United States Code
USC most recently checked for updates: Oct 01, 2023
The Secretary, in collaboration with the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response and the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and in coordination with the Secretary of Homeland Security (referred to in this section as the “Homeland Security Secretary”), shall maintain a stockpile or stockpiles of drugs, vaccines and other biological products, medical devices, and other supplies (including personal protective equipment, ancillary medical supplies, and other applicable supplies required for the administration of drugs, vaccines and other biological products, medical devices, and diagnostic tests in the stockpile) in such numbers, types, and amounts as are determined consistent with section 300hh–10 of this title by the Secretary to be appropriate and practicable, taking into account other available sources, to provide for and optimize the emergency health security of the United States, including the emergency health security of children and other vulnerable populations, in the event of a bioterrorist attack or other public health emergency and, as informed by existing recommendations of, or consultations with, the Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasure Enterprise established under section 300hh–10a of this title, make necessary additions or modifications to the contents of such stockpile or stockpiles based on the review conducted under paragraph (2).
The Secretary shall conduct an annual threat-based review (taking into account at-risk individuals) of the contents of the stockpile under paragraph (1), including non-pharmaceutical supplies, and, in consultation with the Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise established under section 300hh–10a of this title, review contents within the stockpile and assess whether such contents are consistent with the recommendations made pursuant to section 300hh–10a(c)(1)(A) of this title. Such review shall be submitted on
The Secretary shall ensure timely and accurate recommended utilization guidelines for qualified countermeasures (as defined in section 247d–6a of this title), qualified pandemic and epidemic products (as defined in section 247d–6d of this title), and security countermeasures (as defined in subsection (c)), including for such products in the stockpile.
Not later than 6 months after completing a classified version of the review under subparagraph (A), the Comptroller General shall submit an unclassified version of the review to the congressional committees of jurisdiction.
The Secretary may require reimbursement for contents that are made available under subparagraph (A), in an amount that reflects the cost of acquiring and maintaining such contents and the costs incurred to make available such contents in the time and manner specified by the Secretary. Amounts collected under this subsection shall be credited to the appropriations account or fund that incurred the costs to procure such contents, and shall remain available, without further appropriation, until expended, for the purposes of the appropriation account or fund so credited.
This paragraph shall not be construed to preclude transfers of contents in the stockpile under other authorities.
Not later than 2 years after
The authority under this paragraph shall terminate on
The Secretary shall award contracts, enter into cooperative agreements, or carry out such other activities as may reasonably be required in order to ensure that the stockpile under subsection (a) includes an amount of vaccine against smallpox as determined by such Secretary to be sufficient to meet the health security needs of the United States.
Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the private distribution, purchase, or sale of vaccines from sources other than the stockpile described in subsection (a).
A security countermeasure may, in accordance with this subsection, be procured with amounts in the special reserve fund as defined in subsection (h).
The Secretary and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall send to Congress, not later than March 15 of each year, all current material threat determinations and shall promptly notify the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Energy and Commerce and the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives that a determination has been made pursuant to subparagraph (A) or (B).
In making the assessment and determination required under subparagraph (A), the Homeland Security Secretary shall use all relevant information to which such Secretary is entitled under section 122 of title 6, including but not limited to information, regardless of its level of classification, relating to current and emerging threats of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents.
The Secretary, in consultation with the Homeland Security Secretary, shall assess on an ongoing basis the availability and appropriateness of specific countermeasures to address specific threats identified under paragraph (2).
The Secretary, in accordance with the provisions of this paragraph, shall identify specific security countermeasures that the Secretary determines, in consultation with the Homeland Security Secretary, to be appropriate for inclusion in the stockpile under subsection (a) pursuant to procurements made with amounts in the special reserve fund as defined in subsection (h) (referred to in this subsection individually as a “procurement under this subsection”).
The Secretary shall notify the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives of each decision to make available the special reserve fund as defined in subsection (h) for procurement of a security countermeasure, including, where available, the number of, the nature of, and other information concerning potential suppliers of such countermeasure, and whether other potential suppliers of the same or similar countermeasures were considered and rejected for procurement under this section and the reasons for each such rejection.
Procurement under this subsection of a security countermeasure for a particular purpose does not preclude the subsequent procurement under this subsection of any other security countermeasure for such purpose if the Secretary has determined under paragraph (5)(A) that such countermeasure is appropriate for inclusion in the stockpile and if, as determined by the Secretary, such countermeasure provides improved safety or effectiveness, or for other reasons enhances preparedness to respond to threats of use of a biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear agent. Such a determination by the Secretary is committed to agency discretion.
