United States Code

USC most recently checked for updates: Mar 01, 2024

§ 2373.
Eastern Mediterranean policy requirements
(a)
Congressional declaration and statement of findings
The Congress declares that the achievement of a just and lasting Cyprus settlement is and will remain a central objective of United States foreign policy. The Congress further declares that any action of the United States with respect to section 2370(x) 1
1
 See References in Text note below.
of this title shall not signify a lessening of the United States commitment to a just solution to the conflict on Cyprus but is authorized in the expectation that this action will be conducive to achievement of a Cyprus solution and a general improvement in relations among Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus and between those countries and the United States. The Congress finds that—
(1)
a just settlement on Cyprus must involve the establishment of a free and independent government on Cyprus and must guarantee that the human rights of all of the people of Cyprus are fully protected;
(2)
a just settlement on Cyprus must include the withdrawal of Turkish military forces from Cyprus;
(3)
the guidelines for inter-communal talks agreed to in Nicosia in February 1977 and the United Nations resolutions regarding Cyprus provide a sound basis for negotiation of a just settlement on Cyprus;
(4)
serious negotiations, under United Nations auspices, will be necessary to achieve agreement on, and implementation of, constitutional and territorial terms within such guidelines; and
(5)
the recent proposals by both Cypriot communities regarding the return of the refugees to the city of New Famagusta (Varosha) constitute a positive step and the United States should actively support the efforts of the Secretary General of the United Nations with respect to this issue.
(b)
Governing principles
United States policy regarding Cyprus, Greece, and Turkey shall be directed toward the restoration of a stable and peaceful atmosphere in the Eastern Mediterranean region and shall therefore be governed by the following principles:
(1)
The United States shall actively support the resolution of differences through negotiations and internationally established peaceful procedures, shall encourage all parties to avoid provocative actions, and shall strongly oppose any attempt to resolve disputes through force or threat of force.
(2)
The United States will accord full support and high priority to efforts, particularly those of the United Nations, to bring about a prompt, peaceful settlement on Cyprus.
(3)
All defense articles furnished by the United States to countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region will be used only in accordance with the requirements of this chapter, the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], and the agreements under which those defense articles were furnished.
(4)
The United States will furnish security assistance for Greece and Turkey only when furnishing that assistance is intended solely for defensive purposes, including when necessary to enable the recipient country to fulfill its responsibilities as a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and shall be designed to ensure that the present balance of military strength among countries of the region, including between Greece and Turkey, is preserved. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit the transfer of defense articles to Greece or Turkey for legitimate self defense or to enable Greece or Turkey to fulfill their North Atlantic Treaty Organization obligations.
(5)
The United States shall use its influence to ensure the continuation of the ceasefire on Cyprus until an equitable negotiated settlement is reached.
(6)
The United States shall use its influence to achieve the withdrawal of Turkish military forces from Cyprus in the context of a solution to the Cyprus problem.
(c)
Review of policy; report to Congress

Because progress toward a Cyprus settlement is a high priority of United States policy in the Eastern Mediterranean, the President and the Congress shall continually review that progress and shall determine United States policy in the region accordingly. To facilitate such a review the President shall, within 60 days after the date of enactment of this section and at the end of each succeeding 60-day period, transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a report on progress made toward the conclusion of a negotiated solution of the Cyprus problem. Such transmissions shall include any relevant reports prepared by the Secretary General of the United Nations for the Security Council.

(d)
Certification by President to Congress of assistance to Greece and Turkey

In order to ensure that United States assistance is furnished consistent with the policies established in this section, the President shall, whenever requesting any funds for security assistance under this chapter or the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] for Greece and Turkey, transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate his certification, with a full explanation thereof, that the furnishing of such assistance will be consistent with the principles set forth in subsection (b). The President shall also submit such a certification with any notification to the Congress, pursuant to section 36(b) of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2776(b)], of a proposed sale of defense articles or services to Greece or Turkey.

(e)
Arms sales agreements to prohibit transfer to Cyprus
(1)
Except as provided in paragraph (3), any agreement for the sale or provision of any article on the United States Munitions List (established pursuant to section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2778]) entered into by the United States after December 22, 1987, shall expressly state that the article is being provided by the United States only with the understanding that it will not be transferred to Cyprus or otherwise used to further the severance or division of Cyprus.
(2)
The President shall report to Congress any substantial evidence that equipment provided under any such agreement has been used in a manner inconsistent with the purposes of this subsection.
(3)
The requirement under paragraph (1) shall not apply to any sale or other provision of any defense article or defense service to Cyprus if the end-user of such defense article or defense service is the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, § 620C, as added Pub. L. 95–384, § 13(b), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 737; amended Pub. L. 100–202, § 101(e) [title V, § 562], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329–171; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title XII, § 1250A(b), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1665; Pub. L. 116–94, div. J, title II, § 205(b), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3052.)
cite as: 22 USC 2373