For the purposes of this chapter:
The term “administrative costs” means expenditures incurred in the performance of administrative functions under the vocational rehabilitation program carried out under subchapter I, including expenses related to program planning, development, monitoring, and evaluation, including expenses for—
budgeting, accounting, financial management, information systems, and related data processing;
providing information about the program to the public;
technical assistance and support services to other State agencies, private nonprofit organizations, and businesses and industries, except for technical assistance and support services described in section 723(b)(5) of this title
the State Rehabilitation Council and other advisory committees;
professional organization membership dues for designated State unit employees;
the removal of architectural barriers in State vocational rehabilitation agency offices and State operated rehabilitation facilities;
operating and maintaining designated State unit facilities, equipment, and grounds;
administration of the comprehensive system of personnel development described in section 721(a)(7) of this title
, including personnel administration, administration of affirmative action plans, and training and staff development;
administrative salaries, including clerical and other support staff salaries, in support of these administrative functions;
travel costs related to carrying out the program, other than travel costs related to the provision of services;
legal expenses required in the administration of the program.
Assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs
The term “assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs” means, as appropriate in each case—
to the extent necessary, the provision of appropriate assessment activities to obtain necessary additional data to make such determination and assignment;
to the extent additional data is necessary to make a determination of the employment outcomes, and the nature and scope of vocational rehabilitation services, to be included in the individualized plan for employment of an eligible individual, a comprehensive assessment to determine the unique strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests, and informed choice, including the need for supported employment, of the eligible individual, which comprehensive assessment—
is limited to information that is necessary to identify the rehabilitation needs of the individual and to develop the individualized plan for employment of the eligible individual;
uses, as a primary source of such information, to the maximum extent possible and appropriate and in accordance with confidentiality requirements—
existing information obtained for the purposes of determining the eligibility of the individual and assigning priority for an order of selection described in section 721(a)(5)(A) of this title
for the individual; and
such information as can be provided by the individual and, where appropriate, by the family of the individual;
may include, to the degree needed to make such a determination, an assessment of the personality, interests, interpersonal skills, intelligence and related functional capacities, educational achievements, work experience, vocational aptitudes, personal and social adjustments, and employment opportunities of the individual, and the medical, psychiatric, psychological, and other pertinent vocational, educational, cultural, social, recreational, and environmental factors, that affect the employment and rehabilitation needs of the individual;
may include, to the degree needed, an appraisal of the patterns of work behavior of the individual and services needed for the individual to acquire occupational skills, and to develop work attitudes, work habits, work tolerance, and social and behavior patterns necessary for successful job performance, including the utilization of work in real job situations to assess and develop the capacities of the individual to perform adequately in a work environment; and
to the maximum extent possible, relies on information obtained from experiences in integrated employment settings in the community, and other integrated community settings;
referral, for the provision of rehabilitation technology services to the individual, to assess and develop the capacities of the individual to perform in a work environment; and
an exploration of the individual’s abilities, capabilities, and capacity to perform in work situations, which shall be assessed periodically during trial work experiences, including experiences in which the individual is provided appropriate supports and training.
Assistive technology terms
Assistive technology device
The term “assistive technology device” has the meaning given such term in section 3002 of this title, except that the reference in such section to the term “individuals with disabilities” shall be deemed to mean more than 1 individual with a disability as defined in paragraph (20)(A)).
So in original. The second closing parenthesis probably should not appear.
Assistive technology service
The term “assistive technology service” has the meaning given such term in section 3002 of this title
, except that the reference in such section—
to the term “individual with a disability” shall be deemed to mean an individual with a disability, as defined in paragraph (20)(A); and
to the term “individuals with disabilities” shall be deemed to mean more than 1 such individual.
Community rehabilitation program
The term “community rehabilitation program” means a program that provides directly or facilitates the provision of vocational rehabilitation services to individuals with disabilities, and that provides, singly or in combination, for an individual with a disability to enable the individual to maximize opportunities for employment, including career advancement—
medical, psychiatric, psychological, social, and vocational services that are provided under one management;
testing, fitting, or training in the use of prosthetic and orthotic devices;
physical and occupational therapy;
psychiatric, psychological, and social services, including positive behavior management;
assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs;
job development, placement, and retention services;
evaluation or control of specific disabilities;
orientation and mobility services for individuals who are blind;
psychosocial rehabilitation services;
supported employment services and extended services;
services to family members when necessary to the vocational rehabilitation of the individual;
personal assistance services; or
services similar to the services described in one of subparagraphs (A) through (Q).
