United States Code

USC most recently checked for updates: Apr 17, 2024

§ 1305.
Tribal jurisdiction in Alaska
(a)
In general

Subject to title II of Public Law 90–284 (25 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.) (commonly known as the “Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968”), Congress recognizes and affirms the inherent authority of any Indian tribe occupying a Village in the State to exercise criminal and civil jurisdiction over all Indians present in the Village.

(b)
Tribal civil jurisdiction to enforce protection orders
(1)
In general
A court of any Indian tribe in the State shall have full civil jurisdiction to issue and enforce protection orders involving any person in matters—
(A)
arising within the Village of the Indian tribe; or
(B)
otherwise within the authority of the Indian tribe.
(2)
Inclusions
The full civil jurisdiction to issue and enforce protection orders under paragraph (1) includes the authority to enforce protection orders through—
(A)
civil contempt proceedings;
(B)
exclusion of violators from the Village of the Indian tribe; and
(C)
other appropriate mechanisms.
(c)
Special Tribal criminal jurisdiction
(1)
In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in addition to all powers of self-government recognized and affirmed under subsection (a), the powers of self-government of a participating Tribe include the inherent power of the participating Tribe, which is hereby recognized and affirmed, to exercise special Tribal criminal jurisdiction over a defendant for a covered crime that occurs in the Village of the participating Tribe.

(2)
Concurrent jurisdiction

The exercise of special Tribal criminal jurisdiction by a participating Tribe shall be concurrent with the jurisdiction of the United States, the State, or both.

(3)
Exception if victim and defendant are both non-Indians
(A)
In general

A participating Tribe may not exercise special Tribal criminal jurisdiction over an alleged offense of a covered crime, other than obstruction of justice or assault of Tribal justice personnel, if neither the defendant nor the alleged victim is an Indian.

(B)
Definition of victim

In this paragraph and with respect to a criminal proceeding in which a participating Tribe exercises special Tribal criminal jurisdiction based on a violation of a protection order, the term “victim” means a person specifically protected by the protection order that the defendant allegedly violated.

(d)
Pilot program for special Tribal criminal jurisdiction over persons who are not Indians
(1)
Establishment

Subject to title II of Public Law 90–284 (25 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.) (commonly known as the “Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968”), there is established a pilot program under which the Attorney General, subject to paragraph (5), shall designate not more than 5 Indian tribes per calendar year as participating Tribes to exercise the special Tribal criminal jurisdiction described in paragraph (6) over all persons present in the Village of the Indian tribe.

(2)
Procedure

At any time during the 1-year period beginning on March 15, 2022, and annually thereafter, an Indian tribe may request the Attorney General to designate the Indian tribe as a participating Tribe under paragraph (1).

(3)
Designation of participating tribes
(A)
In general
The Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior and affected Indian tribes, shall establish a process to designate Indian tribes to participate in the pilot program, which process shall—
(i)
require that preference shall be given to Indian tribes occupying Villages—
(I)
the populations of which are predominantly Indian; and
(II)
that lack a permanent State law enforcement physical presence;
(ii)
require that for each Indian tribe requesting to be designated as a participating Tribe, the Attorney General makes a determination that the criminal justice system of the Indian tribe has adequate safeguards in place to protect defendants’ rights, consistent with section 204(d) of Public Law 90–284 (25 U.S.C. 1304(d)) (commonly known as the “Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968”); and
(iii)
be subject to such other criteria as the Attorney General considers to be appropriate to achieve the purposes of this subtitle.
(B)
Designation

The Attorney General shall designate Indian tribes to participate in the pilot program under paragraph (1) using the process established under subparagraph (A).

(4)
Intertribal participation
(A)
In general
2 or more participating Tribes (or the Tribal organization (as defined in section 5304 of this title) of the participating Tribe, if the Tribal organization is exercising delegated authority from the participating Tribe)—
(i)
may elect to participate jointly in the pilot program by providing shared resources to carry out the purposes of the pilot program; and
(ii)
on making an election pursuant to clause (i), shall be considered to be a single participating Tribe for purposes of the maximum number of participating Tribes under paragraphs (1) and (5).
(B)
Additional participating tribes
(i)
In general

Additional participating Tribes may elect to join an established intertribal partnership under subparagraph (A) at any time after the intertribal partnership is established.

(ii)
Application

An intertribal partnership that additional participating Tribes elect to join pursuant to clause (i) shall be considered to be a single participating Tribe for purposes of the maximum number of participating Tribes under paragraphs (1) and (5).

