1
 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.
to become subject to the Federal Employees’ Retirement System provided in chapter 84 of title 5, or
2
 See References in Text note below.
of title 12, or in connection with the ginning of cotton, or in connection with the operation or maintenance of ditches, canals, reservoirs, or waterways, not owned or operated for profit, used exclusively for supplying and storing water for farming purposes.
3
 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.
with respect to all such service which is so creditable.
4
 See Change of Name note below.
of the Public Health Service, and any person serving in the Army or Air Force under call or conscription. The term includes—
Editorial Notes
References in Text

The Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in text, is classified to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

The Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, referred to in subsec. (a)(5)(B)(ii), (G), is provided for in section 8348 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Section 301 of the Federal Employees’ Retirement System Act of 1986, referred to in subsec. (a)(5)(H)(i), is section 301 of Pub. L. 99–335, which is set out as a note under section 8331 of Title 5.

The Federal Employees’ Retirement System Open Enrollment Act of 1997, referred to in subsec. (a)(5)(H)(i), is section 642 of Pub. L. 105–61, title VI, Oct. 10, 1997, 111 Stat. 1318, which amended this section and section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 8331 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Foreign Service Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (a)(5)(H)(ii), is Pub. L. 96–465, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2071. Subchapter II of chapter 8 of title I of the Act is classified generally to part II (§ 4071 et seq.) of subchapter VIII of chapter 52 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3901 of Title 22 and Tables.

The International Organizations Immunities Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(15), is act Dec. 29, 1945, ch. 652, title I, 59 Stat. 669, which is classified principally to subchapter XVIII (§ 288 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 22. For complete classification of that Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 288 of Title 22 and Tables.

Section 1141j(g) of title 12, referred to in subsec. (f)(3), was redesignated section 1141j(f) by Pub. L. 110–246, title I, § 1610, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1746.

The Military Selective Service Act, referred to in subsec. (m)(5)(B), is act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, which is classified principally to chapter 49 (§ 3801 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Peace Corps Act, referred to in subsec. (o), is Pub. L. 87–293, Sept. 22, 1961, 75 Stat. 612, which is classified principally to chapter 34 (§ 2501 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of that Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2501 of Title 22 and Tables.

Constitutionality

For information regarding the constitutionality of certain provisions of this section, see the Table of Laws Held Unconstitutional in Whole or in Part by the Supreme Court on the Constitution Annotated website, constitution.congress.gov.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(22). Pub. L. 115–243 added par. (22).

2014—Subsec. (a)(17). Pub. L. 113–295 struck out par. (17) which read as follows: “Service in the employ of any organization which is performed (A) in any year during any part of which such organization is registered, or there is in effect a final order of the Subversive Activities Control Board requiring such organization to register, under the Internal Security Act of 1950, as amended, as a Communist-action organization, a Communist-front organization, or a Communist-infiltrated organization, and (B) after June 30, 1956;”.

2008—Subsec. (a)(5)(E). Pub. L. 110–458 struck out “or special trial judge” before “of the United States Tax Court”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–245 designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated former cls. (1) to (6) as cls. (A) to (F), respectively, of par. (1), and added par. (2).

2006—Subsec. (a)(5)(E). Pub. L. 109–280 inserted “or special trial judge” before “of the United States Tax Court”.

2004—Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 108–203 struck out “or is domestic service in a private home of the employer” before period at end.

1998—Subsec. (a)(7)(D). Pub. L. 105–277 added Pub. L. 105–33, § 11246(b)(2)(B). See 1997 Amendment note below.

1997—Subsec. (a)(5)(H)(i). Pub. L. 105–61 substituted “1986,” for “1986 or” and inserted “or the Federal Employees’ Retirement System Open Enrollment Act of 1997” after “section 2157 of title 50,”.

Subsec. (a)(7)(D). Pub. L. 105–33, § 11246(b)(2)(B), as added by Pub. L. 105–277, inserted “(other than the Federal Employees Retirement System provided in chapter 84 of title 5)” after “United States” in introductory provisions.

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–188, § 1116(a)(2)(A), inserted at end “For purposes of paragraph (20), the operating crew of a boat shall be treated as normally made up of fewer than 10 individuals if the average size of the operating crew on trips made during the preceding 4 calendar quarters consisted of fewer than 10 individuals.”

Subsec. (a)(20)(A). Pub. L. 104–188, § 1116(a)(2)(B), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “such individual does not receive any cash remuneration (other than as provided in subparagraph (B)),”.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(c)(6)(C), substituted “1986” for “1954” after “Code of” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(5)(B)(i)(V). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(a)(13), made technical amendment to reference to section 5323(e)(2) of title 25 to reflect renumbering of corresponding section of original act.

Subsec. (a)(7)(F)(iv). Pub. L. 103–296, § 303(a)(1), substituted “$1,000 with respect to service performed during any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 1995, ending on or before December 31, 1999, and the adjusted amount determined under section 418(c)(8)(B) of this title for any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 2000, with respect to service performed during such calendar year” for “$100”.

Subsec. (a)(8)(A), (B), (9). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(c)(6)(C), substituted “1986” for “1954” after “Code of”.

Subsec. (a)(10)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(c)(6)(C), substituted “1986” for “1954” after “Code of”.

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (a)(15). Pub. L. 103–296, § 319(b)(3), inserted before semicolon at end “, except service which constitutes ‘employment’ under subsection (r)”.

Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 103–296, § 320(b), substituted “(J), (M), or (Q)” for “(J), or (M)” in two places.

Subsec. (a)(21). Pub. L. 103–387 added par. (21).

Subsec. (l)(4). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing and “the Commissioner receives” for “he receives” in subpar. (B).

Subsec. (p)(2)(E). Pub. L. 103–296, § 303(b)(1), substituted “$1,000 with respect to service performed during any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 1995, ending on or before December 31, 1999, and the adjusted amount determined under section 418(c)(8)(B) of this title for any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 2000, with respect to service performed during such calendar year” for “$100”.

