Editorial Notes

Section was formerly classified to section 551 of this title.


1995—Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 104–48, § 12(a), inserted at end “A person shall not be deemed to be responsibly connected if the person demonstrates by a preponderance of the evidence that the person was not actively involved in the activities resulting in a violation of this chapter and that the person either was only nominally a partner, officer, director, or shareholder of a violating licensee or entity subject to license or was not an owner of a violating licensee or entity subject to license which was the alter ego of its owners.”

Subsec. (b)(11), (12). Pub. L. 104–48, § 2, added pars. (11) and (12).

Subsec. (b)(13). Pub. L. 104–48, § 9(a), added par. (13).

1991—Pub. L. 102–237 inserted section catchline, added subsec. (a), designated existing provisions as subsec. (b), and in subsec. (b), inserted heading, substituted “For purposes of this chapter:” for “When used in this chapter—” and periods for semicolons at the end of pars. (1) to (6) and (9).

1981—Pars. (6), (7). Pub. L. 97–98 substituted “$230,000” for “$200,000”.

1978—Par. (6)(B). Pub. L. 95–562, § 1(a)(1), substituted “$200,000” for “$100,000”.

Par. (6)(C). Pub. L. 95–562, § 1(b), inserted “other than potatoes” after “commodity”.

Par. (7). Pub. L. 95–562, § 1(a)(2), substituted “$200,000” for “$100,000”.

1969—Par. (6)(B). Pub. L. 91–107, § 1, substituted “$100,000” for “$90,000”.

Par. (7). Pub. L. 91–107, § 2, substituted “$100,000” for “$90,000”.

1962—Par. (6). Pub. L. 87–725, § 1, substituted “wholesale or jobbing quantities” for “carloads”, the requirement that the dealer’s invoice cost of his purchases in any calendar year exceed $90,000 for the requirement that his purchases in such year exceed 20 carloads, and struck out definition of “in carloads”.

Par. (7). Pub. L. 87–725, § 1, excluded from definition of “broker”, persons who are independent agents negotiating sales for vendors and whose sales are of frozen fruits and vegetables having an invoice value not exceeding $90,000 in any calendar year.

Pars. (9), (10). Pub. L. 87–725, § 2, added pars. (9) and (10).

1940—Par. (4). Act June 29, 1940, § 1, designated existing provisions as cl. (A) and added cl. (B).

Par. (6)(C). Act June 29, 1940, § 2, inserted “, or consists of cherries in brine,” after “ice”.

1937—Par. (6)(C). Act Aug. 20, 1937, inserted “unless such product is frozen or packed in ice within the meaning of paragraph 4 of this section” after “foreign commerce”.

1934—Par. (6)(C). Act Apr. 13, 1934, added cl. (C).

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–562, § 1(a), Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2381, provided that the amendment made by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 95–562 is effective Jan. 1, 1979.

Short Title of 1995 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–48, § 1(a), Nov. 15, 1995, 109 Stat. 424, provided that: “This Act [amending this section and sections 499b, 499c to 499f, and 499h of this title and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 499f of this title] may be cited as the ‘Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act Amendments of 1995’.”

Study of Domestic Fruit and Vegetable Industry

Pub. L. 101–624, title XIII, §§ 1301–1305, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3559, 3560, provided that:

“SEC. 1301.
“Congress finds that—
fruits, vegetables, and specialty crops are a vital and important source of nutrition for the general health and welfare of the people of the United States; and
fruits and vegetables are recommended as an essential part of a healthy, nutritious diet by numerous health officials and organizations including the Surgeon General of the United States; the National Institutes of Health; the National Cancer Institute; the American Heart Association; the Committee on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer of the National Academy of Sciences; the Department of Agriculture; and the Department of Health and Human Services.
“SEC. 1302.
“The purposes of this subtitle [subtitle A (§§ 1301–1309) of Pub. L. 101–624, enacting section 499b–1 of this title, amending sections 608c and 608e–1 of this title, and enacting this note] are to—
improve the Nation’s dietary and nutritional standards by promoting domestically produced wholesome and nutritious fruit and vegetable products;
increase the public awareness as to the difficulties domestic producers experience regarding the production, harvesting, and marketing of these products; and
aid in the development of new technology and techniques that will assist domestic producers in meeting the challenges of increased demands for fruit and vegetable products in the future.
“SEC. 1303.

