United States Code
USC most recently checked for updates: Oct 04, 2023
Except as otherwise provided by law—
this section shall govern the venue of all civil actions brought in district courts of the United States; and
the proper venue for a civil action shall be determined without regard to whether the action is local or transitory in nature.
A civil action may be brought in—
a judicial district in which any defendant resides, if all defendants are residents of the State in which the district is located;
a judicial district in which a substantial part of the events or omissions giving rise to the claim occurred, or a substantial part of property that is the subject of the action is situated; or
if there is no district in which an action may otherwise be brought as provided in this section, any judicial district in which any defendant is subject to the court’s personal jurisdiction with respect to such action.
For all venue purposes—
a natural person, including an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States, shall be deemed to reside in the judicial district in which that person is domiciled;
an entity with the capacity to sue and be sued in its common name under applicable law, whether or not incorporated, shall be deemed to reside, if a defendant, in any judicial district in which such defendant is subject to the court’s personal jurisdiction with respect to the civil action in question and, if a plaintiff, only in the judicial district in which it maintains its principal place of business; and
a defendant not resident in the United States may be sued in any judicial district, and the joinder of such a defendant shall be disregarded in determining where the action may be brought with respect to other defendants.
For purposes of venue under this chapter, in a State which has more than one judicial district and in which a defendant that is a corporation is subject to personal jurisdiction at the time an action is commenced, such corporation shall be deemed to reside in any district in that State within which its contacts would be sufficient to subject it to personal jurisdiction if that district were a separate State, and, if there is no such district, the corporation shall be deemed to reside in the district within which it has the most significant contacts.
A civil action in which a defendant is an officer or employee of the United States or any agency thereof acting in his official capacity or under color of legal authority, or an agency of the United States, or the United States, may, except as otherwise provided by law, be brought in any judicial district in which (A) a defendant in the action resides, (B) a substantial part of the events or omissions giving rise to the claim occurred, or a substantial part of property that is the subject of the action is situated, or (C) the plaintiff resides if no real property is involved in the action. Additional persons may be joined as parties to any such action in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and with such other venue requirements as would be applicable if the United States or one of its officers, employees, or agencies were not a party.
The summons and complaint in such an action shall be served as provided by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure except that the delivery of the summons and complaint to the officer or agency as required by the rules may be made by certified mail beyond the territorial limits of the district in which the action is brought.
A civil action against a foreign state as defined in section 1603(a) of this title may be brought—
in any judicial district in which a substantial part of the events or omissions giving rise to the claim occurred, or a substantial part of property that is the subject of the action is situated;
in any judicial district in which the vessel or cargo of a foreign state is situated, if the claim is asserted under section 1605(b) of this title;
in any judicial district in which the agency or instrumentality is licensed to do business or is doing business, if the action is brought against an agency or instrumentality of a foreign state as defined in section 1603(b) of this title; or
in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia if the action is brought against a foreign state or political subdivision thereof.
A civil action in which jurisdiction of the district court is based upon section 1369 of this title may be brought in any district in which any defendant resides or in which a substantial part of the accident giving rise to the action took place.
(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 935; Pub. L. 87–748, § 2,
Oct. 5, 1962, 76 Stat. 744; Pub. L. 88–234, Dec. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 473; Pub. L. 89–714, §§ 1, 2, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1111; Pub. L. 94–574, § 3, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2721; Pub. L. 94–583, § 5, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2897; Pub. L. 100–702, title X, § 1013(a), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4669; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, § 311, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5114; Pub. L. 102–198, § 3, Dec. 9, 1991, 105 Stat. 1623; Pub. L. 102–572, title V, § 504, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4513; Pub. L. 104–34, § 1, Oct. 3, 1995, 109 Stat. 293; Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, § 11020(b)(2), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1827; Pub. L. 112–63, title II, § 202, Dec. 7, 2011, 125 Stat. 763.)
cite as: 28 USC 1391