Subsecs. (p)(4), (q). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(c)(6)(D), substituted “1986” for “1954” after “Code of”.

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 103–296, § 319(b)(1), added subsec. (r).

1993—Subsec. (a)(5)(H)(i). Pub. L. 103–178 substituted “section 2157 of title 50” for “section 307 of the Central Intelligence Agency Retirement Act of 1964 for Certain Employees”.

1992—Subsec. (a)(5)(E). Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

1990—Subsec. (a)(7)(F). Pub. L. 101–508 added subpar. (F).

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted “3121(l)(6)” for “3121(l)(8)” in introductory provisions.

1988—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8015(c)(1), in provision following subpar. (B) inserted “any such service performed on or after any date on which such individual performs” after “with respect to”.

Subsec. (a)(5)(H). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8015(b)(1), amended subpar. (H) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (H) read as follows: “service performed by an individual on or after the effective date of an election by such individual under section 301(a) of the Federal Employees’ Retirement System Act of 1986, or under regulations issued under section 860 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 or section 307 of the Central Intelligence Agency Retirement Act of 1964 for Certain Employees, to become subject to chapter 84 of title 5;”.

Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 100–647, § 1001(d)(2)(E), substituted “(F), (J), or (M)” for “(F) or (J)” in two places.

Subsec. (a)(20). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8016(a)(4)(B), (C), amended Pub. L. 99–272, § 13303(c)(2), see 1986 Amendment note below.

1987—Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 100–203, § 9005(a)(1), substituted “18” for “twenty-one”.

Pub. L. 100–203, § 9004(a)(1), struck out reference to service performed by an individual in the employ of his spouse.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 100–203, § 9005(a)(2), inserted reference to an individual under the age of 21 in the employ of his father or mother.

Pub. L. 100–203, § 9004(a)(2), substituted introductory provisions for former introductory provisions which read as follows: “Service not in the course of the employer’s trade or business, or domestic service in a private home of the employer, performed by an individual in the employ of his son or daughter; except that the provisions of this subparagraph shall not be applicable to such domestic service if—”.

Subsec. (l)(1). Pub. L. 100–203, § 9001(a)(1), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “Except as provided in paragraph (4) of this subsection, the term ‘employment’ shall, notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, include service performed after December 1956 by an individual as a member of a uniformed service on active duty; but such term shall not include any such service which is performed while on leave without pay.”

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 100–203, § 9023(p), directed that the heading of subsec. (p) be amended to read the same as it was set out in the general amendment of subsec. (p) by Pub. L. 99–272, see 1986 Amendment note below.

1986—Subsec. (a)(5)(G). Pub. L. 99–514, § 1883(a)(4), substituted “any other service” for “Any other service”.

Subsec. (a)(5)(H). Pub. L. 99–335 added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (a)(20). Pub. L. 99–272, § 13303(c)(2), as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, § 8016(a)(4)(B), (C), substituted “Service (other than service described in paragraph (3)(A)) performed” for “Service performed” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 99–272, § 13205(b)(1), amended subsec. (p) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (p) read as follows: “For purposes of sections 426 and 426–1 of this title, the term ‘medicare qualified Federal employment’ means any service which would constitute ‘employment’ as defined in subsection (a) of this section but for the application of the provisions of subsection (a)(5) of this section.”

Subsec. (p)(2)(E). Pub. L. 99–514, § 1895(b)(18)(B), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (p)(4)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, § 1895(b)(19), struck out quotation marks before “(A)”.

1985—Subsec. (a)(5)(B)(i)(V). Pub. L. 99–221 added subcl. (V).

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2661(j), struck out the second comma after “such affiliate”.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(a)(7)(A), struck out “(A) under contracts entered into in accordance with title V of the Agricultural Act of 1949, as amended, or (B)”.

Subsec. (a)(5)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2601(a)(1), in amending subpar. (B) generally, substituted “(i) has been continuously performing service described in subparagraph (A) since December 31, 1983, and for purposes of this clause—(I) if an individual performing service described in subparagraph (A) returns to the performance of such service after being separated therefrom for a period of less than 366 consecutive days, regardless of whether the period began before, on, or after December 31, 1983, then such service shall be considered continuous,” for “(i) has been continuously in the employ of the United States or an instrumentality thereof since December 31, 1983 (and for this purpose an individual who returns to the performance of such service after being separated therefrom following a previous period of such service shall nevertheless be considered upon such return as having been continuously in the employ of the United States or an instrumentality thereof, regardless of whether the period of such separation began before, on, or after December 31, 1983, if the period of such separation does not exceed 365 consecutive days),”, added subcls. (II) to (IV), and reenacted cl. (ii).

Subsec. (a)(5)(C) to (F). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2601(a)(2)(A), (B), in provisions following “except that this paragraph shall not apply with respect to—” redesignated cls. (i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) as subpars. (C), (D), (E), and (F), respectively, and redesignated former subcls. (I), (II), and (III) as cls. (i), (ii), and (iii), respectively, of the redesignated subpar. (D).

Subsec. (a)(5)(G). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2601(a)(2)(A), (C), in provisions following “except that this paragraph shall not apply with respect to—” redesignated former cl. (v) as subpar. (G), and in subpar. (G) as so redesignated, designated the existing provisions of subpar. (G) as the introductory language and the first phrase of cl. (i) and added the remainder of cl. (i) following “chapter 38 of title 5”, cls. (ii) and (iii), and the provisions following cl. (iii).

Subsec. (a)(7)(D). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(a)(7)(B), realigned margins of subpar. (D).

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2603(a)(1), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted “this subparagraph” for “this paragraph”, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(a)(7)(C), substituted “section 3231 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954” for “section 1532 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939”.

Subsec. (a)(10)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(j)(3)(A)(i), struck out “of Health, Education, and Welfare” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(a)(7)(D), struck out the comma after “; or”.