“Congress declares that the domestic production of fruits and vegetables is an integral part of this Nation’s farm policy.

“SEC. 1304.
In general.—
The Secretary of Agriculture shall conduct a study to determine the state of the domestic fruit and vegetable industry. In conducting such study, the Secretary of Agriculture shall consult with such agencies or departments, as determined necessary by the Secretary of Agriculture, including the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Labor, and the Department of Education.
The study conducted under paragraph (1) shall include—
a review of the availability of an adequate labor supply for maintaining and harvesting of fruits and vegetables;
a review of the availability of crop insurance or disaster assistance for fruit and vegetable producers;
a review of scientific and technological advances in the areas of genetics, biotechnology, integrated pest management, post harvest protection, and other scientific developments related to the production and marketing of fruits and vegetables;
an examination of the availability of safe and effective chemicals for use in the production of fruits and vegetables, and an evaluation of the value of national uniformity to both consumers and producers;
a review of the requirements and cost of labeling fruits and vegetables in the industry, and the benefits that would result from the labeling of such products; and
a review of Federal educational programs that teach the importance of fruits and vegetables to a proper diet.
Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this title [Nov. 28, 1990], the Secretary of Agriculture shall prepare and submit, to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate, a report containing the results of the study described in subsection (a). Such report shall include—
the recommendations of the Secretary concerning the manner in which producers of domestic fruit and vegetable commodities that are not receiving assistance under the programs that provide market enhancement assistance (such as the export enhancement program under subtitle B of title XI of the Food Security Act of 1985 (7 U.S.C. 1736p et seq.) to producers of domestic fruit and vegetable commodities, could participate in such programs; and
the recommendations to the Secretary concerning the establishment of additional programs of the type described in paragraph (1) to assist producers of domestic fruit and vegetable commodities in increasing their production and in expanding domestic and foreign markets for the products of such producers.
“SEC. 1305.
Grown in the U.S. Program.—
The Secretary of Agriculture (hereafter referred to in this section as the ‘Secretary’) shall implement a program defining the conditions under which non-perishable agricultural products may be designated as ‘grown in the U.S.’.
Pilot Program.—
In general.—
The Secretary shall implement a 2-year pilot program during which time perishable agricultural products (fresh fruits and vegetables) are labeled or marked as to their country of origin. This program shall be conducted nationwide. After the 2-year period, the Secretary shall conduct a study to determine the results of the program. The Secretary shall submit to the Congress the results of the study within 18 months from the date of completion of the program.
Details of the pilot program.—
Designation of country of origin.—
The program shall require that the country of origin of perishable agricultural products be indicated on any such products or on the package, display, holding unit, or bin by means of a label, stamp, mark, placard, or other clear and visible indication at the point of sale by any commission merchant, dealer, broker, or grocer. A sign near the products shall be an acceptable indication of the country of origin.
Application of program.—
Imported and domestic products.—
The program shall apply to imported and domestic perishable agricultural products (including fresh fruits and vegetables).
Imported perishable agricultural products.—
The labeling program shall apply to imported perishable agricultural products that enter the United States marked as to the country of origin and that are in compliance with section 304(a) of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1304(a)].
The Secretary may provide for exemptions for products that are exempted, under section 304(a)(3)(J) of the Tariff Act of 1930, from the country of origin marking requirements of that Act [19 U.S.C. 1202 et seq.].
Authorization of Appropriations.—
There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.”

Potato Dealers

Pub. L. 95–562, § 1(b), Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2381, provided in part that no person buying potatoes for processing solely within the State where grown shall be deemed or considered to be a dealer under par. (6) of this section, as amended by section 1(b) of Pub. L. 95–562, until Jan. 1, 1982.