Competitive integrated employment
The term “competitive integrated employment” means work that is performed on a full-time or part-time basis (including self-employment)—
for which an individual—
is compensated at a rate that—
shall be not less than the higher of the rate specified in section 206(a)(1) of this title
or the rate specified in the applicable State or local minimum wage law; and
is not less than the customary rate paid by the employer for the same or similar work performed by other employees who are not individuals with disabilities, and who are similarly situated in similar occupations by the same employer and who have similar training, experience, and skills; or
in the case of an individual who is self-employed, yields an income that is comparable to the income received by other individuals who are not individuals with disabilities, and who are self-employed in similar occupations or on similar tasks and who have similar training, experience, and skills; and
is eligible for the level of benefits provided to other employees;
that is at a location where the employee interacts with other persons who are not individuals with disabilities (not including supervisory personnel or individuals who are providing services to such employee) to the same extent that individuals who are not individuals with disabilities and who are in comparable positions interact with other persons; and
that, as appropriate, presents opportunities for advancement that are similar to those for other employees who are not individuals with disabilities and who have similar positions.
Construction; cost of construction
The term “construction” means—
the construction of new buildings;
the acquisition, expansion, remodeling, alteration, and renovation of existing buildings; and
initial equipment of buildings described in clauses (i) and (ii).
Cost of construction
The term “cost of construction” includes architects’ fees and the cost of acquisition of land in connection with construction but does not include the cost of offsite improvements.
The term “customized employment” means competitive integrated employment, for an individual with a significant disability, that is based on an individualized determination of the strengths, needs, and interests of the individual with a significant disability, is designed to meet the specific abilities of the individual with a significant disability and the business needs of the employer, and is carried out through flexible strategies, such as—
job exploration by the individual;
working with an employer to facilitate placement, including—
customizing a job description based on current employer needs or on previously unidentified and unmet employer needs;
developing a set of job duties, a work schedule and job arrangement, and specifics of supervision (including performance evaluation and review), and determining a job location;
representation by a professional chosen by the individual, or self-representation of the individual, in working with an employer to facilitate placement; and
providing services and supports at the job location.
Designated State agency; designated State unit
Designated State unit
The term “designated State unit” means—
The term “disability” means—
except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (B), a physical or mental impairment that constitutes or results in a substantial impediment to employment; or
for purposes of sections 701, 711, and 712 of this title, and subchapters II, IV, V, and VII, the meaning given it in section 12102 of title 42
Drug and illegal use of drugs
The term “drug” means a controlled substance, as defined in schedules I through V of section 202 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812).
Illegal use of drugs
The term “illegal use of drugs” means the use of drugs, the possession or distribution of which is unlawful under the Controlled Substances Act [21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.]. Such term does not include the use of a drug taken under supervision by a licensed health care professional, or other uses authorized by the Controlled Substances Act or other provisions of Federal law.
The term “employment outcome” means, with respect to an individual—
entering or retaining full-time or, if appropriate, part-time competitive employment in the integrated labor market;
satisfying the vocational outcome of supported employment; or
satisfying any other vocational outcome the Secretary of Education may determine to be appropriate (including satisfying the vocational outcome of customized employment, self-employment, telecommuting, or business ownership),
in a manner consistent with this chapter.
Establishment of a community rehabilitation program
The term “establishment of a community rehabilitation program” includes the acquisition, expansion, remodeling, or alteration of existing buildings necessary to adapt them to community rehabilitation program purposes or to increase their effectiveness for such purposes (subject, however, to such limitations as the Secretary of Education may determine, in accordance with regulations the Secretary of Education shall prescribe, in order to prevent impairment of the objectives of, or duplication of, other Federal laws providing Federal assistance in the construction of facilities for community rehabilitation programs), and may include such additional equipment and staffing as the Commissioner considers appropriate.