Subsec. (l)(2). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(a)(7)(E), substituted “paragraph (21) of section 101 of title 38” for “section 102 of the Servicemen’s and Veterans’ Survivor Benefits Act” and “paragraph (22) of such section” for “such section”.

Subsec. (l)(3). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(a)(7)(F), substituted “paragraph (23) of such section 101” for “such section 102”.

Subsec. (l)(4)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(j)(3)(A)(i), struck out “of Health, Education, and Welfare” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(a)(7)(G)(i), (ii), in provisions preceding par. (1), substituted “a reserve component as defined in section 101(27) of title 38” for “a reserve component of a uniformed service as defined in section 102(3) of the Servicemen’s and Veterans’ Survivor Benefits Act” and inserted reference to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Corps.

Subsec. (m)(5). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(a)(7)(G)(iii), substituted “military, naval, or air” for “military or naval” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (m)(5)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(a)(7)(G)(iv), substituted “Military Selective Service Act” for “Universal Military Training and Service Act”.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–21, § 322(a)(1), added cl. (C) and struck out “either” before “A” in provisions preceding par. (1).

Pub. L. 98–21, § 321(b), amended cl. (B) in provisions preceding par. (1) generally, substituting reference to section 3121(l)(8) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 for reference to section 3121(l) of such Code “an American employer” for “a domestic corporation (as determined in accordance with section 7701 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954)”, and “affiliate” for “subsidiary” after “with respect to such”.

Pub. L. 98–21, § 323(a)(2), substituted “a citizen or resident of the United States” for “a citizen of the United States” in cl. (B) in provisions preceding par. (1).

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 98–21, § 101(a)(1), amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: “Service performed in the employ of any instrumentality of the United States, if such instrumentality is exempt from the tax imposed by section 1410 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, by virtue of any provision of law which specifically refers to such section in granting such exemption;”.

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 98–21, § 101(a)(1), amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows:

“(A) Service performed in the employ of the United States or in the employ of any instrumentality of the United States, if such service is covered by a retirement system established by a law of the United States;

“(B) Service performed by an individual in the employ of an instrumentality of the United States if such an instrumentality was exempt from the tax imposed by section 1410 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, on December 31, 1950, and if such service is covered by a retirement system established by such instrumentality; except that the provisions of this subparagraph shall not be applicable to—

“(i) service performed in the employ of a corporation which is wholly owned by the United States;

“(ii) service performed in the employ of a Federal land bank, a Federal intermediate credit bank, a bank for cooperatives, a Federal land bank association, a production credit association, a Federal Reserve Bank, a Federal Home Loan Bank, or a Federal Credit Union;

“(iii) service performed in the employ of a State, county, or community committee under the Production and Marketing Administration;

“(iv) service performed by a civilian employee, not compensated from funds appropriated by the Congress, in the Army and Air Force Exchange Service, Army and Air Force Motion Picture Service, Navy Exchanges, Marine Corps Exchanges, or other activities, conducted by an instrumentality of the United States subject to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Defense, at installations of the Department of Defense for the comfort, pleasure, contentment, and mental and physical improvement of personnel of such Department; or

“(v) service performed by a civilian employee, not compensated from funds appropriated by the Congress, in the Coast Guard Exchanges or other activities, conducted by an instrumentality of the United States subject to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Transportation, at installations of the Coast Guard for the comfort, pleasure, contentment, and mental and physical improvement of personnel of the Coast Guard;

“(C) Service performed in the employ of the United States or in the employ of any instrumentality of the United States, if such service is performed—

“(i) as the President or Vice President of the United States or as a Member, Delegate, or Resident Commissioner of or to the Congress;

“(ii) in the legislative branch;

“(iii) in a penal institution of the United States by an inmate thereof;

“(iv) by any individual as an employee included under section 5351(2) of title 5, other than as a medical or dental intern or a medical or dental resident in training;

“(v) by any individual as an employee serving on a temporary basis in case of fire, storm, earthquake, flood, or other similar emergency; or

“(vi) by any individual to whom subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5 does not apply because such individual is subject to another retirement system (other than the retirement system of the Tennessee Valley Authority);”.

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 98–21, § 102(a), struck out subpar. (A) designation, struck out subpar. (B) which had related to service performed by employees of nonprofit organizations, and substituted “this paragraph” for “this subparagraph”.

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 98–21, § 101(a)(2), struck out designations for pars. (1) and (2) and struck out par. (1) which related to application of the provisions of subparagraph (A), (B), or (C)(i), (ii), or (vi) of subsection (a)(6) of this section.

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 97–448 redesignated subsec. (p), relating to treatment of real estate agents and direct sellers, as (q).

1982—Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 97–248, § 269(b), added subsec. (p) relating to treatment of real estate agents and direct sellers.

Pub. L. 97–248, § 278(b)(1), added subsec. (p) relating to medicare qualified Federal employment.

1978—Subsec. (a)(6)(B)(v). Pub. L. 95–600 substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of the Treasury”.

1977—Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 95–216, § 351(a)(3)(B), struck out subpar. (A) which related to service performed in the employ of any exempt organization under section 101 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, and designated existing provisions of subpar. (B) as entire subsec. (a)(10) and, as so designated, redesignated cls. (i) and (ii) as subpars. (A) and (B).

Subsecs. (a)(17)(A), (f)(4)(B). Pub. L. 95–216, § 351(a)(1), substituted “year” for “quarter”.

1976—Subsec. (a)(8)(B). Pub. L. 94–563 inserted “(or deemed to have been so filed under paragraph (4) or (5) of such section 3121(k))” after “section 3121(k) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954” in provisions preceding cl. (i), inserted “(or deemed to have been filed)” after “filed” in cls. (i), (ii), and (iii), and substituted “is (or is deemed to be) in effect” for “is in effect” in provisions following cl. (iii).

