United States Code
USC most recently checked for updates: May 29, 2023
Art. 57. Effective date of sentences
A court-martial sentence shall be executed and take effect as follows:
A forfeiture of pay or allowances shall be applicable to pay and allowances accruing on and after the date on which the sentence takes effect. Any forfeiture of pay or allowances or reduction in grade that is included in a sentence of a court-martial takes effect on the earlier of—
the date that is 14 days after the date on which the sentence is adjudged; or
in the case of a summary court-martial, the date on which the sentence is approved by the convening authority.
Any period of confinement included in a sentence of a court-martial begins to run from the date the sentence is adjudged by the court-martial, but periods during which the sentence to confinement is suspended or deferred shall be excluded in computing the service of the term of confinement.
If the sentence of the court-martial extends to death, that part of the sentence providing for death may not be executed until approved by the President. In such a case, the President may commute, remit, or suspend the sentence, or any part thereof, as the President sees fit. That part of the sentence providing for death may not be suspended.
If in the case of a commissioned officer, cadet, or midshipman, the sentence of a court-martial extends to dismissal, that part of the sentence providing for dismissal may not be executed until approved by the Secretary concerned or such Under Secretary or Assistant Secretary as may be designated by the Secretary concerned. In such a case, the Secretary, Under Secretary, or Assistant Secretary, as the case may be, may commute, remit, or suspend the sentence, or any part of the sentence, as the Secretary sees fit. In time of war or national emergency he may commute a sentence of dismissal to reduction to any enlisted grade. A person so reduced may be required to serve for the duration of the war or emergency and six months thereafter.
If a sentence extends to death, dismissal, or a dishonorable or bad-conduct discharge, that part of the sentence extending to death, dismissal, or a dishonorable or bad-conduct discharge may be executed, in accordance with service regulations, after completion of appellate review (and, with respect to death or dismissal, approval under paragraph (3) or (4), as appropriate).
Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, a general or special court-martial sentence is effective upon entry of judgment and a summary court-martial sentence is effective when the convening authority acts on the sentence.
On application by an accused, the convening authority or, if the accused is no longer under his or her jurisdiction, the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction over the command to which the accused is currently assigned, may, in his or her sole discretion, defer the effective date of a sentence of confinement, reduction, or forfeiture. The deferment shall terminate upon entry of judgment or, in the case of a summary court-martial, when the convening authority acts on the sentence. The deferment may be rescinded at any time by the officer who granted it or, if the accused is no longer under his jurisdiction, by the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction over the command to which the accused is currently assigned.
In any case in which a court-martial sentences a person referred to in paragraph (3) to confinement, the convening authority may defer the service of the sentence to confinement, without the consent of that person, until after the person has been permanently released to the armed forces by a State or foreign country referred to in that paragraph.
Paragraph (2) applies to a person subject to this chapter who—
while in the custody of a State or foreign country is temporarily returned by that State or foreign country to the armed forces for trial by court-martial; and
after the court-martial, is returned to that State or foreign country under the authority of a mutual agreement or treaty, as the case may be.
In this subsection, the term “State” includes the District of Columbia and any Commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States.
In any case in which a court-martial sentences a person to confinement, but in which review of the case under section 867(a)(2) of this title (article 67(a)(2)) is pending, the Secretary concerned may defer further service of the sentence to confinement while that review is pending.
Appellate review is complete under this section when—
a review under section 865 of this title (article 65) is completed; or
a review under section 866 of this title (article 66) is completed by a Court of Criminal Appeals and—
the time for the accused to file a petition for review by the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces has expired and the accused has not filed a timely petition for such review and the case is not otherwise under review by that Court;
such a petition is rejected by the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces; or
review is completed in accordance with the judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces and—
a petition for a writ of certiorari is not filed within the time limits prescribed by the Supreme Court;
such a petition is rejected by the Supreme Court; or
review is otherwise completed in accordance with the judgment of the Supreme Court.
The completion of appellate review shall constitute a final judgment as to the legality of the proceedings.
(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 56; Pub. L. 90–632, § 2(24),
Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1341; Pub. L. 98–209, § 5(f), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1400; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, § 1064, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2505; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XI, §§ 1121(a), 1123(a)(1), (2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 462–464; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LVIII, § 5302(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2921.)
cite as: 10 USC 857