The term “extended services” means ongoing support services and other appropriate services, needed to support and maintain an individual with a most significant disability in supported employment, that—
are provided singly or in combination and are organized and made available in such a way as to assist an eligible individual in maintaining supported employment;
are based on a determination of the needs of an eligible individual, as specified in an individualized plan for employment; and
are provided by a State agency, a nonprofit private organization, employer, or any other appropriate resource, after an individual has made the transition from support provided by the designated State unit.
Subject to subparagraph (B), the term “Federal share” means 78.7 percent.
The term “Federal share” means the share specifically set forth in section 731(a)(3) of this title, except that with respect to payments pursuant to part B of subchapter I to any State that are used to meet the costs of construction of those rehabilitation facilities identified in section 723(b)(2) of this title in such State, the Federal share shall be the percentages determined in accordance with the provisions of section 731(a)(3) of this title applicable with respect to the State.
Relationship to expenditures by a political subdivision
For the purpose of determining the non-Federal share with respect to a State, expenditures by a political subdivision thereof or by a local agency shall be regarded as expenditures by such State, subject to such limitations and conditions as the Secretary of Education shall by regulation prescribe.
The term “Governor” means a chief executive officer of a State.
Impartial hearing officer
The term “impartial hearing officer” means an individual—
who is not an employee of a public agency (other than an administrative law judge, hearing examiner, or employee of an institution of higher education);
who has not been involved previously in the vocational rehabilitation of the applicant or eligible individual;
who has knowledge of the delivery of vocational rehabilitation services, the State plan under section 721 of this title
, and the Federal and State rules governing the provision of such services and training with respect to the performance of official duties; and
who has no personal or financial interest that would be in conflict with the objectivity of the individual.
An individual shall not be considered to be an employee of a public agency for purposes of subparagraph (A)(i) solely because the individual is paid by the agency to serve as a hearing officer.
Independent living core services
The term “independent living core services” means—
information and referral services;
independent living skills training;
peer counseling (including cross-disability peer counseling);
individual and systems advocacy; and
facilitate the transition of individuals with significant disabilities from nursing homes and other institutions to home and community-based residences, with the requisite supports and services;
provide assistance to individuals with significant disabilities who are at risk of entering institutions so that the individuals may remain in the community; and
facilitate the transition of youth who are individuals with significant disabilities, who were eligible for individualized education programs under section 614(d) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1414
(d)), and who have completed their secondary education or otherwise left school, to postsecondary life.
Independent living services
The term “independent living services” includes—
independent living core services; and
counseling services, including psychological, psychotherapeutic, and related services;
services related to securing housing or shelter, including services related to community group living, and supportive of the purposes of this chapter and of the subchapters of this chapter, and adaptive housing services (including appropriate accommodations to and modifications of any space used to serve, or occupied by, individuals with disabilities);
services and training for individuals with cognitive and sensory disabilities, including life skills training, and interpreter and reader services;
personal assistance services, including attendant care and the training of personnel providing such services;
surveys, directories, and other activities to identify appropriate housing, recreation opportunities, and accessible transportation, and other support services;
consumer information programs on rehabilitation and independent living services available under this chapter, especially for minorities and other individuals with disabilities who have traditionally been unserved or underserved by programs under this chapter;
education and training necessary for living in a community and participating in community activities;
transportation, including referral and assistance for such transportation and training in the use of public transportation vehicles and systems;
provision of needed prostheses and other appliances and devices;
individual and group social and recreational services;
training to develop skills specifically designed for youths who are individuals with disabilities to promote self-awareness and esteem, develop advocacy and self-empowerment skills, and explore career options;
services for children;
services under other Federal, State, or local programs designed to provide resources, training, counseling, or other assistance, of substantial benefit in enhancing the independence, productivity, and quality of life of individuals with disabilities;
appropriate preventive services to decrease the need of individuals assisted under this chapter for similar services in the future;
community awareness programs to enhance the understanding and integration into society of individuals with disabilities; and
such other services as may be necessary and not inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter.
Indian; American Indian; Indian American; Indian tribe
The terms “Indian”, “American Indian”, and “Indian American” mean an individual who is a member of an Indian tribe and includes a Native and a descendant of a Native, as such terms are defined in subsections (b) and (r) of section 3 of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1602).