Subsec. (a)(20). Pub. L. 94–455 added par. (20).

1974—Subsec. (l)(4)(A). Pub. L. 93–445 substituted “section 231b(i) of title 45” for “section 228c–1 of title 45” and struck out “, as provided in section 228c–1(p)(2) of title 45” after “notify the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare”.

1972—Subsec. (a)(7)(E). Pub. L. 92–603, § 128(a), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (a)(8)(A). Pub. L. 92–603, § 123(a)(1), inserted provisions referring to the election of coverage under section 3121(r) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.

Subsec. (a)(10)(B). Pub. L. 92–603, § 129(a)(1), designated existing provisions as cl. (i) and added cl. (ii).

1968—Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 90–248, § 123(a), inserted exception provision including cls. (i) to (iii).

Subsec. (a)(6)(C)(iv). Pub. L. 90–248, § 403(a)(1), substituted reference to section 5351(2) of title 5 for former section 1052 of title 5.

Subsec. (a)(6)(C)(vi). Pub. L. 90–248, § 403(a)(2), substituted “subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5” for “the Civil Service Retirement Act”.

Subsec. (a)(7)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 90–248, § 403(a)(3), substituted reference to section 5351(2) of title 5 for former section 1052 of title 5.

1965—Subsec. (a)(6)(C)(iv). Pub. L. 89–97, § 311(a)(3), inserted “, other than as a medical or dental intern or a medical or dental resident in training”.

Subsec. (a)(7)(D). Pub. L. 89–97, § 317(a)(3), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (a)(13). Pub. L. 89–97, § 311(a)(4), struck out from definition of employment the exclusion of service performed as an intern in the employ of a hospital by an individual who has completed a four years’ course in a medical school chartered or approved pursuant to State law.

1961—Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 87–256 added par. (19).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 87–293 added subsec. (o).

1960—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 86–778, § 104(a), designated existing provisions as cl. (A), struck out provisions which related to service performed by an individual in the employ of his son or daughter, and added cl. (B).

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 86–778, § 103(c), excluded service in the employ of the Government of Guam or the Government of American Samoa or any political subdivision thereof, or of any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby, performed by an officer or employee thereof.

Subsec. (a)(18). Pub. L. 86–778, § 103(d), added par. (18).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 86–778, § 103(e), included Guam and American Samoa.

Pub. L. 86–624 substituted “includes the District of Columbia and” for “includes Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 86–778, § 103(f), included Guam and American Samoa.

Pub. L. 86–624 struck out “Hawaii,” before “the District of Columbia.”

Subsecs. (j) to (o). Pub. L. 86–778, § 103(j)(2)(A), (B), repealed subsec. (j) and redesignated subsecs. (k) to (o) as (j) to (n), respectively.

1959—Subsec. (a)(6)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 86–168 substituted “Federal land bank association” for “national farm loan association”, and included service in the employ of Federal land banks, Federal intermediate credit banks and banks for cooperatives.

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 86–70 struck out “Alaska,” before “Hawaii”.

1958—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 85–840, § 311(a), struck out provisions which excluded from coverage service performed in connection with the production or harvesting of any commodity defined as an agricultural commodity in section 1141j(g) of title 12.

Subsec. (a)(8)(B). Pub. L. 85–840, § 312(a), substituted references to the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 for references to the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, and inserted provisions making subparagraph inapplicable to service performed during the period for which a certificate is in effect if such service is performed by an employee who, after the calendar quarter in which the certificate was filed with respect to a group described in section 3121(k)(1)(E) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 became a member of such group, and making subparagraph applicable with respect to service performed by an employee as a member of a group described in section 3121(k)(1)(E) with respect to which no certificate is in effect.

1956—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, § 104(a), excluded from coverage service performed by foreign agricultural workers lawfully admitted on a temporary basis from any foreign country or possession thereof.

Subsec. (a)(6)(B)(ii). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, § 104(b)(1), included service performed in the employ of a Federal Home Loan Bank.

Subsec. (a)(6)(C)(vi). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, § 104(b)(2), substituted “Civil Service Retirement Act” for “Civil Service Retirement Act of 1930”, and inserted “(other than the retirement system of the Tennessee Valley Authority)” after “retirement system”.

Subsec. (a)(16), (17). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §§ 104(c)(1), 121(c), added pars. (16) and (17).

Subsecs. (m), (n). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, added subsecs. (m) and (n).

Subsec. (o). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, § 105(b), added subsec. (o).

1954—Subsec. (a)(B). Act Sept. 1, 1954, § 101(m), included within definition of “employment” service performed outside the United States by citizens of the United States as employees for foreign subsidiaries of domestic corporations under certain conditions.

Subsec. (a)(1). Act Sept. 1, 1954, § 101(a)(4), removed specific exception from employment of services performed in connection with the ginning of cotton, and added an exception for services performed by West Indian agricultural workers lawfully admitted to the United States on a temporary basis.

Subsec. (a)(3). Act Sept. 1, 1954, § 101(a)(5), redesignated par. (4) as (3) and struck out former par. (3).

Subsec. (a)(4). Act Sept. 1, 1954, § 101(a)(5), (b), redesignated par. (5) as (4), and made the exclusion with respect to services on non-American vessels or aircraft applicable only if the individual is not a United States citizen or the employer is not an American employer. Former par. (4) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (a)(5). Act Sept. 1, 1954, § 101(a)(5), redesignated par. (6) as (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (a)(6)(B). Act Sept. 1, 1954, § 101(a)(5), (c)(1)(A), redesignated par. (7) as (6), and inserted “by an individual” after “Service performed” and “and if such service is covered by a retirement system established by such instrumentality;” after “December 31, 1950.”

Subsec. (a)(6)(B)(v). Act Sept. 1, 1954, § 101(a)(5), (c)(1)(A), redesignated par. (7) as (6), and added cl. (v).