The special reserve fund as defined in subsection (h) shall be available for payments made by the Secretary to a vendor for procurement of a security countermeasure in accordance with the provisions of this paragraph.
The contract shall provide that no payment may be made until delivery of a portion, acceptable to the Secretary, of the total number of units contracted for, except that, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the contract may provide that, if the Secretary determines (in the Secretary’s discretion) that an advance payment, partial payment for significant milestones, or payment to increase manufacturing capacity is necessary to ensure success of a project, the Secretary shall pay an amount, not to exceed 10 percent of the contract amount, in advance of delivery. The Secretary shall, to the extent practicable, make the determination of advance payment at the same time as the issuance of a solicitation. The contract shall provide that such advance payment is required to be repaid if there is a failure to perform by the vendor under the contract. The contract may also provide for additional advance payments of 5 percent each for meeting the milestones specified in such contract, except that such payments shall not exceed 50 percent of the total contract amount. If the specified milestones are reached, the advanced payments of 5 percent shall not be required to be repaid. Nothing in this subclause shall be construed as affecting the rights of vendors under provisions of law or regulation (including the Federal Acquisition Regulation) relating to the termination of contracts for the convenience of the Government.
The contract may provide for a discounted price per unit of a product that is not licensed, cleared, or approved as described in paragraph (1)(B)(i)(III)(aa) at the time of delivery, and may provide for payment of an additional amount per unit if the product becomes so licensed, cleared, or approved before the expiration date of the contract (including an additional amount per unit of product delivered before the effective date of such licensing, clearance, or approval).
The contract shall be for a period not to exceed five years, except that, in first awarding the contract, the Secretary may provide for a longer duration, not exceeding 10 years, if the Secretary determines that complexities or other difficulties in performance under the contract justify such a period. The contract shall be renewable for additional periods, none of which shall exceed five years. The Secretary shall notify the vendor within 90 days of a determination by the Secretary to renew, extend, or terminate such contract.
The contract may provide that the vendor will provide storage for stocks of a product delivered to the ownership of the Federal Government under the contract, for such period and under such terms and conditions as the Secretary may specify, and in such case amounts from the special reserve fund as defined in subsection (h) shall be available for costs of shipping, handling, storage, and related costs for such product.
The contract shall provide that the vendor seek approval, clearance, or licensing of the product from the Secretary; for a timetable for the development of data and other information to support such approval, clearance, or licensing; and that the Secretary may waive part or all of this contract term on request of the vendor or on the initiative of the Secretary.
The contract shall provide that the vendor will comply with all applicable export-related controls with respect to such countermeasure.
The contract may provide that the vendor is the exclusive supplier of the product to the Federal Government for a specified period of time, not to exceed the term of the contract, on the condition that the vendor is able to satisfy the needs of the Government. During the agreed period of sales exclusivity, the vendor shall not assign its rights of sales exclusivity to another entity or entities without approval by the Secretary. Such a sales exclusivity provision in such a contract shall constitute a valid basis for a sole source procurement under section 3304(a)(1) of title 41.
The contract may provide that the vendor establish domestic manufacturing capacity of the product to ensure that additional production of the product is available in the event that the Secretary determines that there is a need to quickly purchase additional quantities of the product. Such contract may provide a fee to the vendor for establishing and maintaining such capacity in excess of the initial requirement for the purchase of the product. Additionally, the cost of maintaining the domestic manufacturing capacity shall be an allowable and allocable direct cost of the contract.
The Secretary shall establish appropriate internal controls for procurements made under this clause, including requirements with respect to documentation of the justification for the use of the authority provided under this paragraph with respect to the procurement involved.
In using the authority provided in section 3304(a)(1) of title 41 to use procedures other than competitive procedures in the case of a procurement under this subsection, the phrase “available from only one responsible source” in such section 3304(a)(1) shall be deemed to mean “available from only one responsible source or only from a limited number of responsible sources”.
The authority under subclause (I) is in addition to any other authority to use procedures other than competitive procedures.
The Secretary shall implement this clause in accordance with government-wide regulations implementing such section 3304(a)(1) (including requirements that offers be solicited from as many potential sources as is practicable under the circumstances, that required notices be published, and that submitted offers be considered), as such regulations apply to procurements for which an agency has authority to use procedures other than competitive procedures when the property or services needed by the agency are available from only one responsible source or only from a limited number of responsible sources and no other type of property or services will satisfy the needs of the agency.
If the Secretary includes in each of a set of contracts a provision as described in subclause (I), such Secretary’s determination of the total quantity of security countermeasure required, and any amendment of such determination, is committed to agency discretion.