The term “Indian tribe” means any Federal or State Indian tribe, band, rancheria, pueblo, colony, or community, including any Alaskan native village or regional village corporation (as defined in or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act [43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.]) and a tribal organization (as defined in section 5304(l) of title 25).
Individual with a disability
Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (B), the term “individual with a disability” means any individual who—
has a physical or mental impairment which for such individual constitutes or results in a substantial impediment to employment; and
can benefit in terms of an employment outcome from vocational rehabilitation services provided pursuant to subchapter I, III, or VI.
Certain programs; limitations on major life activities
Subject to subparagraphs (C), (D), (E), and (F), the term “individual with a disability” means, for purposes of sections 701, 711, and 712 of this title, and subchapters II, IV, V, and VII of this chapter, any person who has a disability as defined in section 12102 of title 42.
Rights and advocacy provisions
In general; exclusion of individuals engaging in drug use
For purposes of subchapter V, the term “individual with a disability” does not include an individual who is currently engaging in the illegal use of drugs, when a covered entity acts on the basis of such use.
Exception for individuals no longer engaging in drug use
Nothing in clause (i) shall be construed to exclude as an individual with a disability an individual who—
has successfully completed a supervised drug rehabilitation program and is no longer engaging in the illegal use of drugs, or has otherwise been rehabilitated successfully and is no longer engaging in such use;
is participating in a supervised rehabilitation program and is no longer engaging in such use; or
is erroneously regarded as engaging in such use, but is not engaging in such use;
except that it shall not be a violation of this chapter for a covered entity to adopt or administer reasonable policies or procedures, including but not limited to drug testing, designed to ensure that an individual described in subclause (I) or (II) is no longer engaging in the illegal use of drugs.
Exclusion for certain services
Notwithstanding clause (i), for purposes of programs and activities providing health services and services provided under subchapters I, II, and III, an individual shall not be excluded from the benefits of such programs or activities on the basis of his or her current illegal use of drugs if he or she is otherwise entitled to such services.
For purposes of programs and activities providing educational services, local educational agencies may take disciplinary action pertaining to the use or possession of illegal drugs or alcohol against any student who is an individual with a disability and who currently is engaging in the illegal use of drugs or in the use of alcohol to the same extent that such disciplinary action is taken against students who are not individuals with disabilities. Furthermore, the due process procedures at section 104.36 of title 34, Code of Federal Regulations (or any corresponding similar regulation or ruling) shall not apply to such disciplinary actions.
Employment; exclusion of alcoholics
For purposes of sections 793 and 794 of this title as such sections relate to employment, the term “individual with a disability” does not include any individual who is an alcoholic whose current use of alcohol prevents such individual from performing the duties of the job in question or whose employment, by reason of such current alcohol abuse, would constitute a direct threat to property or the safety of others.
Employment; exclusion of individuals with certain diseases or infections
For the purposes of sections 793 and 794 of this title, as such sections relate to employment, such term does not include an individual who has a currently contagious disease or infection and who, by reason of such disease or infection, would constitute a direct threat to the health or safety of other individuals or who, by reason of the currently contagious disease or infection, is unable to perform the duties of the job.
Rights provisions; exclusion of individuals on basis of homosexuality or bisexuality
For the purposes of sections 791, 793, and 794 of this title—
for purposes of the application of subparagraph (B) to such sections, the term “impairment” does not include homosexuality or bisexuality; and
therefore the term “individual with a disability” does not include an individual on the basis of homosexuality or bisexuality.
Rights provisions; exclusion of individuals on basis of certain disorders
For the purposes of sections 791, 793, and 794 of this title, the term “individual with a disability” does not include an individual on the basis of—
transvestism, transsexualism, pedophilia, exhibitionism, voyeurism, gender identity disorders not resulting from physical impairments, or other sexual behavior disorders;
compulsive gambling, kleptomania, or pyromania; or
psychoactive substance use disorders resulting from current illegal use of drugs.
Individuals with disabilities
The term “individuals with disabilities” means more than one individual with a disability.