Subsec. (a)(6)(C). Act Sept. 1, 1954, § 101(a)(5), (c)(2), redesignated par. (7) as (6), and struck out exception from coverage for services in the following categories; temporary employees in the Post Office Department field service; temporary census-taking employees of the Bureau of the Census; Federal employees paid on a contract or fee basis; Federal employees receiving compensation of $12 a year or less; certain consular agents; individuals employed under Federal unemployment relief programs; and members of State, county, or community committees under the Production and Marketing Administration and similar bodies, unless such bodies are composed exclusively of full-time Federal employee and limited the exclusion of inmates or patients of United States institutions to inmates of penal institutions.

Subsec. (a)(7) to (17). Act Sept. 1, 1954, § 101(a)(5), (e), struck out par. (15) and redesignated pars. (7) to (14), (16), and (17) as (6) to (15), respectively.

Subsec. (k)(3)(C). Act Sept. 1, 1954, § 101(f), struck out requirement that services of homeworkers be subject to State licensing laws in order to constitute covered employment.

1951—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Act Oct. 31, 1949, § 505(a), as added by act July 12, 1951, added subpar. (C).

1950—Act Aug. 28, 1950, substituted a new section 410 for former section 410.

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Change of Name

“United States magistrate judge” substituted for “United States magistrate” in subsec. (a)(5)(E) pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Reference to Reserve Corps of the Public Health Service deemed to be a reference to the Ready Reserve Corps, see section 204(c)(3) of this title.

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–295 effective Dec. 19, 2014, subject to a savings provision, see section 221(b) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 1 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–245 applicable to services performed in calendar months beginning more than 30 days after June 17, 2008, see section 302(c) of Pub. L. 110–245, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–277 effective, except as otherwise specifically provided, as if included in the enactment of title XI of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–33, see section 101(h) [title VIII, § 805] of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–33 applicable with respect to all months beginning after the date on which the Director of the Office of Personnel Management issues regulations to carry out section 11–1726, District of Columbia Code, see section 11246(b)(4) of Pub. L. 105–33, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to remuneration paid after Dec. 31, 1994, and, unless payor treated such remuneration (when paid) as being subject to tax under chapter 21 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, after Dec. 31, 1984, and before Jan. 1, 1995, see section 1116(a)(3) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–387 applicable to services performed after Dec. 31, 1994, see section 2(a)(3)(B) of Pub. L. 103–387, set out as a note under section 3102 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 107(a)(4) of Pub. L. 103–296 effective Mar. 31, 1995, see section 110(a) of Pub. L. 103–296, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Pub. L. 103–296, title III, § 303(e), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1520, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (c) [amending this section, section 418 of this title, and section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] shall apply with respect to service performed on or after January 1, 1995.”

Amendment by section 319(b)(1), (3) of Pub. L. 103–296 applicable with respect to service performed after calendar quarter following calendar quarter in which Aug. 15, 1994, occurs, see section 319(c) of Pub. L. 103–296, set out as a note under section 1402 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 320(b) of Pub. L. 103–296 effective with calendar quarter following Aug. 15, 1994, see section 320(c) of Pub. L. 103–296, set out as a note under section 871 of Title 26.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 applicable with respect to service performed after July 1, 1991, see section 11332(d) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 applicable with respect to any agreement in effect under section 3121(l) of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, on or after June 15, 1989, with respect to which no notice of termination is in effect on such date, see section 10201(c) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 406 of Title 26.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1001(d)(2)(E) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 8015(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable as if such amendment had been included or reflected in section 304 of Federal Employees’ Retirement System Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–335, at the time of its enactment (June 6, 1986), see section 8015(b)(3) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26.

Amendment by section 8015(c)(1) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable to any individual only upon the performance by such individual of service described in subpar. (C), (D), (E), (F), (G), or (H) of subsec. (a)(5) of this section on or after Nov. 10, 1988, see section 8015(c)(3) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26.

Amendment by section 8016(a)(4)(B), (C) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective Nov. 10, 1988, except that any amendment to a provision of a particular Public Law which is referred to by its number, or to a provision of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], or to Title 26, as added or amended by a provision of a particular Public Law which is so referred to, effective as though included or reflected in the relevant provisions of that Public Law at the time of its enactment, see section 8016(b) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 3111 of Title 26.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by section 9001(a)(1) of Pub. L. 100–203 applicable with respect to remuneration paid after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 9001(d) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 9004(a) of Pub. L. 100–203 applicable with respect to remuneration paid after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 9004(c) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26.

Amendment by section 9005(a) of Pub. L. 100–203 applicable with respect to remuneration paid after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 9005(c) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1883(a)(4) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective Oct. 22, 1986, see section 1883(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Amendment by section 1895(b)(18)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to services performed after Mar. 31, 1986, see section 1895(b)(18)(C) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 1895(b)(19) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in enactment of the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985, Pub. L. 99–272, see section 1895(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 162 of Title 26.

Pub. L. 99–272, title XIII, § 13205(d)(2), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 318, provided that:

“(A)
In general.—
The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section and sections 426, 426–1, and 1395c of this title] shall be effective after March 31, 1986, and the amendments made by paragraph (3) of that subsection [subsection does not contain a paragraph (3)] shall apply to services performed (for medicare qualified government employment) after that date.
“(B)
Treatment of certain disabilities.—
For purposes of establishing entitlement to hospital insurance benefits under part A of title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395c et seq.] pursuant to the amendments made by subsection (b), no individual may be considered to be under a disability for any period beginning before April 1, 1986.”

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–221, § 3(c), Dec. 26, 1985, 99 Stat. 1736, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section and section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] apply to any return to the performance of service in the employ of the United States, or of an instrumentality thereof, after 1983.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, § 2601(f), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1127, provided that: “Except as provided in subsection (d) [set out as a Qualification and Requalification of Federal Employees for Benefits note below], the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] (and provisions of subsection (e) [set out as a Services Performed for Nonprofit Organizations by Federal Employees note below]) shall be effective with respect to service performed after December 31, 1983.”

Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, § 2603(e), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1130, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 411 of this title and sections 1402 and 3121 of Title 26 and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26] shall apply to service performed after December 31, 1983.”

Amendment by section 2661(j) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective as though included in the enactment of the Social Security Amendments of 1983, Pub. L. 98–21, see section 2664(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Amendment by section 2663(a)(7), (j)(3)(A)(i) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective July 18, 1984, but not to be construed as changing or affecting any right, liability, status, or interpretation which existed (under the provisions of law involved) before that date, see section 2664(b) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(a) of Pub. L. 98–21 effective with respect to service performed after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 101(d) of Pub. L. 98–21, as amended, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 102(a) of Pub. L. 98–21 effective with respect to service performed after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 102(c) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26.

Amendment by section 321(b) of Pub. L. 98–21 applicable to agreements entered into after Apr. 20, 1983, except that at the election of any American employer such amendment shall also apply to any agreement entered into on or before Apr. 20, 1983, see section 321(f) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as a note under section 406 of Title 26.

Amendment by section 322(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–21 effective in taxable years beginning on or after Apr. 20, 1983, see section 322(c) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26.

Amendment by section 323(a)(2) of Pub. L. 98–21 applicable to remuneration paid after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 323(c)(1) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as a note under 3121 of Title 26.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by section 269(b) of Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to services performed after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 269(e)(1) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3508 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 278(b)(1) of Pub. L. 97–248 effective on and after Jan. 1, 1983, see section 278(c)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 426 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–600 effective Oct. 4, 1976, see section 703(r) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 46 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–216 applicable with respect to remuneration paid and services rendered after Dec. 31, 1977, see section 351(d) of Pub. L. 95–216, set out as a note under section 409 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–563 applicable with respect to services performed after 1950, to the extent covered by waiver certificates filed or deemed to have been filed under section 3121(k)(4) or (5) of Title 26, see section 1(d) of Pub. L. 94–563, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–445 effective Jan. 1, 1975, see section 603 of Pub. L. 93–445, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–603, title I, § 128(c), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1358, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] shall apply with respect to service performed on and after the first day of the first calendar quarter which begins on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 1972].”

Pub. L. 92–603, title I, § 129(b), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1359, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and section 3121 of Title 26] shall apply to services performed after December 31, 1972.”

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Pub. L. 90–248, title I, § 123(c), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 845, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] shall apply with respect to services performed after December 31, 1967.”

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–97, title III, § 311(c), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 381, provided that: “The amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a) [amending section 411 of this title], and by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (b) [amending section 1402 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code], shall apply only with respect to taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1965. The amendments made by paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (a) [amending this section], and by paragraphs (4) and (5) of subsection (b) [amending section 3121 of Title 26], shall apply only with respect to services performed after 1965.”

Pub. L. 89–97, title III, § 317(g), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 390, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 3121, 3125, 6205, and 6413 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] shall apply with respect to service performed after the calendar quarter in which this section is enacted and after the calendar quarter in which the Secretary of the Treasury receives a certification from the Commissioners of the District of Columbia expressing their desire to have the insurance system established by title II (and part A of title XVIII) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq., 1395c et seq.] extended to the officers and employees coming under the provisions of such amendments.”

Effective Date of 1961 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–293 applicable with respect to service performed after Sept. 22, 1961, but in the case of persons serving under the Peace Corps agency established by executive order applicable with respect to service performed on or after the effective date of enrollment, see section 202(c) of Pub. L. 87–293, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–256 applicable with respect to service performed after Dec. 31, 1961, see section 110(h)(3) of Pub. L. 87–256, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by section 103(c) of Pub. L. 86–778 applicable only with respect to (1) service in the employ of the Government of Guam or any political subdivision thereof, or any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing wholly owned thereby, which is performed after 1960 and after the calendar quarter in which the Secretary of the Treasury receives a certification by the Governor of Guam that legislation has been enacted by the Government of Guam expressing its desire to have the insurance system established by Title II of the Social Security Act, this subchapter, extended to the officers and employees of such Government and such political subdivisions and instrumentalities, and (2) service in the employ of the Government of American Samoa or any political subdivision thereof or any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing wholly owned thereby, which is performed after 1960 and after the calendar quarter in which the Secretary of the Treasury receives a certification by the Governor of American Samoa that the Government of American Samoa desires to have the insurance system established by this subchapter extended to the officers and employees of such Government and such political subdivisions and instrumentalities, see section 103(v)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 86–778, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Amendment by section 103(d) of Pub. L. 86–778 applicable only with respect to service performed after 1960, see section 103(v)(1) of Pub. L. 86–778, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Amendment by section 103(e), (f) of Pub. L. 86–778 applicable only with respect to service performed after 1960, except that insofar as the carrying on of a trade or business (other than performance of service as an employee) is concerned, the amendment shall be applicable only in the case of taxable years beginning after 1960, see section 103(v)(1), (3) of Pub. L. 86–778, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Amendment by section 103(j)(2)(A), (B) of Pub. L. 86–778 effective Sept. 13, 1960, see section 103(v)(1), (3) of Pub. L. 86–778, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Pub. L. 86–778, title I, § 104(c), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 942, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] shall apply only with respect to services performed after 1960.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–624 effective Aug. 21, 1959, see section 47(f) of Pub. L. 86–624, set out as a note under section 201 of this title.

Effective Date of 1959 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–168 effective Jan. 1, 1960, see Pub. L. 86–168, title II, § 203(c), Aug. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 390.

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–70 effective Jan. 3, 1959, see Pub. L. 86–70, § 47(d), June 25, 1959, 73 Stat. 153.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Pub. L. 85–840, title III, § 311(b), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1035, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to service performed after 1958.”

