for designees.
“(D)
Section 8 administrative fees.—
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may make fees available from the section 8 contract renewal appropriation to a designee for contract administration under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] for purposes of any contract restructured or renewed under the demonstration program.
“(E)
Full or partial payment of claim.—
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may make a full payment of claim or partial payment of claim prior to default.
“(F)
Credit enhancement.—
“(i)
In general.—
The Secretary or designee may provide FHA multifamily mortgage insurance, reinsurance, or other credit enhancement alternatives, including retaining the existing FHA mortgage insurance on a restructured first mortgage at market value or using the multifamily risk-sharing mortgage programs, as provided under section 542 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [12 U.S.C. 1707 note]. Any limitations on the number of units available for mortgage insurance under section 542 shall not apply to insurance issued for purposes of the demonstration program.
“(ii)
Maximum percentage.—
During fiscal year 1997, not more than 25 percent of the units in multifamily housing projects with expiring contracts in the demonstration, in the aggregate, may be restructured without FHA insurance, unless otherwise agreed to by the owner of a project.
“(iii)
Credit subsidy.—
Any credit subsidy costs of providing mortgage insurance shall be paid from amounts made available under subsection (l).
“(G)
Mortgage restructuring.—
“(i)
In general.—
The Secretary or designee may restructure mortgages to provide a restructured first mortgage to cover debt service and operating expenses (including a reasonable rate of return to the owner) at the market rent, and a second mortgage equal to the difference between the restructured first mortgage and the mortgage balance of the eligible multifamily housing project at the time of restructuring.
“(ii)
Credit subsidy.—
Any credit subsidy costs of providing a second mortgage shall be paid from amounts made available under subsection (l).
“(H)
Debt forgiveness.—
The Secretary or designee, for good cause and at the request of the owner of a multifamily housing project, may forgive at the time of the restructuring of a mortgage any portion of a debt on the project that exceeds the market value of the project.
“(I)
Budget-based rents.—
The Secretary or designee may renew an expiring contract, including a contract for a project in which operating costs exceed comparable market rents, for a period of not more than one year, at a budget-based rent that covers debt service, reasonable operating expenses (including all reasonable and appropriate services), and a reasonable rate of return to the owner, as determined solely by the Secretary, provided that the contract does not exceed the rent levels under the expiring contract. The Secretary may establish a preference under the demonstration program for budget-based rents for unique housing projects, such as projects designated for occupancy by elderly families and projects in rural areas.
“(J)
Section 8 tenant-based assistance.—
For not more than 10 percent of units in multifamily housing projects that have had their mortgages restructured in any fiscal year under the demonstration, the Secretary or designee may provide, with the agreement of an owner and in consultation with the tenants of the housing, section 8 tenant-based assistance for some or all of the assisted units in a multifamily housing project in lieu of section 8 project-based assistance. Section 8 tenant-based assistance may only be provided where the Secretary determines and certifies that there is adequate available and affordable housing within the local area and that tenants will be able to use the section 8 tenant-based assistance successfully.
“(2)
Offer and acceptance.—
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an owner of a project in the demonstration must accept any reasonable offer made by the Secretary or a designee under this subsection. An owner may appeal the reasonableness of any offer to the Secretary and the Secretary shall respond within 30 days of the date of appeal with a final offer. If the final offer is not acceptable, the owner may opt out of the program.
“(i)
Community and Tenant Input.—
In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall develop procedures to provide appropriate and timely notice, including an opportunity for comment and timely access to all relevant information, to officials of the unit of general local government affected, the community in which the project is situated, and the tenants of the project.
“(j)
Transfer of Property.—
The Secretary shall establish procedures to facilitate the voluntary sale or transfer of multifamily housing projects under the demonstration to tenant organizations and tenant-endorsed community-based nonprofit and public agency purchasers meeting such reasonable qualifications as may be established by the Secretary.
“(k)
Limitation on Demonstration Authority.—
The Secretary shall carry out the demonstration program with respect to mortgages not to exceed 50,000 units.
“(l)
Funding.—
In addition to the $30,000,000 made available under section 210 of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1996 (110 Stat. 1321) [section 101(e) [title II, § 210] of Pub. L. 104–134, formerly set out as a note below], for the costs (including any credit subsidy costs associated with providing direct loans or mortgage insurance) of modifying and restructuring loans held or guaranteed by the Federal Housing Administration, as authorized under this section, $10,000,000 is hereby appropriated, to remain available until September 30, 1998.
“(m)
Report to Congress.—
“(1)
In general.—
“(A)
Quarterly reports.—
Not less than every 3 months, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress a report describing and assessing the status of the projects in the demonstration program.
“(B)
Final report.—
Not later than 6 months after the end of the demonstration program, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress a final report on the demonstration program.
“(2)
Contents.—
Each report submitted under paragraph (1)(A) shall include a description of—
“(A)
each restructuring proposal submitted by an owner of a multifamily housing project, including a description of the physical, financial, tenancy, and market characteristics of the project;
“(B)
the Secretary’s evaluation and reasons for each multifamily housing project selected or rejected for participation in the demonstration program;
“(C)
the costs to the FHA General Insurance and Special Risk Insurance funds;
“(D)
the subsidy costs provided before and after restructuring;
“(E)
the actions undertaken in the demonstration program, including the third-party arrangements made; and
“(F)
the demonstration program’s impact on the owners of the projects, including any tax consequences.
“(3)
Contents of final report.—
The report submitted under paragraph (1)(B) shall include—
“(A)
the required contents under paragraph (2); and
“(B)
any findings and recommendations for legislative action.”