Individual with a significant disability
Except as provided in subparagraph (B) or (C), the term “individual with a significant disability” means an individual with a disability—
who has a severe physical or mental impairment which seriously limits one or more functional capacities (such as mobility, communication, self-care, self-direction, interpersonal skills, work tolerance, or work skills) in terms of an employment outcome;
whose vocational rehabilitation can be expected to require multiple vocational rehabilitation services over an extended period of time; and
who has one or more physical or mental disabilities resulting from amputation, arthritis, autism, blindness, burn injury, cancer, cerebral palsy, cystic fibrosis, deafness, head injury, heart disease, hemiplegia, hemophilia, respiratory or pulmonary dysfunction, intellectual disability, mental illness, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, musculo-skeletal disorders, neurological disorders (including stroke and epilepsy), paraplegia, quadriplegia, and other spinal cord conditions, sickle cell anemia, specific learning disability, end-stage renal disease, or another disability or combination of disabilities determined on the basis of an assessment for determining eligibility and vocational rehabilitation needs described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (2) to cause comparable substantial functional limitation.
Independent living services and centers for independent living
For purposes of subchapter VII, the term “individual with a significant disability” means an individual with a severe physical or mental impairment whose ability to function independently in the family or community or whose ability to obtain, maintain, or advance in employment is substantially limited and for whom the delivery of independent living services will improve the ability to function, continue functioning, or move toward functioning independently in the family or community or to continue in employment, respectively.
Research and training
For purposes of subchapter II, the term “individual with a significant disability” includes an individual described in subparagraph (A) or (B).
Individuals with significant disabilities
The term “individuals with significant disabilities” means more than one individual with a significant disability.
Individual with a most significant disability
The term “individual with a most significant disability”, used with respect to an individual in a State, means an individual with a significant disability who meets criteria established by the State under section 721(a)(5)(C) of this title.
Individuals with the most significant disabilities
The term “individuals with the most significant disabilities” means more than one individual with a most significant disability.
Individual’s representative; applicant’s representative
The terms “individual’s representative” and “applicant’s representative” mean a parent, a family member, a guardian, an advocate, or an authorized representative of an individual or applicant, respectively.
Institution of higher education
The term “institution of higher education” has the meaning given the term in section 1002 of title 20.
The term “local agency” means an agency of a unit of general local government or of an Indian tribe (or combination of such units or tribes) which has an agreement with the designated State agency to conduct a vocational rehabilitation program under the supervision of such State agency in accordance with the State plan approved under section 721 of this title. Nothing in the preceding sentence of this paragraph or in section 721 of this title shall be construed to prevent the local agency from arranging to utilize another local public or nonprofit agency to provide vocational rehabilitation services if such an arrangement is made part of the agreement specified in this paragraph.
Local workforce development board
The term “local workforce development board” means a local board, as defined in section 3 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3102].
The term “nonprofit”, when used with respect to a community rehabilitation program, means a community rehabilitation program carried out by a corporation or association, no part of the net earnings of which inures, or may lawfully inure, to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual and the income of which is exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3) of title 26.
Ongoing support services
The term “ongoing support services” means services—
provided to individuals with the most significant disabilities;
provided, at a minimum, twice monthly—
to make an assessment, regarding the employment situation, at the worksite of each such individual in supported employment, or, under special circumstances, especially at the request of the client, off site; and
based on the assessment, to provide for the coordination or provision of specific intensive services, at or away from the worksite, that are needed to maintain employment stability; and
a particularized assessment supplementary to the comprehensive assessment described in paragraph (2)(B);
the provision of skilled job trainers who accompany the individual for intensive job skill training at the worksite;
job development, job retention, and placement services;
social skills training;
regular observation or supervision of the individual;
followup services such as regular contact with the employers, the individuals, the individuals’ representatives, and other appropriate individuals, in order to reinforce and stabilize the job placement;
facilitation of natural supports at the worksite;
a service similar to another service described in this subparagraph.
Personal assistance services
The term “personal assistance services” means a range of services, provided by one or more persons, designed to assist an individual with a disability to perform daily living activities on or off the job that the individual would typically perform if the individual did not have a disability. Such services shall be designed to increase the individual’s control in life and ability to perform everyday activities on or off the job.
So in original. There is no par. (29).