Pub. L. 85–840, title III, § 312(b), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1035, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, § 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to certificates filed under section 3121(k)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] [26 U.S.C. 3121(k)(1)] after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 28, 1958].”

Effective Date of 1956 Amendment

Amendment by act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, effective Jan. 1, 1957, see Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, title VI, § 603(a), 70 Stat. 887.

Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, § 104(i), 70 Stat. 826, as amended by Pub. L. 92–603, title I, § 125(b), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1357, provided that:

“(1)
The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to service performed after 1956. The amendments made by paragraph (1) of subsection (c) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to service performed after 1954. The amendment made by paragraph (2) of subsection (c) [amending section 411 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after 1955. The amendment made by paragraph (3) of subsection (c) [amending section 411 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after 1954. The amendment made by subsection (d) [amending section 411 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after 1955. The amendment made by subsection (h) [amending section 411 of this title] shall apply with respect to the same taxable years with respect to which the amendment made by section 201(g) of this Act [amending section 1402 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] applies.
“(2)
(A)
Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), the amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to service performed after June 30, 1957, and only if—
“(i)
[Repealed. Pub. L. 92–603, title I, § 125(b), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1357.]
“(ii)
in the case of the amendment made by paragraph (2) of such subsection [amending this section], the conditions prescribed in subparagraph (C) are met.
“(B)
[Repealed. Pub. L. 92–603, title I, § 125(b), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1357.]
“(C)
The amendment made by paragraph (2) of subsection (b) [amending this section] shall be effective only if—
“(i)
the Board of Directors of the Tennessee Valley Authority submits to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and the Secretary approves, before July 1, 1957, a plan, with respect to employees of the Tennessee Valley Authority, for the coordination, on an equitable basis, of the benefits provided by the retirement system applicable to such employees with the benefits provided by title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.]; and
“(ii)
such plan specifies, as the effective date of the plan, July 1, 1957, or the first day of a prior calendar quarter beginning not earlier than January 1, 1956. If the plan specifies as the effective date of the plan a day before July 1, 1957, the amendment made by paragraph (2) of subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to service performed on or after such effective date; except that, if such effective date is prior to the day on which the Secretary approves the plan, such amendment shall not apply with respect to service performed, prior to the day on which the Secretary approves the plan, by an individual who is not an employee of the Tennessee Valley Authority on such day.
“(D)
The Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] shall, on or before July 31, 1957, submit a report to the Congress setting forth the details of any plan approved by him under subparagraph (B) or (C).”

Amendment by section 105(b) of act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, applicable with respect to service performed after 1956, see section 105(d) of such act Aug. 1, 1956, set out as a note under section 409 of this title.

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(a)(4), (5) of act Sept. 1, 1954, applicable only with respect to services (whether performed after 1954 or prior to 1955) for which the remuneration is paid after 1954, and amendment by section 101(b), (c)(1), (2), (e), and (f) of act Sept. 1, 1954, applicable only with respect to services performed after 1954, see section 101(n) of act Sept. 1, 1954, set out as a note under section 405 of this title.

Effective Date of 1950 Amendment

Section as added by section 104(a) of act Aug. 28, 1950, effective Jan. 1, 1951, see section 104(b) of act Aug. 28, 1950, set out as a note under section 409 of this title. Former section 410 was struck out effective Sept. 1, 1950, by section 105 of act Aug. 28, 1950.

Line Item Veto

Pub. L. 105–61, title VI, § 642(d)(1), Oct. 10, 1997, 111 Stat. 1319, amending this section, was subject to line item veto by the President, Cancellation No. 97–56, signed Oct. 16, 1997, 62 F.R. 54338, Oct. 17, 1997. For decision holding line item veto unconstitutional, see Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417, 118 S.Ct. 2091, 141 L.Ed.2d 393 (1998).

Repeals: Amendments and Application of Amendments Unaffected

Section 202(b)(1) of Pub. L. 87–293, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 89–572, § 5(a), Sept. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 765. Such repeal not deemed to affect amendments to this section contained in such provisions, and continuation in full force and effect until modified by appropriate authority of all determinations, authorization, regulations, orders, contracts, agreements, and other actions issued, undertaken, or entered into under authority of the repealed provisions, see section 5(b) of Pub. L. 89–572, set out as a note under section 2515 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Construction of 2018 Amendment

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 115–243 to be construed to affect application of any Federal income tax withholding requirements under Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, see section 2(c) of Pub. L. 115–243, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§ 1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§ 1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Federal Legislative Branch Employees Who Contribute Reduced Amounts by Reason of the Federal Employees’ Retirement Contribution Temporary Adjustment Act of 1983

Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, § 2601(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1126, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, § 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “For purposes of section 210(a)(5)(G) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 410(a)(5)(G)] and section 3121(b)(5)(G) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] [26 U.S.C. 3121(b)(5)(G)], an individual shall not be considered to be subject to subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5, United States Code, or to another retirement system established by a law of the United States for employees of the Federal Government (other than for members of the uniformed services), if he is contributing a reduced amount by reason of the Federal Employees’ Retirement Contribution Temporary Adjustment Act of 1983 [Pub. L. 98–168, title II, Nov. 29, 1983, 97 Stat. 1106, set out as a note under section 8331 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees].”