(5)
Maximum number of participating tribes
(A)
In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the Attorney General may designate not more than 30 Indian tribes to participate in the pilot program.

(B)
Exception

The limitation under subparagraph (A) shall not apply if the Attorney General submits to the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives, and publishes in the Federal Register, a written notice of the intention to designate additional Indian tribes as participating Tribes, including the rationale for the designation, by not later than the date that is 180 days before the date of designation.

(6)
Description of jurisdiction

Congress recognizes and affirms that an Indian tribe selected to participate in the pilot program as a participating Tribe may exercise, subject to paragraph (7), special Tribal criminal jurisdiction with respect to covered crimes.

(7)
Rights of defendants

In exercising special Tribal criminal jurisdiction under the pilot program, a participating Tribe shall provide to each defendant all rights described in section 204(d) of Public Law 90–284 (25 U.S.C. 1304(d)) (commonly known as the “Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968”).

(e)
Sentences
In a criminal proceeding in which an Indian court of a participating Tribe, in exercising special Tribal criminal jurisdiction with respect to a covered crime, imposes a sentence of imprisonment of more than 1 year on a defendant pursuant to section 202(b) of Public Law 90–284 (25 U.S.C. 1302(b)) (commonly known as the “Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968”), the Indian court may require the defendant—
(1)
to serve a sentence—
(A)
in a Tribal correctional center that has been approved by the Bureau of Indian Affairs for long-term incarceration, in accordance with guidelines set by the Bureau of Indian Affairs;
(B)
at the expense of the United States, in the nearest appropriate Federal facility pursuant to the Bureau of Prisons Tribal Prisoner Program established under section 1302a(c)(1) of this title; or
(C)
at the expense of the participating Tribe and, subject to section 204(f)(1) of Public Law 90–284 (25 U.S.C. 1304(f)(1)) (commonly known as the “Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968”), reimbursable by the Attorney General, in a detention or correctional center approved by the State or a local government of the State pursuant to a memorandum of agreement between the participating Tribe and the State or local government of the State; or
(2)
to serve another alternative form of punishment, as determined by the Indian court pursuant to Tribal law.
(f)
Memoranda of agreement
The Attorney General and the Secretary of the Interior may enter into such memoranda of agreement with participating Tribes and the State as are necessary and appropriate—
(1)
to coordinate respective law enforcement activities;
(2)
to share equipment and other resources;
(3)
to establish cross-deputization arrangements;
(4)
to coordinate appropriate training activities; and
(5)
to address any other matters that will facilitate the successful implementation of the pilot program, including intergovernmental agreements regarding—
(A)
the incarceration of convicted persons; and
(B)
cooperation in the investigation and prosecution of crimes.
(g)
Alaska Tribal Public Safety Advisory Committee
(1)
Establishment

Not later than 1 year March 15, 2022, the Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior, affected Indian tribes, and the State, shall establish a committee, to be known as the “Alaska Tribal Public Safety Advisory Committee” (referred to in this subsection as the “Committee”).

(2)
Membership
The Committee shall consist of 1 or more representatives from—
(A)
participating Tribes and Indian tribes aspiring to participate in the pilot program;
(B)
Federal, Tribal, State, and local law enforcement; and
(C)
Tribal nonprofit organizations providing victim services.
(3)
Duties
The Committee shall focus on—
(A)
improving the justice systems, crime prevention, and victim services of Indian tribes and the State; and
(B)
increasing coordination and communication among Federal, Tribal, State, and local law enforcement agencies.
(4)
Travel expenses

A member of the Committee shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for employees of agencies under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, while away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services for the Committee.

(5)
Nonapplicability of FACA

The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) 1

1
 See References in Text note below.
shall not apply to the Committee.

(6)
Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection such sums as may be necessary for the period of fiscal years 2023 through 2027, to remain available until expended.

(h)
Report to Congress

Not later than 5 years after March 15, 2022, the Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior and affected Indian tribes, shall submit to Congress a report describing the results of the pilot program, including an explanation of any modifications to law necessary to facilitate improved law enforcement in Villages.

(i)
Applicability
Nothing in this subtitle—
(1)
limits, alters, expands, or diminishes the civil or criminal jurisdiction of the United States, the State, any subdivision of the State, or any Indian tribe in the State;
(2)
creates or eliminates any Federal or State criminal jurisdiction over a Village; or
(3)
affects the authority of the United States or any authority delegated by the United States to the State to investigate and prosecute a criminal violation in a Village.
(Pub. L. 117–103, div. W, title VIII, § 813, Mar. 15, 2022, 136 Stat. 906.)
cite as: 25 USC 1305