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, § 101(e) [title II, § 210], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–257, 1321–285; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, § 1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327, which authorized the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development on and after Oct. 1, 1995, and before Oct. 1, 1997, to initiate a FHA multifamily demonstration program, was repealed by Pub. L. 104–204, title II, § 212(a)(1)(A), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2897.

Public Housing Moving to Work Demonstration

Pub. L. 114–113, div. L, title II, § 239, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2897, provided that: “The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall increase, pursuant to this section, the number of Moving to Work agencies authorized under section 204, title II, of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1996 (Public Law 104–134; 110 Stat. 1321) [set out below] by adding to the program 100 public housing agencies that are designated as high performing agencies under the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS) or the Section Eight Management Assessment Program (SEMAP). No public housing agency shall be granted this designation through this section that administers in excess of 27,000 aggregate housing vouchers and public housing units. Of the agencies selected under this section, no less than 50 shall administer 1,000 or fewer aggregate housing voucher and public housing units, no less than 47 shall administer 1,001-6,000 aggregate housing voucher and public housing units, and no more than 3 shall administer 6,001–27,000 aggregate housing voucher and public housing units. Of the 100 agencies selected under this section, five shall be agencies with portfolio awards under the Rental Assistance Demonstration that meet the other requirements of this section, including current designations as high performing agencies or such designations held immediately prior to such portfolio awards. Selection of agencies under this section shall be based on ensuring the geographic diversity of Moving to Work agencies. In addition to the preceding selection criteria, agencies shall be designated by the Secretary over a 7-year period. The Secretary shall establish a research advisory committee which shall advise the Secretary with respect to specific policy proposals and methods of research and evaluation for the demonstration. The advisory committee shall include program and research experts from the Department, a fair representation of agencies with a Moving to Work designation, and independent subject matter experts in housing policy research. For each cohort of agencies receiving a designation under this heading, the Secretary shall direct one specific policy change to be implemented by the agencies, and with the approval of the Secretary, such agencies may implement additional policy changes. All agencies designated under this section shall be evaluated through rigorous research as determined by the Secretary, and shall provide information requested by the Secretary to support such oversight and evaluation, including the targeted policy changes. Research and evaluation shall be coordinated under the direction of the Secretary, and in consultation with the advisory committee, and findings shall be shared broadly. The Secretary shall consult the advisory committee with respect to policy changes that have proven successful and can be applied more broadly to all public housing agencies, and propose any necessary statutory changes. The Secretary may, at the request of a Moving to Work agency and one or more adjacent public housing agencies in the same area, designate that Moving to Work agency as a regional agency. A regional Moving to Work agency may administer the assistance under sections 8 and 9 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f and [1437]g) for the participating agencies within its region pursuant to the terms of its Moving to Work agreement with the Secretary. The Secretary may agree to extend the term of the agreement and to make any necessary changes to accommodate regionalization. A Moving to Work agency may be selected as a regional agency if the Secretary determines that unified administration of assistance under sections 8 and 9 [42 U.S.C. 1437f, 1437g] by that agency across multiple jurisdictions will lead to efficiencies and to greater housing choice for low-income persons in the region. For purposes of this expansion, in addition to the provisions of the Act retained in section 204, section 8(r)(1) of the Act [42 U.S.C. 1437f(r)(1)] shall continue to apply unless the Secretary determines that waiver of this section is necessary to implement comprehensive rent reform and occupancy policies subject to evaluation by the Secretary, and the waiver contains, at a minimum, exceptions for requests to port due to employment, education, health and safety. No public housing agency granted this designation through this section shall receive more funding under sections 8 or 9 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f, 1437g] than it otherwise would have received absent this designation. The Secretary shall extend the current Moving to Work agreements of previously designated participating agencies until the end of each such agency’s fiscal year 2028 under the same terms and conditions of such current agreements, except for any changes to such terms or conditions otherwise mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and any such agency and such extension agreements shall prohibit any statutory offset of any reserve balances equal to 4 months of operating expenses. Any such reserve balances that exceed such amount shall remain available to any such agency for all permissible purposes under such agreement unless subject to a statutory offset. In addition to other reporting requirements, all Moving to Work agencies shall report financial data to the Department of Housing and Urban Development as specified by the Secretary, so that the effect of Moving to Work policy changes can be measured.”

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, § 101(e) [title II, § 204], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–257, 1321–281, as amended by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 522(b)(3), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2564, provided that:

“(a)
Purpose.—
The purpose of this demonstration is to give public housing agencies and the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development the flexibility to design and test various approaches for providing and administering housing assistance that: reduce cost and achieve greater cost effectiveness in Federal expenditures; give incentives to families with children where the head of household is working, seeking work, or is preparing for work by participating in job training, educational programs, or programs that assist people to obtain employment and become economically self-sufficient; and increase housing choices for low-income families.
“(b)
Program Authority.—
The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall conduct a demonstration program under this section beginning in fiscal year 1996 under which up to 30 public housing agencies (including Indian housing authorities) administering the public or Indian housing program and the section 8 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] housing assistance payments program may be selected by the Secretary to participate. The Secretary shall provide training and technical assistance during the demonstration and conduct detailed evaluations of up to 15 such agencies in an effort to identify replicable program models promoting the purpose of the demonstration. Under the demonstration, notwithstanding any provision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.] except as provided in subsection (e), an agency may combine operating assistance provided under section 9 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437g], modernization assistance provided under section 14 of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1437l], and assistance provided under section 8 of such Act for the certificate and voucher programs, to provide housing assistance for low-income families, as defined in section 3(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437a(b)(2)], and services to facilitate the transition to work on such terms and conditions as the agency may propose and the Secretary may approve.
“(c)
Application.—
An application to participate in the demonstration—
“(1)
shall request authority to combine assistance under sections 8, 9, and 14 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f, 1437g, 1437l];
“(2)
shall be submitted only after the public housing agency provides for citizen participation through a public hearing and, if appropriate, other means;
“(3)
shall include a plan developed by the agency that takes into account comments from the public hearing and any other public comments on the proposed program, and comments from current and prospective residents who would be affected, and that includes criteria for—
“(A)
families to be assisted, which shall require that at least 75 percent of the families assisted by participating demonstration public housing authorities shall be very low-income families, as defined in section 3(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437a(b)(2)];
“(B)
establishing a reasonable rent policy, which shall be designed to encourage employment and self-sufficiency by participating families, consistent with the purpose of this demonstration, such as by excluding some or all of a family’s earned income for purposes of determining rent;
“(C)
continuing to assist substantially the same total number of eligible low-income families as would have been served had the amounts not been combined;
“(D)
maintaining a comparable mix of families (by family size) as would have been provided had the amounts not been used under the demonstration; and
“(E)
assuring that housing assisted under the demonstration program meets housing quality standards established or approved by the Secretary; and
“(4)
may request assistance for training and technical assistance to assist with design of the demonstration and to participate in a detailed evaluation.
“(d)
Selection.—
In selecting among applications, the Secretary shall take into account the potential of each agency to plan and carry out a program under the demonstration, the relative performance by an agency under the public housing management assessment program under section 6(j) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437d(j)], and other appropriate factors as determined by the Secretary.
“(e)
Applicability of 1937 Act Provisions.—
“(1)
Section 18 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437p] shall continue to apply to public housing notwithstanding any use of the housing under this demonstration.
“(2)
Section 12 of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1437j] shall apply to housing assisted under the demonstration, other than housing assisted solely due to occupancy by families receiving tenant-based assistance.
“(f)
Effect on Section 8, Operating Subsidies, and Comprehensive Grant Program Allocations.—
The amount of assistance received under section 8, section 9, or pursuant to section 14 [42 U.S.C. 1437f, 1437g, 1437l] by a public housing agency participating in the demonstration under this part [section] shall not be diminished by its participation.
“(g)
Records, Reports, and Audits.—
“(1)
Keeping of records.—
Each agency shall keep such records as the Secretary may prescribe as reasonably necessary to disclose the amounts and the disposition of amounts under this demonstration, to ensure compliance with the requirements of this section, and to measure performance.
“(2)
Reports.—
Each agency shall submit to the Secretary a report, or series of reports, in a form and at a time specified by the Secretary. Each report shall—
“(A)
document the use of funds made available under this section;
“(B)
provide such data as the Secretary may request to assist the Secretary in assessing the demonstration; and
“(C)
describe and analyze the effect of assisted activities in addressing the objectives of this part [section].
“(3)
Access to documents by the secretary.—
The Secretary shall have access for the purpose of audit and examination to any books, documents, papers, and records that are pertinent to assistance in connection with, and the requirements of, this section.
“(4)
Access to documents by the comptroller general.—
The Comptroller General of the United States, or any of the duly authorized representatives of the Comptroller General, shall have access for the purpose of audit and examination to any books, documents, papers, and records that are pertinent to assistance in connection with, and the requirements of, this section.
“(h)
Evaluation and Report.—
“(1)
Consultation with pha and family representatives.—
In making assessments throughout the demonstration, the Secretary shall consult with representatives of public housing agencies and residents.
“(2)
Report to congress.—
Not later than 180 days after the end of the third year of the demonstration, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress a report evaluating the programs carried out under the demonstration. The report shall also include findings and recommendations for any appropriate legislative action.
“(i)
Funding for Technical Assistance and Evaluation.—
From amounts appropriated for assistance under section 14 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437l] for fiscal years 1996, 1997, and 1998, the Secretary may use up to a total of $5,000,000—
“(1)
to provide, directly or by contract, training and technical assistance—
“(A)
to public housing agencies that express an interest to apply for training and technical assistance pursuant to subsection (c)(4), to assist them in designing programs to be proposed for the demonstration; and
“(B)
to up to 10 agencies selected to receive training and technical assistance pursuant to subsection (c)(4), to assist them in implementing the approved program; and
“(2)
to conduct detailed evaluations of the activities of the public housing agencies under paragraph (1)(B), directly or by contract.
“(j)
Capital and Operating Fund Assistance.—
With respect to any public housing agency participating in the demonstration under this section that receives assistance from the Capital or Operating Fund under section 9 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437g] (as amended by the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998), for purposes of this section—
“(1)
any reference to assistance under section 9 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 shall be considered to refer also to assistance provided from the Operating Fund under section 9(e) of such Act (as so amended); and
“(2)
any reference to assistance under section 14 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [former 42 U.S.C. 1437l] shall be considered to refer also to assistance provided from the Capital Fund under section 9(d) of such Act (as so amended).”