Qualification and Requalification of Federal Employees for Benefits

Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, § 2601(d), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1126, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, § 2, title XVIII, § 1883(a)(5)(A), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2916, provided that:

“(1)
Any individual who—
“(A)
was subject to subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5, United States Code, or to another retirement system established by a law of the United States for employees of the Federal Government (other than for members of the uniformed services), on December 31, 1983 (as determined for purposes of section 210(a)(5)(G) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 410(a)(5)(G)]), and
“(B)
(i)
received a lump-sum payment under section 8342(a) of such title 5, or under the corresponding provision of the law establishing the other retirement system described in subparagraph (A), after December 31, 1983, and prior to June 15, 1984, or received such a payment on or after June 15, 1984, pursuant to an application which was filed in accordance with such section 8342(a) or the corresponding provision of the law establishing such other retirement system prior to that date, or
“(ii)
otherwise ceased to be subject to subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5, United States Code, for a period after December 31, 1983, to which section 210(a)(5)(G)(iii) of the Social Security Act applies,
shall, if such individual again becomes subject to subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5 (or effectively applies for coverage under such subchapter) after the date on which he last ceased to be subject to such subchapter but prior to, or within 30 days after, the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984], requalify for the exemption from social security coverage and taxes under section 210(a)(5) of the Social Security Act and section 3121(b)(5) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] [26 U.S.C. 3121(b)(5)] as if the cessation of coverage under title 5 had not occurred.
“(2)
An individual meeting the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1) who is not in the employ of the United States or an instrumentality thereof on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] may requalify for such exemptions in the same manner as under paragraph (1) if such individual again becomes subject to subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5 (or effectively applies for coverage under such subchapter) within 30 days after the date on which he first returns to service in the legislative branch after such date of enactment, if such date (on which he returns to service) is within 365 days after he was last in the employ of the United States or an instrumentality thereof.
“(3)
If an individual meeting the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1) does not again become subject to subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5 (or effectively apply for coverage under such subchapter) prior to the date of the enactment of this Act or within the relevant 30-day period as provided in paragraph (1) or (2), social security coverage and taxes by reason of section 210(a)(5)(G) of the Social Security Act and section 3121(b)(5)(G) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall, with respect to such individual’s service in the legislative branch of the Federal Government, become effective with the first month beginning after such 30-day period.
“(4)
The provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) shall apply only for purposes of reestablishing an exemption from social security coverage and taxes, and do not affect the amount of service to be credited to an individual for purposes of title 5, United States Code.”

[Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, § 1883(a)(5), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2916, provided in part that amendment of above note by section 1883(a)(5)(A) of Pub. L. 99–514 is effective July 18, 1984.]

Services Performed for Nonprofit Organizations by Federal Employees

Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, § 2601(e), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1127, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, § 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1)
For purposes of section 210(a)(5) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 410(a)(5)] (as in effect in January 1983 and as in effect on and after January 1, 1984) and section 3121(b)(5) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] [26 U.S.C. 3121(b)(5)] (as so in effect), service performed in the employ of a nonprofit organization described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 501(c)(3)] by an employee who is required by law to be subject to subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5, United States Code, with respect to such service, shall be considered to be service performed in the employ of an instrumentality of the United States.
“(2)
For purposes of section 203 of the Federal Employees’ Retirement Contribution Temporary Adjustment Act of 1983 [section 203 of Pub. L. 98–168, set out as a note under section 8331 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees], service described in paragraph (1) which is also ‘employment’ for purposes of title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.], shall be considered to be ‘covered service’.”

Accrued Federal Retirement Entitlements; Reduction Prohibited

Pub. L. 98–21, title I, § 101(e), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 70, provided that: “Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 1983 Amendment note set out under section 1305 of this title] shall reduce the accrued entitlements to future benefits under the Federal Retirement System of current and retired Federal employees and their families.”

Coverage of Federal Home Loan Bank Employees

Pub. L. 92–603, title I, § 125(a), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1357, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, § 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The provisions of section 210(a)(6)(B)(ii) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (a)(6)(B)(ii) of this section] and section 3121(b)(6)(B)(ii) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] [26 U.S.C. 3121(b)(6)(B)(ii)], insofar as they relate to service performed in the employ of a Federal home loan bank, shall be effective—

“(1)
with respect to all service performed in the employ of a Federal home loan bank on and after the first day of the first calendar quarter which begins on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 1972]; and
“(2)
in the case of individuals who are in the employ of a Federal home loan bank on such first day, with respect to any service performed in the employ of a Federal home loan bank after the last day of the sixth calendar year preceding the year in which this Act is enacted [1972]; but this paragraph shall be effective only if an amount equal to the taxes imposed by sections 3101 and 3111 of such Code [26 U.S.C. 3101, 3111] with respect to the services of all such individuals performed in the employ of Federal home loan banks after the last day of the sixth calendar year preceding the year in which this Act is enacted [1972] are paid under the provisions of section 3122 of such Code [26 U.S.C. 3122] by July 1, 1973, or by such later date as may be provided in an agreement entered into before such date with the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate for purposes of this paragraph.”

Covered Employment Not Counted Under Other Federal Retirement Systems

Act Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, § 115, 68 Stat. 1087, which prohibited counting employment under other Federal retirement systems in determining eligibility for benefits under this subchapter, was repealed by Pub. L. 91–630, § 1, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1875. Pub. L. 91–630, § 2, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1875, provided that such repeal shall not apply in the case of a person who, on Dec. 31, 1970, is receiving or is entitled to receive benefits under any retirement system established by the United States or any instrumentality thereof unless he requests, in writing, the office which administers his retirement system to apply it in this case, and that any additional benefits payable pursuant to such request shall commence on Jan. 1, 1971.

Termination of War and Emergencies

Joint Res. July 25, 1947, ch. 327, § 3, 61 Stat. 451, provided that in the interpretation of this section, the date July 25, 1947, shall be deemed to be the date of termination of any state of war theretofore declared by Congress and of the national emergencies proclaimed by the President on Sept. 8, 1939, and May 27, 1941.

Executive Documents
Change of Name

Coast and Geodetic Survey consolidated with National Weather Bureau in 1965 to form Environmental Science Services Administration by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1965, eff. July 13, 1965, 30 F.R. 8819, 79 Stat. 1318, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Commissioned Officer Corps of the Environmental Science Services Administration changed to Commissioned Officer Corps of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, see Reorg. Plan No. 4 of 1970, § 4(d), eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.