Section was formerly classified to section 43 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.
1996—Pub. L. 104–317 inserted before period at end of first sentence “, except that in any action brought against a judicial officer for an act or omission taken in such officer’s judicial capacity, injunctive relief shall not be granted unless a declaratory decree was violated or declaratory relief was unavailable”.
1979—Pub. L. 96–170 inserted “or the District of Columbia” after “Territory”, and provisions relating to Acts of Congress applicable solely to the District of Columbia.
Amendment by Pub. L. 96–170 applicable with respect to any deprivation of rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution and laws occurring after