Prohibition Against Preferences With Respect to Certain Projects

Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, § 402(d)(4)(B), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 42, provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no Federal tenant selection preferences under the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.] shall apply with respect to—

“(i)
housing constructed or substantially rehabilitated pursuant to assistance provided under section 8(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(b)(2)] (as such section existed on the day before October 1, 1983); or
“(ii)
projects financed under section 202 of the Housing Act of 1959 [12 U.S.C. 1701q] (as such section existed on the day before the date of enactment of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [Nov. 28, 1990]).”

[Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 514(c)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2548, provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law (including subsection (f) of this section [set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note under section 1437a of this title]), section 402(d)(4)(B) of The Balanced Budget Downpayment Act, I [Pub. L. 104–99, set out above] (42 U.S.C. 1437a note) shall apply to fiscal year 1999 and thereafter.”]

[Section 402(d)(4)(B) of Pub. L. 104–99, set out above, effective Jan. 26, 1996, only for fiscal years 1996, 1997, and 1998, and to cease to be effective Oct. 21, 1998, see section 402(f) of Pub. L. 104–99, as amended, and section 514(f) of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments notes under section 1437a of this title.]

Community Investment Demonstration Program

Pub. L. 103–120, § 6, Oct. 27, 1993, 107 Stat. 1148, as amended by Pub. L. 104–316, title I, § 122(j), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3837, provided that:

“(a)
Demonstration Program.—
The Secretary shall carry out a demonstration program to attract pension fund investment in affordable housing through the use of project-based rental assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f].
“(b)
Funding Requirements.—
In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall ensure that not less than 50 percent of the funds appropriated for the demonstration program each year are used in conjunction with the disposition of either—
“(1)
multifamily properties owned by the Department; or
“(2)
multifamily properties securing mortgages held by the Department.
“(c)
Contract Terms.—
“(1)
In general.—
Project-based assistance under this section shall be provided pursuant to a contract entered into by the Secretary and the owner of the eligible housing that—
“(A)
provides assistance for a term of not less than 60 months and not greater than 180 months; and
“(B)
provides for contract rents, to be determined by the Secretary, which shall not exceed contract rents permitted under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f], taking into consideration any costs for the construction, rehabilitation, or acquisition of the housing.
“(2)
Amendment to section 203.—

[Amended section 1701z–11 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.]

“(d)
Limitation.—
(1)
The Secretary may not provide (or make a commitment to provide) more than 50 percent of the funding for housing financed by any single pension fund, except that this limitation shall not apply if the Secretary, after the end of the 6-month period beginning on the date notice is issued under subsection (e)—
“(A)
determines that—
“(i)
there are no expressions of interest that are likely to result in approvable applications in the reasonably foreseeable future; or
“(ii)
any such expressions of interest are not likely to use all funding under this section; and
“(B)
so informs the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs [now Committee on Financial Services] of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate.
“(2)
If the Secretary determines that there are expressions of interest referred to in paragraph (1)(A)(ii), the Secretary may reserve funding sufficient in the Secretary’s determination to fund such applications and may use any remaining funding for other pension funds in accordance with this section.
“(e)
Implementation.—
The Secretary shall by notice establish such requirements as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section. The notice shall take effect upon issuance.
“(f)
Applicability of ERISA.—
Notwithstanding section 514(d) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1144(d)], nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize any action or failure to act that would constitute a violation of such Act [29 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.].
“(g)
Report.—
Not later than 3 months after the last day of each fiscal year, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs [now Committee on Financial Services] of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate a report summarizing the activities carried out under this section during that fiscal year.
“(h)
Establishment of Standards.—
Mortgages secured by housing assisted under this demonstration shall meet such standards regarding financing and securitization as the Secretary may establish.
“(i)
Authorization of Appropriations.—
There are authorized to be appropriated $100,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 to carry out this section.
“[(j)
Redesignated (i).]
“(k)
Termination Date.—
The Secretary shall not enter into any new commitment to provide assistance under this section after September 30, 1998.”

Administrative Fees for Certificate and Housing Voucher Programs During Fiscal Year 1994

Pub. L. 103–120, § 11(a), Oct. 27, 1993, 107 Stat. 1151, provided that: “Notwithstanding the second sentence of section 8(q)(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(q)(1)], other applicable law, or any implementing regulations and related requirements, the fee for the ongoing costs of administering the certificate and housing voucher programs under subsections (b) and (o) of section 8 of such Act during fiscal year 1994 shall be—

“(1)
not less than a fee calculated in accordance with the fair market rents for Federal fiscal year 1993; or
“(2)
not more than—
“(A)
a fee calculated in accordance with section 8(q) of such Act, except that such fee shall not be in excess of 3.5 percent above the fee calculated in accordance with paragraph (1); or
“(B)
to the extent approved in an appropriation Act, a fee calculated in accordance with such section 8(q).”

Effectiveness of Assistance for PHA-Owned Units

Pub. L. 102–550, title I, § 150, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3715, provided that: “The amendments made by section 548 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [Pub. L. 101–625, amending this section] shall be effective notwithstanding the absence of any regulations issued by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.”

Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing

Pub. L. 102–550, title I, § 152, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3716, as amended by Pub. L. 103–120, § 3, Oct. 27, 1993, 107 Stat. 1148, which directed Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to carry out demonstration program in eligible cities to provide tenant-based assistance to very low-income families with children to move out of areas of high concentrations of persons living in poverty to areas with low concentrations of such persons, required biennial report to Congress evaluating effectiveness and final report not later than Sept. 30, 2004, provided for increased funding under section 1437c(c) of this title to carry out demonstration, and authorized implementation by notice of requirements necessary to carry out program, was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 550(f), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2610.

Directive to Further Fair Housing Objectives Under Certificate and Voucher Programs

Pub. L. 102–550, title I, § 153, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3717, which directed Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, not later than 2 years after Oct. 28, 1992, to review and comment upon study prepared pursuant to section 558(3) of Pub. L. 101–625, formerly set out as a note below, to evaluate implementation and effects of existing demonstration and judicially mandated programs, to assess factors that might impede geographic dispersion of families receiving section 8 certificates and vouchers, to identify and implement administrative revisions that would enhance dispersion and tenant choice, and to submit report to Congress describing findings, actions taken, and recommendations, was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 582(a)(3), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2643.

Inapplicability of Certain 1992 Amendments to Indian Public Housing

Amendment by section 623(b) of Pub. L. 102–550 not applicable with respect to lower income housing developed or operated pursuant to contract between Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and Indian housing authority, see section 626 of Pub. L. 102–550, set out as a note under section 1437a of this title.

Termination of Existing Housing Programs

Except with respect to projects and programs for which binding commitments have been entered into prior to Oct. 1, 1991, no new grants or loans to be made after Oct. 1, 1991, under subsec. (e)(2) of this section except for funds allocated under such section for single room occupancy dwellings as authorized by subchapter IV (§ 11361 et seq.) of chapter 119 of this title, see section 12839(a)(4) of this title.

Public Housing Mixed Income New Communities Strategy Demonstration

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, § 522, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4207, as amended by Pub. L. 104–66, title I, § 1071(b), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 720; Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, § 402(d)(6)(B), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 43, which directed Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to carry out program to demonstrate effectiveness of promoting revitalization of troubled urban communities through provision of public housing in socioeconomically mixed settings, directed appointment of coordinating committees to develop implementation plans, set forth scope of program including provision of supportive services, required report to Congress evaluating program’s effectiveness and including findings and recommendations, and provided for termination of the program 10 years after Nov. 28, 1990, was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 582(a)(10), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2644.

Study of Public Housing Funding System

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, § 524, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4215, directed Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to conduct a study assessing one or more revised methods of providing sufficient Federal funds to public housing agencies for operation, maintenance and modernization of public housing, which study was to include a comparison of existing methods of funding in public housing with those used by Department of Housing and Urban Development in housing assisted under this section and a review of results of study entitled “Alternative Operating Subsidies Systems for the Public Housing Program”, with an update of such study as necessary, and to submit a report to Congress not later than 12 months after Nov. 28, 1990, detailing the findings of this study.

Study of Prospective Payment System for Public Housing

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, § 525, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4216, directed Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to conduct a study assessing one or more revised methods of providing Federal housing assistance through local public housing agencies, examining methods of prospective payment, including the conversion of PHA operating assistance, modernization, and other Federal housing assistance to a schedule of steady and predictable capitated Federal payments on behalf of low income public housing tenants, and making specific assessments and to submit a report to Congress not later than 12 months after Nov. 28, 1990.

GAO Study of Alternatives in Public Housing Development

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, § 526, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4216, directed Comptroller General to conduct a study assessing alternative methods of developing public housing dwelling units, other than under the existing public housing development program under this chapter, and submit a report to Congress regarding the findings and conclusions of the study not later than 12 months after Nov. 28, 1990.

Preference for New Construction Under This Section

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, § 545(c), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4220, as amended by Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, § 402(d)(4)(A), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 42, which provided that, with respect to housing constructed or substantially rehabilitated pursuant to assistance provided under subsec. (b)(2) of this section, as such provisions existed before Oct. 1, 1983, and projects financed under section 1701q of Title 12, Banks and Banking, notwithstanding tenant selection criteria under contract between Secretary and owner pursuant to first sentence of such section, for at least 70 percent of units becoming available, tenant selection criteria for such housing was to give preference to families occupying substandard housing (including homeless families and those living in shelters), paying more than 50 percent of family income for rent, or involuntarily displaced, and system of local preferences established under subsec. (d)(1)(A)(ii) of this section by public housing agency was to apply to remaining units that became available, to extent that such preferences were applicable with respect to tenant eligibility limitations, was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 514(c)(1), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2548.

Documentation of Excessive Rent Burdens

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, § 550(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4222, provided that:

“(1)
Data.—
The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall collect and maintain, in an automated system, data describing the characteristics of families assisted under the certificate and voucher programs established under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f], which data shall include the share of family income paid toward rent.
“(2)
Report.—
Not less than annually, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Congress setting forth, for each of the certificate program and the voucher program, the percentage of families participating in the program who are paying for rent more than the amount determined under section 3(a)(1) of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1437a(a)(1)]. The report shall set forth data in appropriate categories, such as various areas of the country, types and sizes of public housing agencies, types of families, and types or markets. The data shall identify the jurisdictions in which more than 10 percent of the families assisted under section 8 of such Act pay for rent more than the amount determined under section 3(a)(1) of such Act and the report shall include an examination of whether the fair market rent for such areas is appropriate. The report shall also include any recommendations of the Secretary for legislative and administrative actions appropriate as a result of analysis of the data.
“(3)
Availability of data.—
The Secretary shall make available to each public housing agency administering assistance under the certificate or voucher program any data maintained under this subsection that relates to the public housing agency.”

