United States Code
USC most recently checked for updates: Dec 05, 2023
Art. 39. Sessions
At any time after the service of charges which have been referred for trial to a court-martial composed of a military judge and members, the military judge may, subject to section 835 of this title (article 35), call the court into session without the presence of the members for the purpose of—
hearing and determining motions raising defenses or objections which are capable of determination without trial of the issues raised by a plea of not guilty;
hearing and ruling upon any matter which may be ruled upon by the military judge under this chapter, whether or not the matter is appropriate for later consideration or decision by the members of the court;
holding the arraignment and receiving the pleas of the accused;
conducting a sentencing proceeding and sentencing the accused under section 853(b)(1) of this title (article 53(b)(1)); and
performing any other procedural function which may be performed by the military judge under this chapter or under rules prescribed pursuant to section 836 of this title (article 36) and which does not require the presence of the members of the court.
Proceedings under subsection (a) shall be conducted in the presence of the accused, the defense counsel, and the trial counsel and shall be made a part of the record. These proceedings may be conducted notwithstanding the number of members of the court and without regard to section 829 of this title (article 29). If authorized by regulations of the Secretary concerned, and if at least one defense counsel is physically in the presence of the accused, the presence required by this subsection may otherwise be established by audiovisual technology (such as videoteleconferencing technology).
When the members of a court-martial deliberate or vote, only the members may be present. All other proceedings, including any other consultation of the members of the court with counsel or the military judge, shall be made a part of the record and shall be in the presence of the accused, the defense counsel, the trial counsel, and the military judge.
The findings, holdings, interpretations, and other precedents of military commissions under chapter 47A of this title—
may not be introduced or considered in any hearing, trial, or other proceeding of a court-martial under this chapter; and
(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 51; Pub. L. 90–632, § 2(15),
Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1338; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, § 541(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1565; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, § 556, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3266; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title XVIII, § 1803(a)(2), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2612; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LVII, § 5222, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2909; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, § 1081(c)(1)(D), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1598.)
cite as: 10 USC 839