A decision by the Secretary to extend the closing date for receipt of proposals for a procurement under this subsection is committed to agency discretion.
In conducting a procurement under this subsection, the Secretary may exclude a source that has not responded to a request for information under section 3306(a)(1)(B) of title 41 if such request has given notice that the Secretary may so exclude such a source.
In carrying out this section, the Secretary may, consistent with the applicable provisions of this section, enter into contracts and other agreements that are in the best interest of the Government in meeting identified security countermeasure needs, including with respect to reimbursement of the cost of advanced research and development as a reasonable, allowable, and allocable direct cost of the contract involved.
In carrying out activities under this section, the Homeland Security Secretary and the Secretary are authorized, subject to subparagraph (B), to enter into interagency agreements and other collaborative undertakings with other agencies of the United States Government. Such agreements may allow other executive agencies to order qualified and security countermeasures under procurement contracts or other agreements established by the Secretary. Such ordering process (including transfers of appropriated funds between an agency and the Department of Health and Human Services as reimbursements for such orders for countermeasures) may be conducted under the authority of section 1535 of title 31, except that all such orders shall be processed under the terms established under this subsection for the procurement of countermeasures.
An agreement or undertaking under this paragraph shall not authorize another agency to exercise the authorities provided by this section to the Homeland Security Secretary or to the Secretary.
No Federal agency may disclose under section 552 of title 5 any information identifying the location at which materials in the stockpile described in subsection (a) are stored, or other information regarding the contents or deployment capability of the stockpile that could compromise national security.
For the purpose of carrying out subsection (a), there are authorized to be appropriated $610,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2021, and $750,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2022 and 2023, to remain available until expended. Such authorization is in addition to amounts in the special reserve fund referred to in subsection (h).
For the purpose of carrying out subsection (b), there are authorized to be appropriated $509,000,000 for fiscal year 2002, and such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2003 through 2006.
In addition to amounts appropriated to the special reserve fund prior to
The Secretary may utilize not more than 50 percent of the amounts authorized to be appropriated under paragraph (1) to carry out section 247d–7e of this title (related to the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority). Amounts authorized to be appropriated under this subsection to carry out section 247d–7e of this title are in addition to amounts otherwise authorized to be appropriated to carry out such section.
Amounts in the special reserve fund shall not be used to pay costs other than payments made by the Secretary to a vendor for advanced development (under section 247d–7e of this title) or for procurement of a security countermeasure under subsection (c)(7).
The Secretary, acting through the Director of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, shall carry out the programs funded by the special reserve fund (for the procurement of security countermeasures under subsection (c) and for carrying out section 247d–7e of this title), including the execution of procurement contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements pursuant to this section and section 247d–7e of this title.
The Secretary, in consultation with the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response and the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, shall award grants or cooperative agreements to not fewer than 5 States, or consortia of States, with consideration given to distribution among the geographical regions of the United States, to establish, expand, or maintain a stockpile of appropriate drugs, vaccines and other biological products, medical devices, and other medical supplies determined by the State to be necessary to respond to a public health emergency declared by the Governor of a State or by the Secretary under section 247d of this title, or a major disaster or emergency declared by the President under section 5170 or 5191, respectively, of this title, in order to support the preparedness goals described in paragraphs (2) through (6) and (8) of section 300hh–1(b) of this title. A recipient of such an award may not use award funds to support the stockpiling of security countermeasures (as defined in subsection (c)(1),3
Not more than 10 percent of amounts received by an entity pursuant to an award under this subsection may be used for administrative expenses.
An entity in receipt of an award under paragraph (1) may designate a lead entity, which may be a public or private entity, as appropriate, to manage the stockpile at the direction of the State or consortium of States.
Awards under paragraph (1) shall supplement, not supplant, the maintenance and use of the Strategic National Stockpile by the Secretary under subsection (a).
The Secretary shall provide assistance to States, including technical assistance, as appropriate, in establishing, maintaining, improving, and utilizing a medical stockpile, including appropriate inventory management and disposition of products.
Each entity receiving an award under paragraph (1) shall update, as appropriate, the plan established pursuant to paragraph (2)(A)(i) and submit to the Secretary an annual report on implementation of such plan, including any changes to the contents of the stockpile supported under such award. The Secretary shall use information obtained from such reports to inform the maintenance and management of the Strategic National Stockpile pursuant to subsection (a).
To carry out this subsection, there is authorized to be appropriated $3,500,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2023 and 2024, to remain available until expended.