[For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of reporting provisions in section 550(b)(2) of Pub. L. 101–625, set out above, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and item 16 on page 103 of House Document No. 103–7.]

Income Eligibility for Tenancy in New Construction Units

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, § 555, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4233, provided that: “Any dwelling units in any housing constructed or substantially rehabilitated pursuant to assistance provided under section 8(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(b)(2)], as such section existed before October 1, 1983, and with a contract for assistance under such section, shall be reserved for occupancy by low-income families and very low-income families.”

GAO Study Regarding Fair Market Rent Calculation

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, § 558, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4233, directed Comptroller General to conduct a study to examine fair market rentals under subsec. (c)(1) of this section which are wholly contained within such market areas and submit a report to Congress not later than 18 months after Nov. 28, 1990, regarding findings and conclusions.

Study of Utilization Rates

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, § 559, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4234, directed Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to conduct a study of reasons for success or failure, within appropriate cities and localities, in utilizing assistance made available for such areas under this section and submit a report to Congress concerning this study not later than the expiration of the 1-year period beginning on Nov. 28, 1990.

Feasibility Study Regarding Indian Tribe Eligibility for Voucher Program

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, § 561, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4235, directed Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to conduct a study to determine feasibility and effectiveness of entering into contracts with Indian housing authorities to provide voucher assistance under subsec. (o) of this section and submit a report to Congress regarding findings and conclusions not later than the expiration of the 1-year period beginning on Nov. 28, 1990.

Study of Private Nonprofit Initiatives

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, § 582, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4248, directed Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to conduct a study to examine how private nonprofit initiatives to provide low-income housing development in local communities across the country have succeeded, with particular emphasis on how Federal housing policy and tax structures can best promote local private nonprofit organizations involvement in low-income housing development, and submit a report to Congress regarding findings not later than 1-year after Nov. 28, 1990.

Preferences for Native Hawaiians on Hawaiian Homelands Under HUD Programs

Pub. L. 101–625, title IX, § 958, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4422, which directed Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to provide preferences for housing assistance programs to native Hawaiians in subsec. (a), described assistance programs available in subsec. (b), authorized Secretary to provide mortgage insurance in certain situations in subsec. (c), and defined pertinent terms in subsec. (d), was repealed by Pub. L. 102–238, § 5(b), Dec. 17, 1991, 105 Stat. 1910.

Authorization for Provision of Assistance to Programs Administered by State of Hawaii Under Act of July 9, 1921

Pub. L. 101–625, title IX, § 962, as added by Pub. L. 102–238, § 5(a), Dec. 17, 1991, 105 Stat. 1909, provided that:

“(a)
Assistance Authorized.—
The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is authorized to provide assistance, under any housing assistance program administered by the Secretary, to the State of Hawaii, for use by the State in meeting the responsibilities with which it has been charged under the provisions of the Act of July 9, 1921 (42 Stat. 108) [formerly 48 U.S.C. 691–718].
“(b)
Mortgage Insurance.—
“(1)
In general.—
Notwithstanding any other provision or limitation of this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 12701 of this title], or the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], including those relating to marketability of title, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may provide mortgage insurance covering any property on lands set aside under the provisions of the Act of July 9, 1921 (42 Stat. 108), upon which there is or will be located a multifamily residence, for which the Department of the Hawaiian Home Lands of the State of Hawaii—
“(A)
is the mortgagor or co-mortgagor;
“(B)
guarantees in writing to reimburse the Secretary for any mortgage insurance claim paid in connection with such property; or
“(C)
offers other security that is acceptable to the Secretary, subject to appropriate conditions prescribed by the Secretary.
“(2)
Sale on default.—
In the event of a default on a mortgage insured pursuant to paragraph (1), the Department of Hawaiian Home Lands of the State of Hawaii may sell the insured property or housing unit to an eligible beneficiary as defined in the Act of July 9, 1921 (42 Stat. 108).”

Annual Adjustment Factors for Rents Under Lower-Income Housing Assistance Program

Pub. L. 101–235, title VIII, § 801(a), (b), (d), (e), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2057–2059, provided that:

“(a)
Effect of Prior Comparability Studies.—
“(1)
In general.—
In any case in which, in implementing section 8(c)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(c)(2)]—
“(A)
the use of comparability studies by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or the appropriate State agency as an independent limitation on the amount of rental adjustments resulting from the application of an annual adjustment factor under such section has resulted in the reduction of the maximum monthly rent for units covered by the contract or the failure to increase such contract rent to the full amount otherwise permitted under the annual adjustment factor, or
“(B)
an assistance contract requires a project owner to make a request before becoming eligible for a rent adjustment under the annual adjustment factor and the project owner certifies that such a request was not made because of anticipated negative adjustment to the project rents,
for fiscal year 1980, and annually thereafter until regulations implementing this section take effect, rental adjustments shall be calculated as an amount equal to the annual adjustment factor multiplied by a figure equal to the contract rent minus the amount of contract rent attributable to debt service. Upon the request of the project owner, the Secretary shall pay to the project owner the amount, if any, by which the total rental adjustment calculated under the preceding sentence exceeds the total adjustments the Secretary or appropriate State agency actually approved, except that solely for purposes of calculating retroactive payments under this subsection, in no event shall any project owner be paid an amount less than 30 percent of a figure equal to the aggregate of the annual adjustment factor multiplied by the full contract rent for each year on or after fiscal year 1980, minus the sum of the rental payments the Secretary or appropriate State agency actually approved for those years. The method provided by this subsection shall be the exclusive method by which retroactive payments, whether or not requested, may be made for projects subject to this subsection for the period from fiscal year 1980 until the regulations issued under subsection (e) take effect. For purposes of this paragraph, ‘debt service’ shall include interest, principal, and mortgage insurance premium if any.
“(2)
Applicability.—
“(A)
In general.—
Subsection (a) shall apply with respect to any use of comparability studies referred to in such subsection occurring before the effective date of the regulations issued under subsection (e).
“(B)
Final litigation.—
Subsection (a) shall not apply to any project with respect to which litigation regarding the authority of the Secretary to use comparability studies to limit rental adjustments under section 8(c)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 has resulted in a judgment before the effective date of this Act [Dec. 15, 1989] that is final and not appealable (including any settlement agreement).
“(b)
3-Year Payments.—
The Secretary shall provide the amounts under subsection (a) over the 3-year period beginning on the effective date of the regulations issued under subsection (e). The Secretary shall provide the payments authorized under subsection (a) only to the extent approved in subsequent appropriations Acts. There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for this purpose.
“(d)
Determination of Contract Rent.—
(1)
The Secretary shall upon the request of the project owner, make a one-time determination of the contract rent for each project owner referred to in subsection (a). The contract rent shall be the greater of the contract rent—
“(A)
currently approved by the Secretary under section 8(c)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(c)(2)], or
“(B)
calculated in accordance with the first sentence of subsection (a)(1).
“(2)
All adjustments in contract rents under section 8(c)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937, including adjustments involving projects referred to in subsection (a), that occur beginning with the first anniversary date of the contract after the regulations issued under subsection (e) take effect shall be made in accordance with the annual adjustment and comparability provisions of sections 8(c)(2)(A) and 8(c)(2)(C) of such Act, respectively, using the one-time contract rent determination under paragraph (1).
“(e)
Regulations.—
The Secretary shall issue regulations to carry out this section and the amendments made by this section [amending this section], including the amendments made by subsection (c) with regard to annual adjustment factors and comparability studies. The Secretary shall issue such regulations not later than the expiration of the 180-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 15, 1989].”

Prohibition of Reduction of Contract Rents; Budget Compliance

Pub. L. 100–628, title X, § 1004(b), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3264, provided that: “During fiscal year 1989, the amendment made by subsection (a)(2) [amending this section] shall be effective only to such extent or in such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts. For purposes of section 202 of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Reaffirmation Act of 1987 (Public Law 100–119) [2 U.S.C. 909], to the extent that this section has the effect of transferring an outlay of the United States from one fiscal year to an adjacent fiscal year, the transfer is a necessary (but secondary) result of a significant policy change.”

Project-Based Lower-Income Housing Assistance; Implementation of Program

Pub. L. 100–628, title X, § 1005(a), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3264, provided that: “To implement the amendment made by section 148 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1987 [Pub. L. 100–242, see 1988 Amendment note above], the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue regulations that take effect not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 7, 1988]. Until the effective date of the regulations, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall consider each application from a public housing agency to attach a contract for assistance payments to a structure, in accordance with the amendment made by such section 148 to section 8(d)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f(d)(2)), and shall promptly approve such application if it meets the requirements of such section 8(d)(2).”

Project-Based Lower-Income Housing Assistance in New Construction; Regulations Implementing Program

Section 1005(b)(2) of Pub. L. 100–628 provided that: “To implement the amendments made by this subsection [amending this section], the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue regulations that take effect not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 7, 1988].”

Use of Funds Recaptured From Refinancing State and Local Finance Projects

Pub. L. 100–628, title X, § 1012, Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3268, as amended by Pub. L. 102–273, § 2(a), (c)(1), Apr. 21, 1992, 106 Stat. 113; Pub. L. 102–550, title I, § 163, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3722, provided that:

“(a)
Definition of Qualified Project.—
For purposes of this section, the term ‘qualified project’ means any State financed project or local government or local housing agency financed project, that—
“(1)
was—
“(A)
provided a financial adjustment factor under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f]; or
“(B)
constructed or substantially rehabilitated pursuant to assistance provided under a contract under section 8(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (as in effect on September 30, 1983) entered into during any of calendar years 1979 through 1984; and
“(2)
is being refinanced.
“(b)
Availability of Funds.—
The Secretary shall make available to the State housing finance agency in the State in which a qualified project is located, or the local government or local housing agency initiating the refinancing of the qualified project, as applicable, an amount equal to 50 percent of the amounts recaptured from the project (as determined by the Secretary on a project-by-project basis). Notwithstanding any other provision of law, such amounts shall be used only for providing decent, safe, and sanitary housing affordable for very low-income families and persons.
“(c)
Applicability and Budget Compliance.—
“(1)
Retroactivity.—
This section shall apply to refinancings of projects for which settlement occurred or occurs before, on, or after the date of the enactment of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [Oct. 28, 1992], subject to the provisions of paragraph (2).
“(2)
Budget compliance.—
This section shall apply only to the extent or in such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts.”