Pre-employment transition services
The term “pre-employment transition services” means services provided in accordance with section 733 of this title.
Public or nonprofit
The term “public or nonprofit”, used with respect to an agency or organization, includes an Indian tribe.
The term “rehabilitation technology” means the systematic application of technologies, engineering methodologies, or scientific principles to meet the needs of and address the barriers confronted by individuals with disabilities in areas which include education, rehabilitation, employment, transportation, independent living, and recreation. The term includes rehabilitation engineering, assistive technology devices, and assistive technology services.
Unless where the context otherwise requires, the term “Secretary”—
used in subchapter I, III, IV, V, VI, or part B of subchapter VII, means the Secretary of Education; and
used in subchapter II or part A of subchapter VII, means the Secretary of Health and Human Services.
The term “State” includes, in addition to each of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
State workforce development board
The term “State workforce development board” means a State board, as defined in section 3 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3102].
Statewide workforce development system
The term “statewide workforce development system” means a workforce development system, as defined in section 3 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3102].
Student with a disability
The term “student with a disability” means an individual with a disability who—
is not younger than the earliest age for the provision of transition services under section 614(d)(1)(A)(i)(VIII) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1414
if the State involved elects to use a lower minimum age for receipt of pre-employment transition services under this chapter, is not younger than that minimum age; and
is not older than 21 years of age; or
if the State law for the State provides for a higher maximum age for receipt of services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1400
et seq.), is not older than that maximum age; and
is eligible for, and receiving, special education or related services under part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1411
et seq.); or
is an individual with a disability, for purposes of section 794 of this title
Students with disabilities
The term “students with disabilities” means more than 1 student with a disability.
The term “supported employment” means competitive integrated employment, including customized employment, or employment in an integrated work setting in which individuals are working on a short-term basis toward competitive integrated employment, that is individualized and customized consistent with the strengths, abilities, interests, and informed choice of the individuals involved, for individuals with the most significant disabilities—
for whom competitive integrated employment has not historically occurred; or
for whom competitive integrated employment has been interrupted or intermittent as a result of a significant disability; and
who, because of the nature and severity of their disability, need intensive supported employment services and extended services after the transition described in paragraph (13)(C), in order to perform the work involved.
Supported employment services
The term “supported employment services” means ongoing support services, including customized employment, needed to support and maintain an individual with a most significant disability in supported employment, that—
are provided singly or in combination and are organized and made available in such a way as to assist an eligible individual to achieve competitive integrated employment;
are based on a determination of the needs of an eligible individual, as specified in an individualized plan for employment; and
are provided by the designated State unit for a period of not more than 24 months, except that period may be extended, if necessary, in order to achieve the employment outcome identified in the individualized plan for employment.
Vocational rehabilitation services
The term “vocational rehabilitation services” means those services identified in section 723 of this title which are provided to individuals with disabilities under this chapter.
Workforce investment activities
The term “workforce investment activities” means workforce investment activities, as defined in section 3 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act [29 U.S.C. 3102], that are carried out under that Act.
Youth with a disability
The term “youth with a disability” means an individual with a disability who—
is not younger than 14 years of age; and
is not older than 24 years of age.
Youth with disabilities
The term “youth with disabilities” means more than 1 youth with a disability.
[Pub. L. 93–112, § 7], formerly § 6, as added [Pub. L. 105–220, title IV, § 403], Aug. 7, 1998, [112 Stat. 1097]; amended [Pub. L. 105–244, title I, § 102(a)(9)(A)], Oct. 7, 1998, [112 Stat. 1619]; renumbered § 7 and amended [Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, § 101(f) [title VIII, § 402(a)(1), (b)(3), (c)(1)]], Oct. 21, 1998, [112 Stat. 2681–337], 2681–412, 2681–413, 2681–415; [Pub. L. 105–394, title IV, § 402(a)], Nov. 13, 1998, [112 Stat. 3661]; [Pub. L. 110–325, § 7], Sept. 25, 2008, [122 Stat. 3558]; [Pub. L. 111–256, § 2(d)(1)], Oct. 5, 2010, [124 Stat. 2643]; [Pub. L. 113–128, title IV, § 404], July 22, 2014, [128 Stat. 1632].)