United States Code

USC most recently checked for updates: Oct 02, 2022

§ 8313.
Penalties
(a)
Criminal penalties
(1)
Offenses
(A)
In general

A person that knowingly violates this chapter, or knowingly forges, counterfeits, or, without authority from the Secretary, uses, alters, defaces, or destroys any certificate, permit, or other document provided for in this chapter shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both.

(B)
Distribution or sale

A person that knowingly imports, enters, exports, or moves any animal or article, for distribution or sale, in violation of this chapter, shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both.

(2)
Multiple violations

On the second and any subsequent conviction of a person of a violation of this chapter under paragraph (1), the person shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.

(b)
Civil penalties
(1)
In general
Except as provided in section 8309(d) of this title, any person that violates this chapter, or that forges, counterfeits, or, without authority from the Secretary, uses, alters, defaces, or destroys any certificate, permit, or other document provided under this chapter may, after notice and opportunity for a hearing on the record, be assessed a civil penalty by the Secretary that does not exceed the greater of—
(A)
(i)
$50,000 in the case of any individual, except that the civil penalty may not exceed $1,000 in the case of an initial violation of this chapter by an individual moving regulated articles not for monetary gain;
(ii)
$250,000 in the case of any other person for each violation; and
(iii)
for all violations adjudicated in a single proceeding—
(I)
$500,000 if the violations do not include a willful violation; or
(II)
$1,000,000 if the violations include 1 or more willful violations.
(B)
twice the gross gain or gross loss for any violation or forgery, counterfeiting, or unauthorized use, alteration, defacing or destruction of a certificate, permit, or other document provided under this chapter that results in the person’s deriving pecuniary gain or causing pecuniary loss to another person.
(2)
Factors in determining civil penalty
In determining the amount of a civil penalty, the Secretary shall take into account the nature, circumstance, extent, and gravity of the violation or violations and the Secretary may consider, with respect to the violator—
(A)
the ability to pay;
(B)
the effect on ability to continue to do business;
(C)
any history of prior violations;
(D)
the degree of culpability; and
(E)
such other factors as the Secretary considers to be appropriate.
(3)
Settlement of civil penalties

The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty that may be assessed under this subsection.

(4)
Finality of orders
(A)
Final order

The order of the Secretary assessing a civil penalty shall be treated as a final order reviewable under chapter 158 of title 28.

(B)
Review

The validity of the order of the Secretary may not be reviewed in an action to collect the civil penalty.

(C)
Interest

Any civil penalty not paid in full when due under an order assessing the civil penalty shall thereafter accrue interest until paid at the rate of interest applicable to civil judgments of the courts of the United States.

(c)
Liability for acts of agents

In the construction and enforcement of this chapter, the act, omission, or failure of any officer, agent, or person acting for or employed by any other person within the scope of the employment or office of the officer, agent, or person, shall be deemed also to be the act, omission, or failure of the other person.

(d)
Guidelines for civil penalties

Subject to the approval of the Attorney General, the Secretary shall establish guidelines to determine under what circumstances the Secretary may issue a civil penalty or suitable notice of warning in lieu of prosecution by the Attorney General of a violation of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 107–171, title X, § 10414, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 504; Pub. L. 110–234, title XI, § 11012(a), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1360; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title XI, § 11012(a), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2122.)
cite as: 7 USC 8313