[Pub. L. 102–273, § 2(b), Apr. 21, 1992, 106 Stat. 113, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending section 1012 of Pub. L. 100–628, set out above] shall apply to any refinancing of a local government or local housing agency financed project approved by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development for which settlement occurred after January 1, 1992.”]

Public Housing Comprehensive Transition Demonstration

Pub. L. 100–242, title I, § 126, Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1847, which directed Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to carry out program in 11 public housing agencies to demonstrate effectiveness of providing services to ensure transition of public housing residents to private housing, set forth requirements of program, and required interim report to Congress not later than 2 years after Feb. 5, 1988, and final report not later than 60 days after termination of program 7 years after such date, was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 582(a)(8), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2644.

Nondiscrimination Against Section 8 Certificate Holders and Voucher Holders

Pub. L. 100–242, title I, § 183(c), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1872, which prohibited owner of subsidized project to refuse to lease dwelling unit to holder of certificate of eligibility or voucher under this section, where proximate cause of refusal was status of prospective tenant as holder of such certificate or voucher, was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 582(a)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2643.

Withdrawal by Owners, Developers, and Sponsors From Programs Under This Section; Survey and Determination of Number; Notification of Rent Increases; Report to Congress; Regulations To Prevent Conflict of Interest on the Part of Federal, State, and Local Officials; Recovery of Legal Expenses; Contents of Annual Report

Pub. L. 97–35, title III, § 326(b)–(d), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 406, 407, as amended by Pub. L. 102–550, title I, § 129(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3711; Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 582(a)(4), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2643, provided that:

“(b)
[(1) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 582(a)(4), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2643.]
“(2)
Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 1981], the Secretary shall transmit to the Congress a report indicating alternative methods which may be utilized for recapturing the cost to the Federal Government of front-end investment in those units which are removed from the section 8 program.
“[(c)
Repealed. Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 582(a)(4), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2643.]
“(d)
Rental Assistance Fraud Recoveries.—
“(1)
Authority to retain recovered amounts.—
The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall permit public housing agencies administering the housing assistance payments program under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] to retain, out of amounts obtained by the agencies from tenants that are due as a result of fraud and abuse, an amount (determined in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary) equal to the greater of—
“(A)
50 percent of the amount actually collected, or
“(B)
the actual, reasonable, and necessary expenses related to the collection, including costs of investigation, legal fees, and collection agency fees.
“(2)
Use.—
Amounts retained by an agency shall be made available for use in support of the affected program or project, in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary. Where the Secretary is the principal party initiating or sustaining an action to recover amounts from families or owners, the provisions of this section shall not apply.
“(3)
Recovery.—
Amounts may be recovered under this paragraph—
“(A)
by an agency through a lawsuit (including settlement of the lawsuit) brought by the agency or through court-ordered restitution pursuant to a criminal proceeding resulting from an agency’s investigation where the agency seeks prosecution of a family or where an agency seeks prosecution of an owner; or
“(B)
through administrative repayment agreements with a family or owner entered into as a result of an administrative grievance procedure conducted by an impartial decisionmaker in accordance with section 6(k) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437d(k)].”

[Pub. L. 102–550, title I, § 129(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3712, provided that: “Subsection (a) [amending section 326(d) of Pub. L. 97–35, set out above] shall apply with respect to actions by public housing agencies initiated on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992].”]

Study by Secretary Concerning Feasibility of Minimum Rent Payment Requirements

Pub. L. 96–153, title II, § 212, Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1110, directed the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to conduct a study of the feasibility and financial desirability of requiring minimum rent payments from tenants in low-income housing assisted under this chapter, and to submit a report to the Congress containing the findings and conclusions of such study not later than ten days after the Budget for fiscal year 1981 is transmitted pursuant to section 11 of former Title 31, Money and Finance, and directed the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to conduct a study to provide detailed comparisons between the rents paid by tenants occupying low-income housing assisted under this chapter and the rents paid by tenants at the same income level who are not in assisted housing and to transmit a report on such study to the Congress not later than Mar. 1, 1980.

Study of Alternative Means of Encouraging the Development of Housing

Pub. L. 95–557, title II, § 208, Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2095, directed that Secretary of Housing and Urban Development conduct a study for purpose of examining alternative means of encouraging development of housing to be assisted under this section for occupancy by large families which reside in areas with a low-vacancy rate in rental housing and report to Congress no later than one year after Oct. 31, 1978, for purpose of providing legislative recommendations with respect to this study.

Taxation of Interest Paid on Obligations Secured by Insured Mortgage and Issued by Public Agency

Pub. L. 93–383, title III, § 319(b), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 686, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, § 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “With respect to any obligation secured by a mortgage which is insured under section 221(d)(3) of the National Housing Act [section 1715l(d)(3) of Title 12, Banks and Banking] and issued by a public agency as mortgagor in connection with the financing of a project assisted under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [this section], the interest paid on such obligation shall be included in gross income for purposes of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] [chapter 1 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code].”

Rental or Income Contributions; Use of Special Schedules of Required Payments for Participants in Mutual Help Projects Contributing Labor, Etc.

Pub. L. 93–383, title II, § 203, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 668, provided that: “The rental or income contribution provisions of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [sections 1437 to 1437j of this title], as amended by section 201 of this Act, shall not preclude the use of special schedules of required payments as approved by the Secretary for participants in mutual help housing projects who contribute labor, land, or materials to the development of such projects.”